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1 






I 



COMPRISING 



BISHOP KEITH S 

of ^cottisij Bisljops 



ENLARGED; WITH 



TiEEVES AND GOODALL S 

on tljt 



REV. J. F. S. GORDON, D.D 

ST. ANDREWS, GLASGOW. 



Dolunu ii. 



GLASGOW: JOHN TWEED. MDCCCLXYII. 




v 




James Sharp, A D.I 6 62 



SCOTICHROXICON. 



ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS 

(CONTINUED). 

LI. JAMES SHARP. A.D. 1CC1-70. 

As a specimen of the prejudice, untruth, and scurrility which 
such Historians as Wodrow, Burnet, Crookshank, Burns, M Crie, 
&c., with Encyclopediasts who have copied their very words, have 
heaped upon the memory of this Prelate, the sequel is here 
given. It is from a Pamphlet, ashamed to own its Author, who 
is said to have heen one Hamilton of Kinkell, but honoured as 
one of the Miscellanea Scotiea, purporting to be a "Life of James 
Sharp, Archbishop of St. Andrews first Printed in 1078 ; to 
which is now added an Account of his Death by an Eye-Wit 
ness," reprinted in Glasgow, 1818, for John Wylie & Co., by R. 
Chapman. This Brochure opens with "The Epistle Dedicatory" 
to the Archbishop, beginning thus: "Mr. Sharp, I thought I 
could not do any thing more pertinently, than to make this 
Work as well objectively as it is already subjectively yours, . . 
. being indeed another sort of a man than an honest man, 
which I am confident none will attribute unto you, except your 
own wife, who, if you be her honest man, I am sure you are to 
all others some other thing, which I need not name." Having 
thus commenced, this "honoured" Composition goes on to say : 

VOL. II. A 



2 AECHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

"To give life to this History, it wore fit we know the parents 
who gave life to this man. . . . As the name and memory 
of William Sharp and Isohel Lcsly should have died with them, 
if they had not boon mentioned in the Life of this their wicked 
son, so we think the History of his Life shall give little honour 
to their memory. Of whom only it can he said, that they were 
the means to bring into the world a man abhorred of God ; and 
a man that when we call him perjured apostate, a, traitor to 
Christ and His Church, and a persecutor thereof, or what else 
may lie said of him, we do not exhaust all his wickedness ; so 
that God only can search out his wickedness, till He find none, 
and punish him condignly for the same. 

" But as for his father, William Sharp, wo shall give this 
short account of him, that he was the son of a piper, who was 
only famous for his skill in that spring called 1 //. Ph. 7V/. 7V/. 

v J_ O 

f.W/V. But although the grandfather had been less skilful in 
his calling (of which we find little use, but to induce wantonness 
and obscenity), and although springs tunes had given no price, 
yet we think it had been more for the advantage of the Church, 
at least it should have received less detriment, if the grandchild 
had been bound his apprentice, and had been rather a Piper than 
a Prelate. But we might have wanted both the one and the 
other. Pipers and Prelates agree well together for the service of 
their belly. God cannot be enough promoted without such in 
struments as blow up their lusts; but if the pipe and bags be yet 
in the Prelate s possession (which belongs to him as eldest son 
to his father, and so heir by progress to his grandfather), it is 
like he may now have use for them, to gift them to some landart 
Church, to save the expenses of a pair of organs ; which may do 
well enough for our rude people, who can sing as well to the one 
as to the other. And if instrumental music in the Service of God 
1)Q juris Divini (as the Prelates highly assert), it cannot be thought 
that any people should be so fanatick as to admit the organs in 
Divine Service and refuse the bagpipe, especially it being the 
Prelate s gift, and all the heirship goods that he had of his grand 
father, which he would so freely bestow upon the Church. 

" But William Sharp finding more wind than money in his 



JAMES bllAIll 3 . 



father s bags, afior his Death he resolves not to seek his liveli 
hood by so airy an employment as that which his father had 
followed, observing 1 , that although he had the heart to make 
others merry, yet he himself was sometimes sad ; and that the 
lightness of his purse made his heart heavy; finding the Proverb 
verilied in him, That what comes by the wind goes by the water, 
for what ho wan by his pipes he * at the walls. . . . 

Although his mother j 
was in quality a gentle 
woman, yet she was 
forced to make a virtue 
of necessity, and to 
learn the art of brew 
ing ; which qualified 
her to set up in Dun, 
which proved such a 
subsidiary help for 
maintenance of the 
family, as that Wil 
liam s pens . having 
become, as the Nar 
rative says, Lord Find- 
later s clerk : should 
never have winged his 
sons, to have raised 
them out of the dust, 
if they had not been 
feathered out of La 
bel s jegg purse, which 

Sharp s Seal has upon it S. Andrew holding his i v i p ., f .l, nmrp nv nn 

1 1 Jl T 1 <-j 1 1 1 1\ 1 1 ; *-* 7 1J.OX ^llCtJ.ai^Vy J-lltlill- 

Lross with las Iclt hand, ami a Crosier in his right. . 

The Family Shield is below. On each side of the tamed her SOUS at 

Apostle is a triple Scroll, on the lirst part of which is schools, sllO keeping 

the Legend, Sacrat^Ecdi ; Den. Reyi ; on the it untn ^ d Qf h 
second. Ausincio (Jar. 11., ticclesta instmirata. J 

Death." 

This "Life" of Archbishop Sharp meanders throughout in 
this strain, retailing the fabrication of Isobel Lindsay and her 
adulterous bastard, Murdered and Buried by the Bishop below 




i AHCHBI SHOPS OF THE SEE OE ST. ANDEEWS. 

the hearth- stone ; not omitting the " B ranks," and her repeated 
interruptions of the Bishop while in the Pulpit. The B ranks are 
a gag which was commonly used at that period, over Great Bri 
tain, for Scoltl*. The Beadle of the Parish Church of St. Andrews 
exhibits this Appurtenance to visitors. Very probably Bell Lind 
say required to wear it, although it was not made for her express 
use. It is shaped like a helmet, goes over the head, is made of 
iron bars, with a piece for keeping down the tongue, and was 
padlocked behind. 

"When lies so patent as to the Archbishop s parentage, Arc., 
can be handed down from one Historiographer to another, any 
unprejudiced Header may reflect on the moral weight and credit 
which are due to such champions as those named at the outset, 
who wield the dagger of calumny, but who so miss their footing 
as to fall ingloriously on the dunghill of disdain, the lit seat of 
honour for all traducers. 

The most recently Printed Notice of Archbishop Sharp occurs 
in the Xurth Jlritixh lievieir, No. XCIL, Article V., June, 1867. 
It is worth reading, although besprinkled with unjustifiable 
asperities, especially at pp. 399, 405, 420; albeit a candid con 
fession is made (p. 399, /. 22), " It is plain on a glance that the 
popular Presbyterian yiew of him is not correct." Alluding to 
the Lamlcrdak Papers in the British Museum (p. 405, /. 27), the 
Writer avers, "To ourselves, we confess that they incline the 
balance in Sharp s favour. They have left upon us the impres 
sion that, whatever his faults were, he was not a traitor to his 
friends and to his Church, in the sense in which he is represented 
to have been so by contemporary authorities, and by the train of 
Presbyterian Writers who have followed them." As to the scan 
dalous story in the Pamphlet of 1678, of the beautiful serving- 
woman, Isobel Lindsay, at a public change kept by one John 
Allan, at whose house Sharp lodged when he first came to St. 
Andrews, the Writer observes (p. 409, 410), "He is said to have 
deceived her by a promise of Marriage, and then to have strangled 
her child, burying it under the hearth-stone, where probably its 
bones may yet be found ! The story was well conceived to touch 
the popular mind, and fill it with horror. It has that dash of 



JAMES SHARP. 5 

dark romance in it which goes right to the popular imagination. 
Happily it does not rest upon a particle of real evidence. All 
the admitted circumstances of Sharp s residence in St. Andrews 
are broadly against it. . . . The Covenanting caricaturist 
has here, as in some other cases, drawn a picture too monstrous 
for belief. The whole foundation of the story seems to have 
been certain ravings of a woman of the same name, long after 
Sharp became Archbishop, a fanatical enthusiast, crack- 
brained and fanciful, who was banished the Town, and pro 
nounced unworthy of Christian society." 

If Sharp (says the Writer of the A . 13. llei icir) was " a born 
diplomatist;" if he was "full of dissimulation;" if it was "not 
in his nature to be frank and outspoken, but rather to compass 
his means by adroit and wary policy," it is clear that he was not 
always on his guard. There is a hearty vehemence in his resent 
ing the insult of flatly being called "a liar" by John Sinclair, 
afterwards Minister of Ormiston, at the College table, while 
maintaining the principles of Hooker, Hailes, and Hammond, 
with giving him a xharp bo.r on tin: ear ; which is rather to be 
commended than otherwise, and even raises our conception of his 
Grace. This was the act not of a circumventive sneak, but the 
.sharp, ready impulse of S. Peter himself, the "Prince of Apostles." 
If he had not, upon this occasion, boxed Sinclair s ears, then the 
various foul charges of Wodrow and Fraternity might have had 
some footing ; but if he did what he is said to have done, he did 
well, and his assailants condemnations remain unbolstered. 
Query : Who and where is the man who would not at once have 
en fed him soundly who had used towards him Sinclair s noun} 
Undoubtedly here (if at all allowable) was the fit place and time 
for lynch law. 

I Print here entire the following scarce little Book, which is 
quoted or referred to by almost every Historian who has anatom 
ized the Life of Sharp. The Copy is verbatim, with the exception 
of the Side Notes, which are inserted for handiness to the 
Header. 



ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OE ST. ANDREWS. 

A True and Impartial Account of the Life of the most Reverend 
Father in God, DR. JAMES SHARP, Archbishop of St. Andrews, 
Primate of all Scotland, and Privy Counsellor to his most 
Sacred Majesty, J\in<j Charles II. With a short but faithful 
Narrative of Ins e.cecrable Murder, taken from J ublick Records, 
Original Letters, and other Manuscripts. With a Preface, 
wherein a clear J)iscuvery is made of the malicious falshoods 
contained in some late scandalous Pools and Pamphlets con- 
cerninij that a/air. To both -which is subjoined an Appendix, 
containing Copies of sucJi Papers as are therein referred to. 
Psal. v. () : "TJion slitdt destroy them that speak leasiiujs; (lie 
Lord will abhor the bloody and deceitful man."- -Printed in 
the year M.DCC.XXIII. 

THE PUBLISHED TO THE READER. 

Tlu> this he the first appearance the following small History has made 
in the world, yet it received not only the first draught, but its perfect linea 
ments, several years ago ; when the Author was either so modest as to be 
Documentary diffident of his own performance, or that he really then wanted two or three 
evidence. ^ ^ matci -i a i Papers, now come to hand, and which the Header will find 
subjoined to the Api>cn<U.r. And yet without any stretch it may be said, that 
the Papers wherewith the Author himself has favoured the Publick, are suf 
ficient by themselves to denominate the following Narrative an impartial 
and well* vouched Account of the Life and Death of that eminent Prelate. 
For here the Author needs not bespeak the faith afforded to Historians, since 
what is advanced by him with respect to the Primate s extraction, his educa 
tion, genius in his younger years, &c., he had from the mouths of relations, 
and such others as knew him and his Family best, which is all can be 
expected in such a case ; and what is here set down in reference to the more 
active part of his life, especially from the year 1G59 to his decease, is suffi 
ciently vouched from Original Papers, Publick Records, &c., chiefly with 
respect to that step of his life wherein he is so much blamed and traduced 
by the Fanaticks of Scotland to this day (and which, indeed, at length 
cost him his life). The impartial Reader, by comparing the following 
short Narrative, and the Papers thereto relating in the Awi iulLr, will soon 
perceive how calumnious and unjust these men are to his memory ; since 
thereby, and especially by the Letter from General Monk, Xionb. I., which 
our Author hath also favoured us with in his A^cniliv, tis more than evident 
how faithfully and carefully Mr. Sharp demeaned himself in the execution of 
his Commission wherewith he was intrusted ; and how, after an impartial 



JAMES SHARP. 7 

and fair report of his diligence, he threw up his said Commission, and never 
had another from that party, nor was so much as entertaining any thought 
of returning to Court, till called by his Majesty, in summer, 1(500; at which 
time he had indeed a notable opportunity of being satisfied and convinced 
not only of the expediency, but necessity of re-establishing the antient and 
Apostolical Government in this Church, by a frequent conversation with 
some of those eminent Divines who had returned with his Majesty. But in 
this journey to Court, it is not so much as alledged by his adversaries that 
he had any Trust or Commission from the Presbyterian Ministers here, far 
less in his succeeding journey thither, towards the end of that year. 

There was, indeed, in the year 1080, a Paper sent up to London by the Fanatical 
Scottish Fanaticks, and Printed by their brethren there, intitled "A True ^TnJo 
Relation of what is discovered concerning the Murder of the Archbishop of Delation." 
St. Andrews, and of what appears to have been the occasion thereof." The 
design of which Pamphlet is plainly to blacken the reputation of him whose 
person they had already murdered, and as far as possible to palliate and 
excuse that execrable fact. But altho it hath been long since discovered 
that there are almost as many falshoods as paragraphs in that foolish and 
malicious Paper, yet here our Author hath favoured us in his Appoulic with 
the Copy of a clear Discovery of the wicked falshoods therein contained ; 
and which clear Discovery being Printed by order of his Majesty s Privy 
Council, is well worth the perusal of any man who, without prepossession, 
designs to be informed of the truth of that fact. Another Narrative whereof, 
also Published by Authority, our Author has subjoined in his Appendix, 
which exactly agrees with that which himself gives, from the Depositions of 
Witnesses, in the close of this Tract. 

This, then, being the method carefully observed by our Author in the 
following Sheets, and which is so commendable in itself, approv d of gener 
ally in the world, and extremely applauded by Mr. Wodrow, in the Preface 
to his First Volume of " The History of the Sufferings of the Church of 
Scotland, and which himself pretends so religiously and accurately to have 
observed ; tis more than a little strange, that in all the Passages of that 
Book relating to the Archbishop, he hath visibly and shamelessly transgressed 
his own rule, as will appear to any man who will take but the pains to look 
into them ; for there he shall find the most impudent railing accusations, Wodrow s 
heaviest imputations, and most wicked aspersions that perhaps were ever yet ilin s accv 
seen in Print ; and all this without so much as once offering a voucher for 
most part of the facts he advances ; and the few vouchers he gives, which 
regard the most important part of that great Prelate s life, viz., the last 
scene thereof, are foolish and incoherent Narratives of the Murder, written 
by the vile and execrable actors themselves, whose interest certainly it was, 
as far as they were able, to defame the Primate, especially in the circum 
stances of his behaviour at his Death, and thereby in some measure excuse 
their own villany. Whereas, had Mr. Wodrow had that ingenuity he so 



ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 



Witnesses nmcli pretends to, lie had ready at hand the Depositions of the Witnesses 
Depositions, taken n ot only before the Privy Council, but at CWpar, St. Andrews, &c. ; 
not only of the Primate s daughter and servants, who were near spectators 
of that bloody tragedy, but of the tenants, servants, cottars, &c., of Magask, 
Stricldnnes, Baldinny, and other places, who may well be supposed to be 
much less interested than either the Archbishop s servants or the wicked 
actors themselves. And this sure cannot but be far more inexcusable in Mr. 
Wodrow than any other man, he being the person who pretends to have 
diligently searched the Sheriff Court Books of Fife, for Fines, &c.; and 
certainly in this research he could not have missed the Deposition of John 
Millar, "Tenant in Magask, touching the Murder, as also that of Robert 
Black, Tenant in Baldinny, William Dingwall in Caldhame, father to one of 
the murderers, and many others which stand upon record in these Books. 

But for making it appear that this is no false accusation, I shall once 
for all set down part of a Paragraph in Mr. Wodrow s Preface to his First 
Volume, }>/i;i. 10, where these are his words "I have charged the Prelates 
with being the first movers of most part of the Persecutions of these times : 
this is a matter of fact fully known in Scotland [but we must take his own 
bare word for it] ; and I could not have written impartially, had I not laid 
most part of the evils of this period at their door." It may be alledged, that 
this being spoken at random in a Preface, the Author is not so much bound 
to give vouchers for what he there says, as in the body of the Book. But 
then it should be considered, that when he comes to particulars in the Book 
itself, and there loads the Bishops with the blame of all what he calls bar 
barous and cruel in that period, he does not so much as offer one proof nor 
voucher for any matter of fact he advances, tho certainly matters of fact of 
that kind ought to have been better vouched than any others. 

Thus, also, in the Introduction to that Volume, JHUJ. 5, he most falsly 
and maliciously affirms, "That from the very words of Mr. Sharp s Letter 
to Mr. Robert Douglass, from London, the Reader will have most sensible 
proofs of Mr. Sharp s juggling, prevarication, and betraying the Church of 
Scotland, and his treachery to the worthy Ministers who intrusted him." 
Now in this I shall so far agree with him, as willingly to appeal to his Ma 
jesty s Letter to the Presbytery of Edinburgh, in August, 16GO (inserted in 
the following Narrative) ; to the Letter from General Monk above men 
tioned; and lastly, to the nine Letters which our Author has here inserted 
in his Appendix, all of them written whilst Mr. Sharp had a Commission 
from them: and let the impartial Reader thence judge whether Mr. Sharp 
did distinctly and honestly inform them of all that had past at Court, touch- 
,ing the subject of his Commission; and as fairly forwarn them of what he 
saw was inevitably coming, and whether he neglected one jot of his instruc 
tions. These nine Letters here inserted, I can assure the Reader, are all 
taken from Copies of them written with his own hand, which he kept, as he 
did Copies of every thing of importance that he dispatched. But whether or 



Letters 
garbled by 
"Wodrow. 



JAMES SHAEP. 9 

not Mr. Wodrow s Copies be genuine, is more than I can tell, not having 
leisure to compare them ; only, upon a very cursory view, I find that Mr. 
Wodrow, in the Abbreviate he gives us of Mr. Sharp s Letter to Mr. Robert 
Douglas, Dated the 29th of May, 1600, hath, if not wilfully perverted, yet 
grossly mistaken the meaning of the Writer, as may be evident to any man 
who will take the pains to compare the Letter itself, set down by our Author 
in his Appendix, with the said Abbreviate in Mr. Wodrow s Introduction, 
pay. 26. Further, in Mr. Sharp s Letter to Mr. Douglas, Dated the 1 of 
June that year, you ll find, near the beginning, these words, "When I spoke 
of his (i.e., the King s) calling a General Assembly;" but Mr. Wodrow thinks 
fit to leave out the word his, the reason whereof, I hope, needs not be told. 
Nor need I tell any intelligent Reader why in the same Letter, after these 
words, "His Majesty speaking of us and our concernments most affection 
ately," Mr. Wodrow omits what immediately follows, viz., " And that I 
needed not to inform him of the usage we have had from the Remonstrators;" 
nay, leaves out the most material and remarkable passages in the close. 
Besides these, he has not thought fit to insert Mr. Sharp s Letter immedi 
ately next to that of the 14th of June, but without Date, because therein 
Gilespie, the professed enemy to the Royal Family, is exposed. As also 
that Letter immediately following another of the 7th of July, without Date 
also, which exposes to purpose the Remonstrators, and gives a -testimony 
beyond all exception of Mr. Sharp s integrity. A further evidence whereof 
we have in his Letter of the 14th of July, which is also most unfairly sup 
pressed by Mr. Wodrow ; together with a long and remarkable Passage of 
another Letter of his, Dated the 26 of July, also touching the Remonstrators. 
What other false Abbreviates, Interpolations, &c., Mr. Wodrow has used in 
this matter, I had no leisure to examine : but ex unyue Jeoneni. 

But before we speak of the Primate s Murder, I shall briefly notice 
another Passage in Mr. Wodrow s First Volume, pay. 101, where he gives an "worthy 
Abbreviate of his Life and Death, wrote, as he says, by a sufferer, a Avorthy 
gentleman. This Narrative I have not seen, unless it be that which is now tions 
in Print, and Published in the year 1719, by an anonymous Author. If this 
be Mr. Wodrow s worthy gentleman (as probably he is), it must be owned 
that he himself is a very worthy gentleman who gives so large a character of 
a person in whose Work there is nothing to be found but a mixture of 
beastly ignorance, with deep malice and deliberate revenge; and who, beside 
that he does not so much as offer any voucher at all for what he says (tho 
he advances facts never before heard of), impudently averrs things that are 
plainly redargued by Publick Records and other authentick Documents. 
Witness his saying, pay. 51, that the Archbishop s brother was made Lord 
Justice Clerk; and paye 53, his making the great Mr. Robert Blair to die 
cursing, which, in charity to the Dead, we must look upon as a falshood ; 
his making one of the three Estates of the Scots Parliament to consist of 
Lords Spiritual and Temporal, page 138. But, which is still more diverting, 

VOL. II. B 



WS 



10 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

although the Treatise he but very small, yet an ingenuous gentleman of my 
acquaintance lias taken the pains to collect upwards of BO places wherein 
the Author plainly contradicts himself. This Book being an Account of the 
Life and Death of Mr. James Sharp, is nevertheless Dedicated to himself; 
and the Author fairly tells him, " That many of his actions may yet live to 
his perpetual infamy, except the black lines of his life be blotted out by tears 
of unfeigned repentance." But this is said forty years after his Death. 
Sharp " taking Mr? AYodrow proceeds, and tells us, " That Mr. Sharp took the tender ;" 
he Tender." ^^ ^hidi, nothing was ever more false or calumnious ; nor had ever Mr. 
Sharp, or any other Minister, the least temptation to that wickedness." He 
tells us next, u That Cromwell publickly declared Mr. Sharp to be an atheist." 
A noble voucher, had it been true ! And without hyperbole it may be said, 
that it was scarce possible for Mr. AYudrow (tho no thanks to him for it) to 
have impressed a better character on the minds of all honest men, of Mr. 
Sharp, than by telling Cromwell s opinion, that he was an atheist ; which 
was just as much as to say, he was a Royalist ; for thus were the King s 
friends in those days clothed in wild beasts skins, in order to be worried to 
Death. And that Doctor Sharp was an atheist in this sense, appears pretty 
well from this known Passage. In November, 1G50, Avhcn General Monk 
had arrived at Caldstream, and fully understood the enemies posture, he 
presently dispatched an express to Crail, where Mr. Sharp then was attend 
ing his Charge, intrcating that with all speed he would repair to him, because 
he" had something of the greatest consequence to impart. Hereupon Mr. 
Sharp takes journey in very tempestuous weather ; and immediately upon 
his arrival at Caldstream, the General, in a secret Conference, frankly sig 
nified to him his earnest desire to restore the King, which he said he well 
knew Mr. Sharp was passionately inclined for; but that he w r as so embarassed 
how to bring that great work about, that he knew not what step first to take, 
and therefore had called him to know what he thought fit to advise in the 
matter : that many of his Army, beginning to suspect his intentions, had 
already deserted ; and lastly, that Lambert, on the head of the English 
Republican Army, which was double his numbers, had fallen down as far as 
Newcastle. Mr. Sharp coldly told him, that he was extremely fatigued with 
his journey, and therefore, in the first place, desired a little rest ; and then 
after two hours sleep, he sat down and penned a Declaration in Monk s 
name, shewing the causes of his present posture, and designed March into 
England; which, without mentioning the King, was so exactly accommodated 
Monk and his to ^ 1C tempers of all the then contending parties, that it having been read 
Army. an nex t morning on the head of Monk s Army, it soon confirmed them in their 
duty to theirGeneral ; and being quickly dispersed over all the Country, it 
arrived at length at Lambert s Head Quarters : the effect whereof was, that 



- The Tender was an Oath or Instrument by which the party signing abjured or 
renounced allegiance to King Charles II. 



JAMES SHAKP. 11 

at least one half of his men deserted over to Monk, who thereupon was 
encouraged to proceed in his design, and to march straight towards London; 
and what followed thereupon, is too well known to he here set down. I am 
credibly informed, that a Copy of this Declaration will within a little time 
be Published in a greater Work, and therefore thought it not proper to insert 
it here. But this I know, that the above-mentioned notable Passage was 
often and openly owned by Monk to his Majesty and many others, after the 
Restoration ; and I have the truth of it attested by many persons of honour 
and respect (some of them in Letters under their hands), who best knew Mr. 
Sharp s affairs : to which they add, that this was the true cause of the great, 
man s after promotion. And if so vigorous and effectual an effort to restore 
the Royal Family can denominate Mr. Sharp an atheist or a betrayer of the 
Church, we may safely conclude that, were he alive, he would not be ashamed 
of the charge. 

As to that foolish and malicious fable which Mr. Wodrow next takes i sa b e l Lindsay 
notice of, from his worthy friend s narrative, touching one Isabel Lindsay, ^ cllllda 
who, he says, accused the Bishop publickly, not only of uiicleanncss with 
her self, but murdering the child : there arc persons even at this distance of 
time yet alive at St. Andrews and elsewhere, who can attest that there was 
never any such thing objected to him by that woman, not one word spoken 
by her (thu if it had, yet could it have no impression upon any sober person) 
touching the murder of a child, &c. But for this, I need no more but to 
refer the Reader to the Narrative itself, as set down by Mr. Wodrow s worthy 
gentleman ; and then let the Avoiid judge in what condition that woman was 
when this happened. The truth is, she was for many years lookt upon by 
all who knew her to be a fanciful and melancholy person ; and yet when 
examined touching that abuse in the Church, she still refused either to speak 
or hear an ill word of the Archbishop. The whole of which passage I have 
from a gentleman of honour there, who has taken the pains to enquire about 
it at such persons in that place as are still alive, and were eye and car wit 
nesses to what then passed ; and therefore I have inserted in the Aji^cmlu- 
(Xiiitih. I.) part of his Letter touching that affair. 

But further, with respect to that foolish calumny, I shall ask Mr. 
Wodrow and his worthy friend these two plain questions 1. Whether they 
can produce any vouchers for this strange piece of History ? If they can, 
why does not Mr. Wodrow insert them, as he pretends to do for every fact 
he advances, and really has done for trifles ? If they have none, why does 
he insert the story for a truth, so contrary to his own profession in his Pre 
face and many other places of the Work ? 2. This piece of History was 
either known before Mr. Sharp s promotion, or not : if it was, why was it 
not publickly prosecuted (a thing then very easy against a private Minister), 
and he brought to condign punishment ? The only answer I can forsee to 
this is, that Mr. Sharp was then esteemed one of the Godly ; and as God 
sees no fault in such, so it was hoped he would do Him as much service 



12 



ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF HI. ANDREWS. 



Scandal about 
the Abp. s 
sister-in-law. 



James Mit 
chell s trans 
action. 



another way as would compense that peccadillo, which, i am told, was their 
way of speaking in those times. If it was not known before his promotion, 
how came such a dreadful story, that had lyen so long dormant, then to 
break out ? May we not here be tempted, without impinging on charity, to 
say, that the whole was a wicked forgery, designed to expose (if not to sober 
and thinking men, yet to silly women, whom they use to lead captive) the 
reputation of this great and good man. 

Reading over the Preface of Mr. Wodrow s friend s Book, I find another 
malicious calumny, which was never yet advanced by any other, no, not by 
Mr. WodroAV himself, viz., touching the Archbishop s sister-in-law, her being 
got with child by himself, and sent to the North to bring it forth, Ac. But 
that the wickedness of that Satanical story may appear, I have inserted in 
the Appcudir (Xinnb. II. ) a Passage of a Letter touching that affair, which I 
received from a person of known honour and veracity, who had the best 
opportunity of any other to know the whole affairs of that family. 

Another thing wherewith the Primate is charged by Mr. Wodrow in the 
aforecited place, is no less than the horrid crime of Perjury, whereof he 
accuses him as guilty in the case of Mr. James Mitchell, but without so much 
as giving the least ground or reason for what he so impudently and calumni- 
ously advanceth; which alone, tis hoped, Avill appear to any Christian a suf 
ficient answer, tlio no more should be said upon the head ; since every man 
upon Oath is presumed to have declared the truth till the contrary be made 
appear, which in the present case is not so much as offered to be done. But 
further, I shall here acquaint the Reader, that in a cursory Preface to so 
small a Treatise (which gives us only the Life of a single man), I do not 
judge myself bound, nor is it pertinent in this place, to digress into a vindi 
cation of the procedure of our High Courts of Judicature in that affair ; tho 
I am certainly informed, that even that same will very shortly be performed 
by an abler pen. All therefore that can be here expected, is a vindication 
of the Lord Primat (so far as a negative can go) from the horrid imputation 
of Perjury. And as to this, I hope it will, to an impartial Reader, appeal- 
sufficient to set down the words of his Lordship s Oath, as copied by Mr. 
Wodrow himself ; for his Grace being there adduced simply as a Witness for 
proving the Assassination, plainly declares, " That he had a wave (i.e., a 
transient glance) of Mitchell passing from the coach and crossing the street, 
which had such an impression on him, that the first sight he saw of him, 
after he was taken, he knew him to be the person who shot the shot." The 
truth of this part of the Oath, tis hoped, will find credit with any man who 
hath perused the Narrative of that Assassination, as related by Mr. Wodrow 
himself, with the Depositions of the Chirurgeons and other Witnesses, copied 
from the Books of Adjournal, by the Collector of the State Trials, vol. 2, 
pay. 69, et scqq. As to the following part of the Archbishop s Oath, he there 
deposeth no more than what was plainly Sworn by several other Privy 
Counsellors of known honour and integrity, viz., " That he heard Mitchell 



JAMES SHARP. IB 

own to the Privy Council his Confession made to the Committee [of which 
Committee, by the by, his Grace was no member], and that he heard him at 
the Bar renew the same ; and that there was no assurance of life then or 
there given him, or so much as desired by him." This part of the Oath the 
Primate s adversaries do not at all controvert ; and tho it were granted (as 
is indeed set down in the Narrative of an Act of Privy Council yet extant) 
that the Committee, or one of their number, had promised Mitchell his life 
upon his Confession; yet that promise, if any there was, being made in 
secret, as is acknowledged by all parties, it could not consist with the Pri 
mate s knowledge, nor was he interrogated thereupon, but only on what had 
past in the Privy Council. And as to the latter part of the Oath, touching 
private promises allcdged to have been made by the Archbishop himself, his 
Deposition is very clear and distinct ; and if Mitchell or any of his friends 
have asserted that he had any such promise from his Grace, let the world be 
judge whether more credit ought to be given to a man upon Oath than to 
the malicious assertion of a vile monster of nature and common enemy to 
all humane society, who (as is evident from his last speech) went to the 
grave with a lye in his right hand. 

But that the Reader may a little further perceive Mr. Wodrow s great WochWs 
proficiency in the art of speaking evil of dignities, and reviling his betters, I propensity to 
shall here give a hint at the charitable characters he gives of such Bishops dignities." 
as were first replanted in Scotland after his Majesty s Restoration; and shall 
leave these characters to be compared with the Account given of the same 
men by the late Bishop of Sarum, cited by our Author in this Treatise ; 
premising only this, that tis hoped no true Presbyterian will doubt of Doctor 
Burnet s veracity in the matter, especially since he professes that he had not 
his knowledge of them by hear-say, but knew the persons he describes. But 
far less will Mr. Wodrow call in question the truth of what is there advanced 
by that great Prelate, considering the noble character himself gives of him, 
col. 1, paij. 334, where he says, " That he was a person well known to the 
world; and after being Professor of Divinity at Glasgow, persecuted for his 
appearing against Popery, and for the cause of Liberty ; and since the Re 
volution, the learned and moderate Bishop of Sarum, one of the great eye 
sores of the High-fivers and Torries of England, and a very great ornament 
to his native Country. 

His character, then, of Bishop Sharp I shall scarce need to rehearse, His character 
the whole First Volume of his Work, and the beginning of the Second, being 
stuffed with wicked nonsense and virulent lying invectives against him ; only 
in paye 101 (where he liberally bestows his compliments of this kind upon 
them all) he says, among other things, that Mr. Sharp s great talent was 
dissimulation, and that he got himself into the Archbishoprick of St. Andrews 
as a reward for betraying the Church. That Mr. Fairfowll, Archbishop of 
Glasgow, was a man who w r as never taken to be either serious or sincere ; 
talks of his intrigues with a lady in Berwickshire, &c. That Mr. Sydserf, 



14 AKCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

Bishop of Orkney, was Deposed in the year 1G38, for the common faults of 
the Prelates of that time, and in particular for erroneous Doctrine. Of Mr. 
Mitchell, Bishop of Aberdeen, he only says, that he was Deposed by the 
General Assembly for Heresy. That Mr. Hamilton, Bishop of Galloway, 
was remarkable for his cunning time-serving temper. But above all, his 
character of Doctor Wishart, Bishop of Edinburgh (who, besides his vast 
learning, was deservedly owned by all sides to have been a true pattern of 
piety, charity, and other Christian vcrtues), gives us a very just estimate of 
Presbyterian gratitude. This learned and pious gentleman had been Gover- 
nour to the great Montrosc the only crime the zealous mad men of those 
days could charge him with, and had with astonishing patience endured 
the very utmost of phanatical cruelty and revenge, being thrust into a nasty 
prison in Edinburgh, where he continued till the rats and other vermine had 
almost devoured him, whereof he bore the marks on his face to the grave. 
Rebellion at Yet, when after the horrid Rebellion at Pcntlandhills, a great company of 
Pentlandhills. j-} ic mos t active traitors were committed to the same very prison, he, being 
then Bishop of Edinburgh, supplied all of them out of his own pocket with 
every thing necessary for life during their abode there, and kindly visited 
them, as was ingenuously confessed and attested by some of them alive not 
many years ago, and by some others yet alive, from whom I had the account, 
and who were eye-witnesses thereto. The return of which kindness by Mr. 
"\Vodrow is a most wicked invective and false aspersion, wherein no body 
else, whether Whig or Tory, agrees with him, viz., that he could not refrain 
from prophane swearing, even upon the Street of Edinburgh ; and that he 
was a known drunkard. This brave Historian adds, that his lascivious 
Poems, compared with the most luscious parts of Ovid ( ]>e Arte Annnuli), 
are modest ; wherein, besides other things, he wilfully mistakes the person, 
it being well known to all the Nation that it was another Wishart was the 
Author of that Poem he seems to mean; and who, by the by, tlio afterwards 
a Minister, was not above 20 years of age when it was composed, and not at 
all then designing for the Ministry. Yet all this, and much worse, the world 
must take upon the bare word of this foolish and virulent accuser of the 
Brethren, who, it seems, has nothing less in his view than Truth when he 
writes concerning a Bishop, as will yet further appear when we proceed to 
consider the Account he gives of the Primate s execrable Murder. 

Mr. Wodrow, in his Second Volume, thinks fit to bestow a whole Section 
on this direful action, pay. 28 ct st <j<j., and in the entry thereto industriously 
declines calling it a Murder (as all true Presbyterians do), but names it only 
a violent Death, a violent tnkimj airay, &c. He says it is not a little misrepre 
sented by the Tory Writers. This is a wilful mistake, since lie knows that 
all the Accounts of it hitherto Published by those he calls Tories are fairly 
copied from that which was Published by Authority, and taken from the 
Depositions of Witnesses, inserted in the Privy Council Records; as appears, 
among others, from the Account given of it by our Author. Mr. Wodrow 



JAMES SHAEP. 15 

adds, that he has no design to vindicate the action, actors, or circumstances 
of it, which he owns he does not approve; and that he, as much as any, does 
heartily abhor all Assassinations, with the principles which lead thereunto. 
And this leads me to a very obvious remark. The Jesuites method, in cases 
of this kind, is pretty well known. I shall only instance that unparalleled 
wickedness of the Gunpowder Treason. They of that Society, perceiving 
that the fact cannot be denied, all the actors having gone to Death confess- i>k>t P 
ing, or rather avowing the design ; and finding, on the other hand, that so 
execrable an intention could nowise be defended, they freely yield the argu 
ment, and are as ready to condemn that wicked project as any Protestant 
whatsoever. But then you shall find them tell you, that those Conspirators 
were Banditi, Enthusiasts, &c., whom they disown to be of their Communion, 
and therefore that tis most unjust to load the Roman Catholicks with such 
actions or principles that lead thereto. And this is the sum of what Pere 
D Orleans and other Popish Writers say, by way of apology for their party 
in this matter ; and yet at the same time you shall find the very names of 
these vile parricides have a place in the Roman Martyrology, nay one of 
them, Garnet the Jesuite, Canonized on that same account. And I mind 
long since to have read in Mandelslo s Travels to the East Indies, that he 
saw in a Religious House, belonging to the Jesuites there, the pictures of all 
the Gunpowder Conspirators placed in a G allery among the pictures of such 
as, since the institution of their Order, had suffered Martyrdom in propagat 
ing the Gospel. Now this I say is precisely the present case. Most of the 
Scots Puritans whom I have had occasion to converse with do, as Mr. Wodrow 
does in several places of the above-cited Section, loudly condemn this fact of 
the Primate s Murder, and declare it unwarrantable, and therefore still cry Primate s 
out, that it is great injustice to charge the Presbyterians (as some malicious Murder - 
Tories do) with the fact, telling us wit hall, that the actors were Separatists 
from them, followers of C argil, Cameron, &c., who had preached separation 
from the rest. And yet with the same breath, throughout all the said Sec 
tion, we find Mr. Wodrow using so many arguments in the defence of it, and 
shuffling in such extenuating circumstances (all of them, by the by, false in 
fact), to palliate and excuse the wickedness, that one would be almost tempted 
to believe, that if he was not one of the Conspirators himself, he does at least 
approve of the deed, by his intitling it to the Providence of God, &c. Nay, 
speaking of their open Rebellion the following year at Airdsmoss, he thus 
concludes, "We want not other instances of pious persons essaying imprac 
ticable [he does not say villanous and rebellious] things, and perishing in the 
attempt, which flowed from zeal, and was mixed with self-resignation [mark 
the hypocrite] ; and they have rather been esteemed heroick than mad and 
irregular." But beside his defending of that fact, which within a paragraph 
or two before he had disclaimed, all they that suffered 011 that account such 
as Halkerston of Rathillet, Guilan, and some others, who, having been found 
afterwards privy to the Plot, refused at their Trial to own the Archbishop s 



10 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

slaughter to have been a Murder, disowned the King s Authority, &c. are, 
not only by the Author of the "Hind let Loose," but by Mr. Wodrow, 
reckoned among the Church of Scotland s Martyrs, and recorded as such in 
his Book. Now, whether our Scots Jesuites have borrowed this method from 
or lent it to their Roman Brethren, I shall not determine, but surely the 
practice has been all along very familiar to both. 

In the second Paragraph of the above-cited Section, Mr. "\Vodrow, after 
having given the Archbishop the charitable epithet of "a bloody and perfidi 
ous man," has the assurance to say, " That he came to this fatal exit by no 
premeditated and formed design ; but circumstances offering an occasion, it 
was very suddenly given into." And a little thereafter, That he is well 
assured the people concerned had not the least view of this, or any design 
this way, till the accounts of his being near them were brought to them." 
This he pursues in the following Paragraphs, and tells us the old out-dated 
story, which none of the party themselves ever did or do believe, " That the 
design was only against Baillie Carmichael, whom having missed, they were 
just talking together of parting, and quitting the project, when they were 
informed that the Archbishop s coach was at hand." This presently he 
attributes to Providence, as if God so far approved of the action " That He 
was now pointing out the man to them [these are his words] whom He 
( ^ csi o nc ^ they should destroy, and whom He had, it seems, delivered into 
their hands." The design of this foolish and fabulous story (since for the 
truth of it we must intirely depend upon the assertions of the murderers 
themselves, who are Mr. Wodrow s only vouchers) is to extenuate the guilt, 
as if the wickedness had not only been nowise premeditated, but that the 
Lord had directed them to it. For it is no strange thing for that faction to 
make God the author of their foulest actings, and when they have no argu 
ments a priori , to bring this piece of Turkish Divinity as an argument a 
jiostci-iore, viz., the success of the action to justify their villanies. But to 
expose this Jesuitical fiction, it were sufficient, at least for the conviction of 
any sober unprejudiced person, barely to set down two Informations sent 
over to the Privy Council from St. Andrews, taken out of the Depositions of 
John Millar, Tenant in Magask, and those of his family; Robert Black, 
Tenant in Baldinny, his wife, children, servants, cottars, &c. ; William Ding- 
wall in Caldhame, father to one of the murderers; and several other persons 
whose Depositions were taken at Cowpar by the Sheriff-Depute. The Infor 
mations which are lying before me are too prolix to be here inserted, but the 
substance of the first of them is, " That by the Letters found about young 

F y, and other Letters found in the chest of Russel in the Kettle, one of 

the prime actors (which Letters are there declared to be in the custody of 
Captain Carnegy of Finhaven, or the Sheriff-Depute), it is more than evident 
that the deed had been long premeditated by the actors, and many moe ; 
that his Grace was waylaid by diverse parties (as the Witnesses depone), so 
that whether he had gone straight to St. Andrews, or repaired to his house 



JAMES SHAEP. 17 

of Scotscraig, lie could not escape them." It was also deponed, " That the 
nine who committed the Murder were the night hefore at a country place, 
within a mile of Craighall, called Hurleswind ; and that one of them, with 
Andrew Turnbull, Tenant to Broomhall (who had crossed the water the 
same tide with his Grace), came to Kennoway about midnight, and enquired 
if my Lord St. Andrews was lodged at Captain Seton s ; and being told that 
lie was, he presently returned to the rest. That on the morning of the 3d 
of May they were seen on Tace s Muir, and intended to have attacked the 
coach on the Heath to the South of Ceres, where it seems they were in 
some confusion; for Fiathillet s horse ran from him, and was taken and given 
back to him by the gardincr of Struthers; and John Balfour, with one more, 
entred so far into the Town of Ceres, in pursuit of the coach, that by mistake 
he rode to the Minister s gate, and quickly retired. Thereafter (as is also 
deponed), having still the coach in view (so grossly false is Mr. Wodrow s 
Account), they kept half a mile to the South thereof, till they came to Kin- 
ninmonth, the coach then being about Blebo-hole ; and then they quickly 
came down from the height, and galloped through a little valley at Ladeddie 
Limekilns, having the top of the coach still in view, with design to have 
committed the Murder at the Double Dykes of Magask." And thus the 
Depositions proceed to the Murder itself, &c. 

In the other Information which was sent over to the Privy Council a The Murder 
few days thereafter, we are told from other Depositions, "That three days 
before the Murder, viz., the 1st of May, some of the assassines had a meeting 
at Millar s house in Magask, where they concerted the business ; and it is 
deponed also, that the next night they lodged at Ptobert Black s house in 
Baldiuny, whose wife, they depone, was a great instigator of the fact; and 
that at parting, when one of them kissed her, she prayed God might bless 
and prosper them ; and added these words, If long Leslie (this was Mr. 
Alexander Leslie, Minister at Cires) be with him, lay him 011 the green also. 
To which the ruffian answered, holding up his hand, There is the hand that 
shall do it." Further it is deponed, "That the said Andrew Turnbull (who 
was one of the two that came to Kennoway the night before), at his return 
to the other assassines, encouraged them to the fact, by telling them that 
all the West was in arms already." 

But that this was a long and deep laid plot, not only to assassinate the 
Primate, but many others, and then immediately to break out into an open 
Rebellion, will appear to a demonstration, from two Papers (which the 
Author of the following Narrative had not seen when he wrote it, one 
whereof was dropt at the Market Cross of Cowpar, some days before the 
Murder, a Copy whereof the Reader will find in the Appendix (Numb. ILj; 
and this Paper I find particularly noticed by his Majesty in his Answer to 
the Privy Council s Letter, wherein they acquaint him with the amazing 
news of the Murder ; which Letter of theirs our Author has insert in his 
Appendix ; and the Answer, Dated May the 10th, chiefly because it was all 
VOL. n. c 



18 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

penned by his Majesty himself, I have also set clown f Xitmb. III. j The other 
Paper is yet a more pregnant evidence of this truth, being an attested double 
of a Letter from a fanatical teacher to his dear brother, Mr. Donald Cargill, 
the same day the Murder was committed. The principal Letter was inter 
cepted, and sent up with other Papers to the Duke of Lauderdale, to be 
communicated to the King. But by the attested Copy I have by me, it does 
appear, that not only the Archbishop, but several others, \verc designed to 
be murdered, and a Rebellion to be raised ; which Paper, because it was 
never as yet in Print, is also set down in the AppouH.c f Xiinib. IV.) 

Further yet, I am credibly informed, that the contrivers of that horrid 
Assassination were so full of it, that some of them could scarce keep their 
own secret; which one of their teachers, some while before the Murder, thus 
blabbed out in Rhyme 

If Sharp do die the common death of men, 
I ll burn my books and throw away my pen." 

Prophecy. This, among the poor deluded wretches their ordinary hearers, passed for the 
spirit of Prophecy; but herein they have, it seems, taken their copy from 
one of their great apostles, Mr. Baxter, who in his "Defence of the Cure of 
Church Divisions," p. 200, speaking to the Bishops and Clergy, says, "It 
may be your great patrons may die or fall, or forsake you, and then your 
hearts are broken ; it may be Death may enter into your families, and make 
you think what blood-thirstiness doth tend to." Now what manner of Fall 
and Death he means, he explains, p. 201, " One Felton may end the great 
Duke of Buckingham;" p. 205, " Or they may meet with such executioners 
as Cardinal Bcthune." Nor was Mr. Baxter a false prophet, tho a very 
bloody one, as the tragical Narrative now before us doth sadly witness. 

As to Mr. Wodrow s Account of the fact itself, the Reader will be pleased 
to remember his vouchers, which I have already touched at, and compare 
them with those of the Narratives of it Published by Authority. But these 
three things I cannot forbear to notice. 1. That the fauaticks are very fond 
to make Dr. Sharp die in the same manner, and almost with the same cir 
cumstances, as Cardinal Bethunc did; and were Mr. Wodrow s Narrative 
true, it would be indeed next to a miracle how John Balfour, the leader of 
those ruffians, should have so exactly repeated to tho Archbishop, when he 
was upon the point of murdering him, almost the very words of James Melvil 
to the Cardinal, as if he had mandated them from Knox s History (see col. 
ii., p. 80, in fin.) And which is yet stranger, he makes the Archbishop use 
the same expressions that Knox tells us the Cardinal had at his Assassina 
tion, viz., "Fy, fy," &c. 2. It is positively averred by Mr. Wodrow, and in 
the above-cited Paper, intitled "A True Relation of what is discovered," c., 
Sharp shot- " ^hat ^ ie Archbishop was shot-proof, and that after pouring in many vollies 
proof. upon his body, he was still safe and sound," insinuating that childish fancy, 

as if he had some spell or talisman to secure him. And Mr. Wodrow further 



JAMES SHAEP. It) 

says, " That they found in his pocket a box with some pistol balls, thrceds 
of worsted, and some odd things in it." Kay, for this, the Authors of the 
foresaid " True Eolation, " &c., have the impudence to appeal to "\Villiam 
Borthwick, Chirurgeon, who was one of four sent over by the Privy Council 
to visit and embalm the body ; to him, I say, they appeal, whether he found 
blue or black marks only instead of wounds, wherever a ball had lighted. 
And yet this same Mr. Borthwick, with two other Chirurgcons and a Phy 
sician, declare under their hands, " That he had a wound, by a ball, below 
the right clavicle, betwixt the second and third rib." "Which declaration, 
extant in the Eccords, I have Transcribed in the Appendix ( Xuinli. V. ] 3. As 
Knox makes Mclvil say to the Cardinal, " That neither hatred to his person 
nor desire of his wealth, moved him to kill him" (and yet those self-denied 
gentlemen seised a great deal of treasure and rich furniture in the Castle), 
so here Mr. AVodrow makes Balfour to say, " Thy money perish with thee," 
d-c., p. 31 ; and a little thereafter says, " That they took nothing but papers 
and arms." And yet by the Depositions upon Eccord, it appears, " That 
they robbed the Primate s daughter of all her gold, and other things she had 
in a little box, and carried away his Grace s night-bag, Bible, girdle, some 
papers of moment," &c., and also robbed his servants not only of their arms 
but their money. 

I am loath to detain the Ecader any longer from this short but true Preservation of 
History itself ; only tis worth our while to notice two observes upon the 
Primate s Death, made by Mr. AYodrow. One is an insinuation of God s 
approbation of the fact, by the impunity of the actors, which he tells us with 
several circumstances that in his Account amount to little less than miracles, 
such as (p. 32, Fr.j, "That their preservation was a wonder [such as that 
of most of the King s murderers after the Eestoration] ; because, when this 
fact was a doing in the open fields [but if he knew those fields as well as the 
Author of this Preface docs, he would cease to wonder], at the height of the 
day, in this season of the year, and so many pieces discharged, they w r ere 
neither interrupted nor discovered!" which last is a manifest untruth. He 
adds (p. 33;, " That none of the real actors were taken" (he might at least 
have excepted Eathillet and Guilan) ; and then, 2dly, repeats what he had 
so often before inculcated, "That it was ill reasoning and unfair to lodge 
this fact upon the whole party," &c. And this leads me to the last thing I 
proposed in this Preface, which is to show, that whoever pretends to call 
himself a true Presbyterian, must necessarily approve of this action, as not 
only lawful but heroical. We do not, indeed, in as many words, find this 
asserted in their Confession of Faith, Covenant, &c., th6 from some of their 
positions and solemn engagements there, tis not uneasy to infer this by way 
of consequence ; but tis hoped it will be next to that, directly to draw it 
from the writings of their greatest Apostles, whom our modern Presbyterians 
look upon to have been divinely inspired, and none of whose Books they 
ever yet offered to disown as unsound. 



20 ABCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. AXDliEWS. 

Here, then, I shall first instance the horrid Murder of Cardinal Bctlmnc, 
as related hy Knox, l.s/ Edit., ;>. 143, 1-44, 145, where, after having intro 
duced James Melvil, making just such another harrangue to him as Mr. 
Wodrow puts in the mouth of John Balfour, the murderer of Bishop Sharp, 
he tells us, "That after his exhorting him to repentance, yet he allowed him 
no more time for that great work than was spent in delivering the speech." 
Nevertheless, Knox there calls that speech, with what presently followed 
thereupon, viz., Melvil s assassinating the Cardinal, the " godly words and 
deed of James Melvil." But least this should be only thought a Hash of 
heat peculiar rather to the fiery Scottish genius than to the spirit of Presby 
tery in general, we have the joint suffrages of two famous moderate English 
Presbyterian Teachers to make good the charge. Thus Goodman, in his 
Goodman. fyranny and Popery," ]>. 27, tells us," - That all men arc bound to see the 
laws of God kept, and suppress and resist idolatry by force; and that it is 
not enough for subjects to disobey the wicked orders of their Prince, but that 
it is their indispcusiblc duty to resist them, and deliver God s children out 
of their enemies hands, as a sheep is delivered from the wolf. And if the 
Magistrate refuses to put Mass-mongers and false Preachers [and such aro 
all Protestant Bishops and Clergymen, in the Presbyterian Account] to 
death, the people, in doing it for them, do shew that zeal to God s glory 
which the Scripture commends in Phincas." But Gilby goes yet a little 
further, and plainly tells us, " That Princes derive their authority from the 
people, which the people, upon occasion, may take from them again, just as 
a man may revoke his proxy ;" nay, boldly says, that tis warrantable to kill 
wicked Kings; and such, in their Account, arc all anti-covcnanting Kings. 
" The subjects (says he) killed Athalia ; Jehu killed Jczabel ; Elijah, thu no 
Magistrate, killed the Queen s Chaplains, Baal s Priests." And Leichtoii, 
in his " Zioii s Plea," asscrtcth, (i That Felton s killing the Duke of Buck 
ingham was a heroical and laudable fact," and recommends it to posterity 
for imitation. 

Further, we find that Knox, in his Debate with Secretary Lethington, 
as set clown by himself, Uixl., j>. 390, justifies the killing of tyrannical 
Princes, and all others in publick place, by private persons, from the example 
of Phiucas, who, he says, was but a private person ; and tells us, that he 
had not only a large reward for his fact, but an ample approbation of it 
( Xunib. .r.cr. 12, 13, compared with PxaL ci i. 31) ; so that it was accounted 
to him for righteousness, i.e., as a righteous action ; and roundly tells him, 
" That it is to be imitated by all those who prefer the true honour of the 
true worship and glory of God to the affection of fleshly and wicked Princes." 
Nay, further adds, " That this example of Phiucas, being approved by God, 
stands to us instead of a command ; for as God in His nature is constant 
and immutable, so can He not condemn in the ages subsequent that which 
He hath approved in His servants before us." 

It will be needless here to make any quotations out of their great chain- 



JAMES SHARP. 21 

pion Buchanan, his whole Book, 7V Jure llajni apud Scotnx, being but one Buchanan, 
intire vindication of those execrable practices, and his lying and calumnious 
History nothing else but a Comment on that text, to which he exactly 
accommodates it. Let us hear but one passage of the former, where he 
sticks not to say "That the only remedy against tyrants [viz., all in author 
ity who will not govern according to the freak of the mob, whom alone he 
makes judge in that case] is Ehud s dagger, to which, as the Supreme Court 
of Justice, Moses brought the Egyptian; Phineas, Zimri and Cosbi ; Ehud, 
Eglon; Sampson, the Philistines; Samuel, Agag; and Jehojada, Athalia," c. 
Next to these I shall mention an Author who, thu later, is yet held in 
as great veneration by the party as any yet named, and that is the Author 
of "Xaphtali," who, p. 131, exhorts "all people to acquit themselves like ., 

Isaphtali. 

men, and pull the Bishops out of the Sanctuary, that the wrath of God may 
be averted in the righteous punishment of these wicked men." Accordingly, 
Mr. James Mitchel attempted to murder Dr. Sharp, and in his speech saith, 
" They are all blessed that shall take the proud Prelates and dash their 
brains against the stones." And what was first attempted by him in vain 
(thu, by the by, no man ever yet failed in achieving an hcroical act to which 
he was moved by God), was eleven years thereafter successfully effected by 
a company of true Presbyterians, some of whom had long rode in Mr. 
Welsh s Guard. That same Author defends the Rebellion at Pentland-hilLs 
from the same instance of Phiueas, and blasphemously ascribes it to the 
Holy Spirit of God; asserting " That those Rebels were no more to be con 
demned as traitors, than Phineas ought to have been for a murderer, seeing 
they were led by the same Spirit, and had as good warrant as he," p. 21 et 
sajij. And all these afore-cited Doctrines and their Authors arc strenuously 
vindicated by the Author of JHK FopuJi Vimlicatum, cap. 20, from py. 409 to 
pwj. 42G. In short, "Xaphtali" and Jus T opuli ViinUadian were, in King 
Charles II. his time, the Presbyterian pocket-books ; and it was then observed 
that the common people read them, especially the former, as much or more 
than the Bible. A learned English Author (.Dr. Hickes) of those times tells 
us, " That he knew an Officer of his Majesty s Forces, who, meeting with a 
country fellow going to a Eicld Conventicle, examined and searched him, 
and in one pocket found Xapthali, and in the other a pocket pistol charged 
with two bullets : the Doctrine (as the gentleman ingeniously said) in one 
pocket, and the use or application in the other." The Author adds, " That 
as he was credibly informed, that pernicious Book was found in the pockets 
of most of those who were killed or taken at Bothwel Bridge." 

From these celebrated Authors, then, we have the true principles on Severe criti- 
which Presbyterians found their terrible practice of massacres and assassina- fj sms on . tlie 
tions. For beside those above cited, Calvin, Beza, Melvil, &c., do all main- cipies" of the 
tain, " That when the Magistrate will not put to death such as they are 
pleased to call enemies of Christ, the Church (I.e., private persons) may do 
it, by the example of Phineas ; nay, that they ought to do it without hesita- 



22 AKCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OE ST. AXD11EWS. 

tion, when they feel tliemsclvcs moved thereto. But that if the Magistrates 
themselves be such, then any other person, thu not in ofiice, may and ought 
to rise up to do justice upon them (the King not exceptcd), still after the 
example of Phincas." Yet, least any man should be startled at so terrible 
a Doctrine, which plainly unhinges all humane society, the Author of Jus 
Populi Viiidicdliiin adds, p. 412, "That notwithstanding this Doctrine, all 
persons have sufficient security of their lives, except such as are guilty of 
dreadful Apostacy [with which they charge all who have renounced the 
Covenant, or who took it and do not keep it ; in particular, the King and 
the Archbishop], causing the plague of God to break in upon the land, 
which he pursues at full length,^, 414, 415, where again and again he urges 
the example of Phincas to encourage private men to murder the Archbishop. 
In fine, that this is the general Presbyterian Doctrine, I appeal not only to 
"Naphtali" and Jus J d/mli Yiinliculioii, but to the "Apology," the "Apolo- 
getical Narration," the "Poor Man s Cup," the "History of the Indulgence," 
the " Hind let Loose," fee., who all of them sing the same note. 

Mr. "\Vodrow pretends to answer this charge, ml. 2, [xujc 33, as the same 
stands in a Book Printed in the year 1080, entitled " The Spirit of Popery 
speaking out of the mouths of Phanatical Protestants," &c., Avherc some of 
the most pregnant of the above-cited testimonies arc set down ; but, then, 
all his answer comes to this, " That none of that Author s citations come at 
all up to the present case of the Archbishop s Murder." This is an easy 
way of answering the strongest demonstrations that ever were used to prove 
any thing. For thus may the Deists answer Doctor Lesly and others, that 
all their arguments come not up to the case of llevcal d Pieligion. Since, 
therefore, Mr. Wodrow does not make appear any disparity betwixt the 
above-cited Doctrines and the practice of the Archbishop s murderers, all 
AVC can do is to leave it to the judgement of any intelligent Reader, be his 
principles what they will, whether the said Murder was a plain consequence 
or rather application of the above-cited Doctrines. 

But since Mr. Wodrow pretends to disown all assassinations, I could 
almost appeal to himself, whether it had been more ingenuous and fair in 
him, since the above-named Authors do not only defend, but commend such 
murders as plain duty, to have fairly and frankly said, that these Authors, 
however otherwise burning and shining lights, were yet in this point wrong, 
and overborn by mistaken zeal, however good their intentions were ; and 
that therefore he, and all modern Presbyterians, humbly differ from them as 
to that head. But bluntly to say, that such clear and plain expressions as 
are above cited come not up to the present case, is a way of reasoning 
peculiar to Mr. Wodrow. 

Field Conven- I shall only further remark two groundless and malicious calumnies of 

tides. this eminent Martyrologist, in his Account of the Proclamation in April, 

1G79, against Field Conventicles, vol. 2, pay. 38, 39. And (to pass by his 

ignorant and impertinent observes upon it) in the first place, I find that he 



JAMES SHARP. 23 

charges Doctor Sharp as being the Author and chief promoter of that Pro 
clamation (which indeed was his duty, had it heen true), and says, " That it 
may be reckoned the Primate s Legacy, and an earnest of what he would 
have essayed had he got up to Court ;" which still insinuates a further vin 
dication of the Murder. But this is neither less nor more than a manifest 
falshood ; nor does he pretend to give either reason or voucher for what he 
says. The other is a wicked untruth, viz., " That all of the Privy Council 
saw need, before the Proclamation was Published, to have it Signed by the 
King, that this might be a Warrant to them if afterwards called to account 
for it." The falshood of this will appear from his Majesty s Answer to the 
Council s Letter, wherein the Proclamation was sent up enclosed ; whereby 
it is evident, that the Signing of it by the King was not at all moved or 
desired by them, but that it proceeded entirely from himself: therefore I 
have inserted the Answer itself in the Ai>i>emlii- ( Xinnb. VI.), because it seems 
not to have been seen by the Author of the following Sheets. 

Lastly, lest any man should mistake our Author s meaning in this Abp. Burnct 
Narrative, where he says, " That the reverend and pious Doctor Burnct, 
Archbishop of Glasgow, Demitted his Dignity and Charge upon passing of 
the Act of Supremacy in the year 1009," the Pleader will be pleased k> be 
informed, that this was not a simple Demission, far less done in a pet (which 
would indeed have been an unpardonable fault in that great and good man), 
but only in obedience to his Majesty s Letter to the Privy Council, whereby 
he is prohibited to Officiate, only till the King s further pleasure. And who 
procured this disgrace to him, is pretty well known to some Presbyterians 
yet alive in Scotland. This one thing is certain, that he, as well as Doctor 
Sharp, was a strenuous opposer of the Act of Supremacy when brought in 
before the Parliament. In a dutiful compliance, therefore, with his Majesty s 
pleasure, he simply declared to his Clergy that he was not to act as their 
Ordinary any more, till the King should please to allow him. (This was far 
from the Presbyterian spirit.) Accordingly, we see Doctor Leighton, Bishop 
of Dumblain, was never formally Translated to the See of Glasgow, but only 
made Administrator during his Majesty s pleasure ; who, finding at length 
how he had been misinformed and abused by his own ungrateful servant, to 
whom all this was owing, not only restored Doctor Buruet to his former 
Dignity and Charge, but afterwards promoted him to the See of St. Andrews. 



APPENDIX TO THE PREFACE. 
NUMB. I. 



D. Sir, I think it proper to let you know what sort of a person Isabel Bell Lindsay s 
Lindsay was, before I say any thing of the story about her. She was (by ? lia cter and 
those who were perfectly well acquainted with her) look d upon as a woman in 
crack-brain d and very fanciful, as by what follows you ll easily perceive. 



24 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

She told the person I had it from (whose veracity I can rely as much upon 
as if she had said it to my self), that one day when she was living at Inver- 
clevit, she saw a man and a black horse rise out of the midst of the Paver of 
Tay, and rid North. My Author ask d what time of the day it was. She 
said, In fair sunshine. And her head run so much upon Witches, that she 
frequently complain d there was no course now taken with them, which was 
not wont to he, and actually scandalized an honest woman for being one, 
which she complained of to the Ministers of this place, and they were much 
troubled about it ; for they were convinced the honest woman was innocent, 
and the accuser most malicious ; for all the ground she had for it was, that 
the honest woman s husband, when melancholy, called her an old witch. 
And when she would have gone to her cellar and heard rats, she used to say 
over and over again, God keep me from witches. And I am told, that she 
reported she once saw Archbishop Sharp, Dr. Pittullo, and Mr. Robert Rait, 
Minister of Dundee, all dancing in the air; by all which you may guess 
what sort of a person she Avas. Her rising and speaking in the Church on 
a Sunday forenoon was this : When the Primate was Preaching, and when 
the 7th ver. of the (>2 Psal., "In God my glory placed is," was read, she 
said, "Your glory, your glory, my glory, my glory s placed in God;" but she 
kept her scat all the time of Psalms and Prayer; but when the Sermon 
began, she rose and called him Judas, or some such expression; and the 
people that were next her clapt their hands on her mouth, that she got very 
little spoke, for she was instantly taken to prison ; and when there, was 
asked if she had any thing to say to the Archbishop, and she should be 
carried to him, she said No, and she would not hear an ill word of him. 
This is the substance of Avhat passed at that time (which is about 50 years 
ago), that these that Avere then men and women remember. As for her 
bringing forth a child, and it being murdered, its a most malicious, hellish, 
and devilish calumny ; and for its being begot under promise of Marriage, 
he Avas always worth the Availing upon, and she Avas Married several years 
before him. 

NUMB. II. 

Katharine Dear Sir, I return you my hearty thanks for the Book you sent me, 

Moncricff. which is the most scurrilous rhapsody of malicious calumny that ever was 
invented. As to that story in the Preface, of the Primate s sister-in-hiAV 
being sent to the North Avith child, I reckon it necessary to give you the 
following Account of that silly, simple, senseless Avoman, Katharine Mon- 
crieff. A feAV years after the Restoration, Mr. John Cuningham, the Earl 
of Glencairn s son, AA hile a student here, took a fever ; and that he might 
be the better taken care of, the Archbishop brought him to his OAVH house ; 
and during his sickness, this poor unhappy Avoman sometimes -went to his 
room. ; and after he recover d, and had left the place, she told some of the 
servants that she was with child (Avhich she seemed very fond of) to Mr. 
Cuningham. This coming to her sister s ears, she presently told her husband 
of it, Avho immediately ordered a man and a horse to be got ready, and carry 
her to CoAvpar (and never in all his life saAv her again), where two of her 
sisters were then living ; and after that, she Aveut and lived at Crail alone 
with a servant, and proved not to be Avith child. But some time after, she 
fell with child to a millar, a married man in Balcomie Ground, and satisfied 
as an adulteress in the Church of Crail. After this they went aAvay together, 



JAMES SHAEP. 25 

but she returned back again before the fellow ; at last he returned also, and 
then the friends fearing they might renew their acquaintance, sent her to 
the Xorth. I am credibly informed she was not with child at that time, and 
th 6 she had been, it says nothing against the Primate, for it was five or six 
years after she went from his family. 

XI-MIJ. III. 
Copy of (i Pafn r di-ojit on tin Sfn i t / ( <nc)>ar, a far ihii/a l<]fnre tin Nunler of 



To all and sundry to whose hands these Presents shall come, but especially 

to the Magistrates and Inhabitants of the Town of Cowpar in Fife. 
Be it known to all men. that whereas under a pretext of Law, tho most (j upar .Fif e 
falsly, there is most abominable, illegal, and oppressive robberies and spoils Paper. 
committed in this Shire, by Captain Carnegie and his Souldiers, by virtue 
of a Precept from AYilliam Carmichael, XT., he being authori/ed and held on 
to it by that perjured apostate Prelate Sharp, who, Xc. These are therefore 
to declare to all that shall any ways be concerned in this villainous robbery 
and oppression, either by assisting, rccepting, levying, or any manner of way 
countenancing the same, that they shall be holden as guilty thereof; and 
however they may think themselves for the present secured, being guarded 
by a military force, and those that are thus robbed despiseable, yet let them 
take this for a warning that they shall be handled severely, answerable to 
their villanies, and that by a party equal to all that dare own them, and that 
shortly, as God shall enable and assist them, whose names may be read in 
these following Letters, A, ]>. C. &C. 

XT-MI;. IV. 

CHARLES E. Eight trusty, XT., we greet you well. It was with no loss King Charles 
abhorrence than surprisal. that in your Letter of the -1th instant (in a flying gratulation. 
Packet) we received an Account of that cruel and barbarous Murder com 
mitted the day before, by ten fanatick ruffians, upon tho person of the late 
Lord Archbishop of St. Andrews, within two miles of that place ; an action 
attended with so many circumstances of inhumanity and barbarity, as that, 
were it not ccrtiiied unto us from so good hands, we could not have believed 
that in any Xation civilized, much less where Christianity is professed, there 
could have been such a hellish design contrived, much less put in execution: 
a villany so abominable to us (and must certainly be so to all good men), 
that were it committed but upon the meanest of our subjects, in place of the 
Metropolitan of that our ancient Kingdom, and one of our Privy Council, 
we could not but resent it with the most severe effects of our displeasure and 
abhorrence ; and therefore we cannot but highly commend (and return you 
our hearty thanks for) your great care and forwardness (even upon the first 
notice of that horrid fact) to take the most effectual course for discovering and 
apprehending those barbarous assasines, in order to their exemplary punish 
ment and the terror of others of the same bloody and hellish principles from 
ever daring to attempt such a villany hereafter; and particularly the Procla 
mation you have Published upon that occasion, with which we were so well 
pleased, that we did immediately order it to be Printed here. Vv r e have also 
seen the Depositions of the "Witnesses, and the Copy of that scandalous and 
VOL. n. D 



26 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OE ST. ANDREWS. 

seditious Paper that was dropt in the Town of Cowpar ; by which last we 
perceive that, in all appearance, the design of that horrid Murder was laid 
sometime before by a more considerable number of men than the assassines 
were; and therefore we do in a particular manner recommend to you to 
make all the enquiry and search that is possible, for all persons that you 
have reason to suspect any manner of way guilty of contriving, consulting, 
abbetting, or furthering that horrid villany. For we do look upon them as 
no less guilty thereof than the wretches that assumed the boldness and 
impiety to shed that innocent blood, and that to so high a degree of cruelty 
and barbarity as can hardly be paralleled in any Nation ; which we do so 
much abominate, as we cannot but again earnestly desire you to take the 
most effectual courses, consistent with Law, for punishing to the outmost 
severity all such as shall lie found guilty of or accessory to that horrid and 
execrable crime : for doing whereof, this shall be to you and all others that 
may be therein concerned a full Warrant. By a former Letter, we sent for 
some of your number to come hither, and after we have spoke with them 
you shall find that we are fully resolved to maintain and assert the authority 
exercised by you, and that we will not cease to ail ord you our countenance 
and protection in the faithful discharge of that great trust we have committed 
to you. And so we bid you heartily farewell. (liven at our Court at White 
hall the tenth day of May, 1070, and of our Reign the Hist year. By his 
Majesty s command. LAUJHCRDALK. 

XlTMl!. A . 

Extraordinary Dearly beloved Brother, I am glad to hear your welfare, and that you 

mcnt an D CU " contmnc m <nc faith, which I wish you may retain, and persevere in to the 
end. You shall know that our forces daily encrcase, and are now surmounted 
to the number of 10,000, and there are daily adding to the number of those 
who shall be saved. I hope you have heard of the dreadful death of the 
old fox who was clothed with the sheep s skin and countenanced with the 
King s authority. The same was intended for others also, but it seems (lod 
hath not altogether forsaken them, and given them over to themselves ; but 
it may be supposed that they arc referred to a greater judgment, which God 
in His own appointed time will cause fall upon them, and send deliverance 
to His people, which shall be the daily prayers of him who greets you in the 
Lord. I am informed that the King is sending down 5000 English, under 
the command of the Duke of Monmouth, to assist the Prelaticall party, and 
to suppress the Godly; but God knows how to deliver the just from the hand 
of their enemies. Bat I hope within a few moneths we shall sec an end of 
tliir things, and then shall the righteous flourish like a palm tree. Which 
shall be the evening, morning, and mid-day s Prayers of 

Your beloved Brother in the Lord, 
3d May, 1070. j. c. 

Directed to Mr. D C gil, Minister of the Gospel at Glasgow. 

With care deliver these. 

Edin., May 10th, 1070. 

Haec est vera copia epistola? suprascriptse, cujus principalis est ad 
Ducem Lauderdaliae transmissa. 

Jo. EDIXBURGEN, &c. 
AND. SODOREX. 
Aimi. LISJIOREN. 



JAMES SHARP. 



We U ndcrsubscribcrs, being called to visit the Corps of the late Lord Medical 
Archbishop of St. Andrews, do find that he had received a wound by a sword c 
over the left eye, extending two inches above and one below, making a great 
suffusion of blood upon the check, and upper and lower eyelid. Next, we 
found many wounds upon the posterior part of his head, insomuch that the 
whole occipital bone was shatter d all in pieces, and a part of the brain lost 
thereby upon the place, which certainly being so great, could not but occa 
sion his present death. There were only two wounds to be seen upon the 
body; the first, two or three inches below the right clavicle, betwixt the 
second and third rib, which was given by a shot not reaching the capacity of 
the breast. The next was a small wound upon the region of the kidneys, 
given by a small sword. Likewise we found three wounds upon his left 
hand, which might have proved mortal tho he had escaped the former. Also 
another upon the right hand, as dangerous as the former. As witness our 
hands at St. Andrews, the 5th day of May, 1070. 

(iKOIKiK PlTILLO, M.D. 

"WILLIAM BORTIIWICK, Chir. 
HKNRY SPEXCK, Chir. 
JAMKS PIUXGLK, Chir. 



CHARLES R. Right trusty, Ac., having seen and considered the Proclama- Proclamation 
tion for suppression of Field Conventicles which in your Letter of the 1st inst. JjjjJjJ^jjJJ 
to the Duke of Lauderdalc, you sent hither for our perusal and approbation 
before the publication thereof, we arc so well pleased with it, and do judge 
it so fit for that purpose, as that we do give you our hearty thanks for that 
good effect of your care and diligence to promote our service and preserve 
the peace of that our ancient Kingdom; and do return it to you without any 
delay, to the end that no time may be lost in the prosecution of so good a 
work. Whereof that you may have our full and solemn approbation, we 
have thought fit our self to Sign the Draught you sent up, and you have it 
here inclosed. And as we are fully resolved upon all occasions to assert 
and maintain our authority, and to put the Laws in execution as well against 
those who by private and underhand dealings endeavour to create any dis 
turbance to our Government there, cither in Church or State (when the 
same shall be made manifest to us), as against those who of late have 
assumed the boldness more openly to attempt the raising of a Rebellion 
there, by frequent and numerous Convocations in Arms at Field Conven 
ticles these nurseries of Rebellion, and many other irregular and illegal 
courses ; so we do hereby give you our assurance, that you shall have all 
due countenance, encouragement, and protection from us in the discharge of 
your duties in our service, against all who shall traduce or asperse any of 
your proceedings, which have been so agreeable to law and reason, as w T e 
cannot but admire the impudence (no less than the malice) of such persons 
as study to create a contrary opinion of your actions. We did receive such 
full satisfaction from those Lords you sent up last year to inform us when 
there was some noise raised (indeed very unjustly) against your procedure, 



28 



ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 



as we do now think lit to desire that some of your number may repair hither 
with all convenient expedition, to the end we may not only receive from them 
a full account of the state of our affairs there, but also may have an oppor 
tunity to signify our pleasure in many things, after conference with them, 
which at present we cannot impart in a Letter. And because the Noblemen 
who are imploycd in our service are either of our Privy Council or have 
Command of our Forces, or both, and therefore cannot well be absent at this 
time, we have thought fit rather to require you to send three of our Officers 
of State, viz., our Clerk-Register, our Advocate, and our Justice-Clerk, 
together with the President of our College of Justice, and Sir George Mack 
enzie of Tilrbct, our Justice-General, seeing from them we can have full 
information, as well in matters of Law as of fact. So expecting from them 
a ready compliance with this our pleasure, and not doubting the continuance 
of your care and diligence in all tilings that concern our service and the 
peace and quiet of that our Kingdom, we hid you heartily farewell. Given 
at our Court at Whitehall the sixth day of May, 1(57;), and of our Reign the 
31st year. P>y his Majesty s command. 

LAUDEKDALE. 



THE LIFE OF THE MOST REVEREND FATHER IN GOD, 
DR. JAMES SHARP, 

ARCHBISHOP OF ST. ANDRKWS AXJ) PP.IMATX OF ALL SCOTLAND. 

Parentage and Dr. James Sharp, Archbishop of St. Andrews, was great-grandchild to 

Birthplace. a gentleman in Perthshire, who having given portions to his numerous 
children, one of his sons, named David, chose to go to live in the Town of 
Aberdeen, where, by his frugality and industry, he became a considerable 
merchant, and lived and Died in good esteem. By his wife, Magdalen Ilali- 
burton (nearly descended of the Laird of Pitcur, a honourable Family in the 
Shire of Angus), he had a son named William, who being educated at the 
Schools and University of Aberdeen, was, for his extraordinary natural 
parts and proficiency, taken notice of by the Marquess of lluntly, and other 
persons of quality in that Country ; but particularly, the Earl of Findlator 
conceived such a great opinion of him, that he took him to his house, and 
committed to him the management of all his affairs. This Earl had Married 
a daughter of the Earl of Rothes, who took such a particular concern for 
Mr. William Sharp, that she made up a match betwixt him and Isabel Lesly, 
daughter to the Laird of Kiiiuiuvy, a gentleman of her own name and family. 
Not long after this, Mr. Sharp was made Sheriff-Clerk of Banffshire, and 
liv d and Died in the Castle of Banff, in great esteem and reputation with 
all who knew him. His wife, Isabel Lesly, was an extraordinary woman, 
honoured by all for her wisdom and piety, and Died of a great age, after K. 
Charles II. s Restoration. 

These were the parents of James Sharp, Archbishop of St. Andrews, 
who was Born in the Castle of Banff, on the [4th] of May, 1618. From his 



JAMES MIAUL . -2 ,} 

very cradle lie was look d upon ah a child that promised something more 

than ordinary, and therefore was by them cared for and watched over with 

the more tender concern. Being sent to school sooner than is usual with ^cut to School 

children of that age, he outdid all his fellows in the very rudiments of learn- t Buutr. 

ing. His masterly genius, quick apprehension, and tenacious memory, were 

early signs and prognostic-Its of his future greatness. AVithal, he was observed 

to be a diligent Header of the Holy Scriptures, and frequent and regular in 

Meditation and Devotion ; and he had great satisfaction to be in company 

with Clergymen, which made his father s neighbours call him in jest " The 

young Minister ;" and his mother, whose darling he was, was frequently 

heard to say, that her son James would be a Bishop. And she had the 

satisfaction to hear of his promotion before her Death. 

These considerations mov d his father to dedicate him to Christ and the 
services of his Church, who, to compleat his education, sent him to the 
University of Aberdeen, where he arrived to such perfection in the Philo 
sophy then in vogue, that he was the envy of his condisciplcs and admiration 
of the Masters. 

Having past his courses in the College with great applause, and being Educated at 
made Master of Arts, he apply d himself to the study of Theology, in which Abc: 
he us d the advice and directions of these miracles of learning, Doctor Forbes 
and Dr. Baron, the last of whom commonly call d him after a familiar way, 
Mi Jncnbc Sl/iirji, Sltr}>, signifying the opinion he had of his conception and 
readiness. Under these great tutors in that sacred science, his advances 
were extraordinary ; and there he suck d in a set of such Orthodox, and 
Catholick Principles, as were more agreeable to his after elevated character 
and the last scenes of Ins life, than adapted to these tragical times in which 
he was to make his first figure and entrance into the world. 

The Doctors of Aberdeen, of whom the before -nam d Forbes and Baron 
were two, eminently appearing against the Covenant (that forerunner of 
many woes), incensed the Balaams of those times to that degree, that not 
only these reverend persons, but also their friends and familiars, and those 
suspected to be of their principles, were preach d down, whisper d off, pointed 
at, and mobb d, against all Laws, out of the protection of Law, their inter 
ests, and the natural privilcdgcs of subjects. Young Mr. Sharp finding the 
clouds of Sedition, Schism, Faction, and Picbcllion to break out upon Church 
and State, and being known to be no favourer of these tumultuous practices, 
resolved to retire for some short time to England, hoping such violent storms 
could not be lasting ; with a purpose to return, and do all the good services 
to his Country that his inclinations and abilities fitted him for, when the 
tempest was over. 

During his stay in that Kingdom, he contracted an acquaintance with Visited Oxford 
several eminent and learii d Divines, particularly with those great lights, brid 
Dr. Sanderson, Dr. Hammond, and Dr. Taylor ; and visited the famous 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. And thu then was the critical time 



80 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

when Scotsmen, particularly young men of that Nation, were suspected l,y 
the Church of England, yet he stood fair for considerable Ecclesiastical 
Benefices, and had the honour to be taken notice of, and in favour with 
several persons of note, who, as we may reasonably suppose, would have 
prcferr d him. But then no less confusions thrcatning England than what 
had really happeii d in Scotland, made him unresolved to settle there. And 
bchi" also sci/ d with a violent ague, which was like to have prov d danger 
ous, both by advice and inclination he returned to his native Country, after 
some years absence, tho with improved parts, yet in a bad state of health. 
Stay at But Providence never fails to take care of its own eminent instruments, 

Haddington. foii iu his j ounioy to Edinburgh he happcn d to lodge at Haddington in the 
same inn with Sir James McGill of Cranston, afterwards Viscount of Oxen- 
ford, a person of a noble and generous temper, and who (in imitation of his 
worthy ancestors) was remarkable for learning, loyalty, and services to the 
publick. He, after a short conversation with Mr. Sharp, conceived such an 
opinion of him, that he carried him along to his house in the country, where 
he recovered his health, and was treated with much respect, friendship, and 
familiarity, of which he always retained a grateful sense through the whole 
course of his life. 

During his stay here, he was known to several of the Nobility and 
Gentry, particularly to the Earl of Rothcs, who patronix d him, not only on 
the account of his parts, but also on the recommendations of some gentle 
men of the name of Lcsly, of his Lordship s Family, and Mr. Sharp s rela- 
Profcssor in tions ; and partly by his interest, but more for his own merits, he was chosen 
St. Leonards. one O f ^ 1C Professors of Philosophy iii St. Leonard s College in St. Andrews, 
which was the first step of his advancement. 

In this capacity he mcasur d his time with great frugality, allotting 
such portions of it for the instruction of his scholars as were necessary, and 
employing the rest for his own improvement, without neglecting to converse 
with the world. He kept a very good understanding with the Masters of the 
University, only there happened a scuflle betwixt Mr. Sinclair, a fellow- 
Regent with himself in St. Leonard s College, which was like to have cost 
him dear. This Mr. Sinclair was a ringleader and champion for the Cove 
nant, and afterwards Preacher at Ormestou. One day after dinner, at the 
common table of the College, when the Students were remov d, a Debate 
arose on the subject of Church Government betwixt them; in which Mr. 
Sharp, venting and maintaining Hooker s, Hall s, and Hammond s principles 
with a philosophical liberty, confounded and irritated his antagonist to that 
decree that he exceeded the bounds of common decency, and gave him flatly 

Sinclair s box & . ml ,, 

on the ear. the lie, which Mr. Sharp return d with a box on the ear. The account of 
this was iiois d about, and for some time gave a very bad impression of him 
to several Churchmen ; notwithstanding which, that humour dwindled away 
by degrees, and his abilities rais d his reputation, and usher d him into the 
familiarity of many great men, particularly of John, Earl of Crawford-Lind- 



JAMES SHAEP. 81 

say, who, tho too much in the wrong faction of these times, yet inherited 
many of the excellent vertues of his noble race. 

By this Lord s means he quitted the post of a Master of Philosophy in Minister of 
the College, and embrac d the oilice of a Preacher in the Town of Carail, ^ r:ul - 
and there in a singular manner exemplified the Evangelical precept as to 
the wisdom of the serpent and innocence of the dove. Here his labours 
were most acceptable, and gain d on the hearts of the people by calmness, 
condescension, and affability. He acquitted himself to the satisfaction of 
the most part of his fellow-Preachers ; only Mr. P>lair, and some of the 
moroser sort, us d to say they did not believe him sound (a word then, and 
since, of a weighty import), and that he spoke through a Bishop. 

In that remarkable division of the Presbyterians info Publick liesolu- Tho two 
tioners and Picmonstrators, he joyn d the former, as being the only men of p 
the whole who were of the greatest moderation, Religion, loyalty, and sin 
cerity. This untimely breach occasioned many miscarriages, intestine broils, 
and defeats at Dunbar and Worcester, and in the issue prov d the overthrow 
of Presbytery. Notwithstanding these sad times, when the Royal Family 
was under the cloud, yet Mr. Sharp had the honour and courage to corres 
pond with the King in his exile, and spared no pains to keep life in the 
fainting spirit of loyalty in many of the brethren, of which his Majesty was 
not unmindful on the Restoration. 

This rupture still increasing, involved not only the Churchmen but the 
whole Nation in flames. Both parties hop d for favour from Oliver, Lord 
Protector, and appointed their agents to repair to him. 

The Publick Resolutioners unanimously chose Mr. Sharp, whom they 
knew to be of a strong head, quick wit, and of a very equal temper. The 
Picmonstrators sent up Mr. Guthry, Preacher at Stirling, the very image and 
compcnd of the whole party. He represented a hot-headed incendiary and 
an impudent rebel, who with his slanderous tongue prophan d the Pulpit, 
and at Stirling treated King Charles to his face as the Old Testament varlet 
Shimci did good King David at Bahurim, in the days of his distress. 

The Protector having appointed the day, hour, and place for hearing the Guthry of 
two Commissioners on their differences, Mr. Guthry spoke first, and so long, 
that when he had ended, the Protector look d upon his watch, and told Mr. 
Sharp he would hear him at another time, for his hour for other dispatches 
was approaching. Put Mr. Sharp beg d to be heard, promising to be very 
short. His request being seconded by his intimate friend the Lord Broghill, 
afterwards the famous Earl of Orrery, Oliver was prevail d upon to give him 
an audience. And then in a few words he turn d Mr. Guthry s arguments 
against himself and the cause he defended, and gave such a rational repre 
sentation of his constituents and their party, that Oliver Avas not only 
satisfied they had justice on their side, but also so much taken with Mr. 
Sharp s genteel management and address, that he told the bystanders that 
that gentleman, after the Scotch way, ought to be stiled " Sharp of that Ilk." 



82 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

And it is not to bo thought that a man of Oliver s reach and Politicks, when 
he had nipt the growth of the Levellers and Fifth Monarchists, would have 
encouraged men of such factious spirits and disteinpcr d brains as the 
Remonstrators of Scotland were. 

And good it was for the Nation that affairs were thus ordcr d ; for if 
these had prevail d, the Pulpits would have made work for the scaffold and 
gibbet, and Mr. Sharp most probably would have been the first sacrifice ; 
which made him own on all occasions that he ow d his life to Oliver Crom 
well, and was seldom heard to mention him but he acknowledged his personal 
merit and his own obligation. 

Sharp s atten- Mr. Sharp s character and conduct ill this affair is represented to Mr. 

Commission, Bowglas and Mr. Dickson, &c., from Mr. Calamy and Mr. Ashe. in a Letter 
Dated at London, December, 1G57, and expressed thus : 



Onr Reverend Brother Mr. Sharp hath with much prudence, courage, 
and laboriousiiess unwearicdly attended and managed t e trust committed 
to him ; yea, as we believe, he hath secured your cause from sundry asper 
sions which otherwise might probably have reproach d it, and he hath gain d 
respect in the opinions of some in highest place by his wisdom and meekness 
in vindicating it from misrepresentations. And although the great concern 
ment (which he hath faithfully and zealously minded) be not brought to so 
good a conclusion as was desir d and pray d for, yet we sec cause to bless 
God for that which is done, hoping that through your prudent improvement 
thereof it will tend to future advantage. 

It appears to me, that from this time we may state the rage of the vio 
lent party (for I do not mean to charge the moderate Presbyterians) which 
fell heavy on this excellent person, and never left persecuting him till he 
was an approv d Confessor and crown d a Martyr. 

Ketum home. Having succeeded in this important affair, he returned to Scotland to 

the exercise of his Station, and always kept a good understanding with Mr. 
David Dickson, Mr. George Hutcheson, and the most eminent for worth and 
learning of the gang ; but these he was most inward with were Mr. James 
Wood, a learned, honest, and open-hearted man, and Mr. Robert Dowglas, 
who had abilities and experience that ermally fitted him for the highest 
character in the Church, the State, or the Camp. 

His reputation growing with his worth, rais d a general esteem of him, 
and gave him access to an acrjiiaiiitance with General Monk, who look d 
upon him as a man of probity and reach, and always after treated him with 
singular familiarity, and employed him accordingly. 

Cromwell s Cromwel Dying on September 3d, 1058, distractions increased, and his 

son Richard being turned out by the Rump Parliament (which in the month 
of May the next year was again restored), factions and divisions so prevailed 
that General Monk had thereby a plausible pretence of returning to England, 
which he did, marching from Caldstream upon Tweed the first day of January, 
in anno 16GO, and entred London with his Army 3d February. The troitbled 



JAMES SHARP. 83 

state of affairs dispos d each party to make court to him, as they were differ 
ently affected, and not only to seek after present protection, but also for 
future security. 

Some of the chief Presbyterian Brethren in Scotland made choise of Chosen repre- 
Mr. Sharp, and commissioned him to be their Agent in the cause and affairs th^Kirk f 
of the Kirk with General Monk. After his arrival at London, he address d 
his Excellency, and was graciously received, as "being dear to him on many 
accounts, and his very good friend," as the General expresseth himself in 
his Letter, Dated at Drapers Hall, London, IGth February, 1GGO, directed 
to Mr. David Dickson, Mr. Piobcrt Douglas, Mr. George Hutcheson, and Mr. 
James Wood; which he thus concludes, that they may "rest assured that 
none shall be more careful to preserve their profession hi honour than he." 

But it was not only to the General that he made application, but to 
others also of the best quality, who were friends to the interest in which he 
was then engaged ; as appears by a Letter from the Earls of Crawford and 
Lawderdale, and the Lord Sinclair, in answer to one from the above-men 
tioned Brethren, Dated 20th March, in which they represent Mr. Sharp a 
faithful, diligent, and useful person. 

All things ripening for the wonderful Piestoration, General Monk sent Sent to the 
Mr. Sharp over to Holland, about the beginning of May, 1GGO, to give an 2.* 
account to the King of his Excellency s behaviour and proceedings, from the 
beginning in Scotland to the progress he had made at the time of the Par 
liament s owning his Majesty s Title, &c. He having arrived at the Court 
of Breda, had several Conferences with the King, as is evident by his own 
Letter to Mr. Robert Douglas, 20th May, 1GGO. And tho his Commission 
at first was but from a small number, and to General Monk only, yet he 
took the advantage of the time, and address d his Majesty in name of the 
body of the Ministry of the Church of Scotland, which had persever d in her 
integrity and loyalty in all Revolutions. This was seemingly very kindly 
accepted by his Majesty; who returning to England, Mr. Sharp came along, 
and there left no stone unturned in the faithful discharge of his trust ; and 
by a constant Correspondence with Mr. Robert Douglas, gave him an account 
of all the great emergencies and resolutions of the Court, with all the steps 
of his own conduct. The result of which was at length (but with much 
importunity, difficulty, and recommendation) a Letter from the King, 10th 
August, which I have taken from the Original, directed thus, "To our trusty 
and well beloved Mr. Robert Douglas, Minister of the Gospel in our City of 
Edinburgh, to be communicated to the Presbytery of Edinburgh," and is as 
follows : 

CHARLES R, Trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. By the Letter Letter from 
you sent to us with the Bearer, Mr. James Sharp, and by the account he gave tlie 
of the state of our Church there, we have received full information of your 
sense of our sufferings, and of your constant affection and loyalty to our 
person and authority. And therefore we will detain him here no longer (of 

VOL. II. B 



34 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

whose good service we are very sensible), nor will we delay to let you know 
by him our gracious acceptance of your Address, and how we are satisfied 
with your carriages, and with the generality of the Ministers of Scotland, in 
this time of tryal, whilst some under specious pretences swcrv d from that 
duty and allegiance they ow d to us. And because such, who by the coun 
tenance of usurpers have disturbed the peace of that our Church, may also 
labour to create jealousies in the minds of well meaning people, we have 
thought lit by this to assure you. that, by the grace of Clod, we resolve to 
discountenance prophanity and all contemners and opposers of the Ordin 
ances of the Gospel. We do also resolve to protect and preserve the Govern 
ment of the Church of Scotland, as it is settled by Law, without violation ; 
and to countenance in the due exercise of their functions all such Ministers 
Avho shall behave themselves dutifully and peaceably, as becomes men of 
their calling. We will also take care that the Authority and Acts of the 
General Assembly at St. Andrews and Dundee, the year 1051, be own d and 
stand iu force until we shall call another General Assembly, which we pur 
pose to do as soon as our affairs will permit ; and we do intend to send for 
Mr. Robert Douglas and some other Ministers, that we may speak with them 
in what may further concern the affairs of that Church. And as we are 
very well satisfied with your resolution not to meddle without your sphere, 
so we do expect that Church Judicatorics in Scotland and Ministers there 
will keep within the compass of their station, meddling only with matters 
Ecclesiastick, and promoting our authority and interest with our subjects 
against all opposers ; and that they will take special notice of all such who, 
by Preaching and Private Conventicles, or any other way, transgress the 
limits of their calling, by endeavouring to corrupt the people, or sow seeds 
of disaffection to us or our Government. This you shall make known to the 
several Presbyteries within that our Kingdom. And as we do give assurance 
of our favour and encouragement to you, and to all honest deserving Minis 
ters there, so we earnestly recommend it to you all, that you be earnest in 
your Prayers, publick and private, to Almighty God, who is our Rock and 
our Deliverer, botli for us and for our Government, that we may have fresh 
and constant supplies of His grace, and the right improvement of all His 
mercies and deliverances, to the honour of His great name, and the peace, 
safety, and benefit of all our Kingdoms. And so we bid you heartily fare 
well. Given at our Court at Whitehall the 10th of August, 1000, and of 
our Reign the twelfth year. 

By his Majesty s command. 

LAUDERDALE. 

And of the above Date also, Mr. Calamy, Mr. Ashe, and Mr. Manton 
wrote another Letter upon the affair in hand, directed thus : "To our rever 
end and highly esteem d Brethren Mr. David Dickson, Mr. Robert Douglas, 
Mr. James Hamilton, Mr. John Smith, and Mr. George Hutcheson, these 
present, Edinburgh ;" in which they shew the great joy and satisfaction they 
had in the security of the established Government of the Church of Scotland, 
and of their own bad circumstances iu England, and of their willingness to 
submit to a Moderate and Synodical Episcopacy, providing they were not 
tied up to higher terms and conditions. 

Mr. Sharp being now to leave London, the King at his parting express d 



JAMES SHARP. 35 

such an opinion of his abilities, that he gave him a mark of his Royal favour, The King Ten- 
ami made him his Chaplain for Scotland, with a Pension of 200 Lib. Sterling sions shar i - 
per annum, which he cnjoy d to the time of his execrable Murder. 

Having made a quick journey to Edinburgh, he delivered up his Com 
mission (the ends of which he had faithfully pursued), and the full Answer 
to it, to his Constituents, and after this had never another from the party, 
or was imploy d by them; which shews that it is a gross calumny, and load 
ing his memory unjustly, to affirm that he betray d them, seeing he was 
under no trust. 

During his absence, he was chosen Professor of Divinity in St. Mary s Professor of 
College in St. Andrews. "Whether he ever cxercis d that Office, I am not 
certain ; if he did, it must have been for a short time ; for on the first day 
of January following, anno 1001, the Parliament sat down at Edinburgh, 
the Earl of Middleton being his Majesty s High Commissioner ; and on 
February an Act was made for the Visitation of the College of Aberdeen. 
The Management of its Revenue was to be inquir d into from 1038, and its 
present state represented. Commissioners were appointed for that effect, 
one of whom was Mr. Sharp, who had the honour to act in conjunction with 
the greatest and best of the Nation. 

In this Parliament, if the causes of the late troubles were not fully 
inquired into, yet their extravagant effects were disproved, and Laws and 
Acts made for preventing the like attempts and dismal calamities ; and at 
one stroak, an Act past on the 28th March, rescinding and annulling the 
pretended Parliaments in the years 10 iO and 10 11, &c., by which the ancient 
prerogative of the Crown was restored, and sovereignty freed from the inva 
sions of late times ; so that by this the Government of the State, and in 
effect that of the Church, was put in the same legal condition that they were 
in before the troubles began. 

This the Parliament thought their duty, and their measures were most 
agreeable to the body of the better sort of the Nation. Nay, the Brethren 
themselves became so sensible of their miscarriages, that of three parts, two 
of them had a tendency to Episcopacy, and many took their own ways to 
discover and own it, and some of these after a more open manner, particu 
larly the Synod of Aberdeen, whose Address, I presume, may be properly 
enough inserted in this place. 

To his Grace, his Majesty s High Commissioner, and the Hi;/h Court of 

Parliament. 

The humble Address of the Synod of Aberdeen. 

The various dispensations wherewith the righteous and wise Lord of Address of the 
Heaven and Earth hath been exercising us these many years bygone, cries Synod of 
aloud to all the subjects in Scotland who have not laid aside all sense of sin Aberdeen - 
and duty, to reflect seriously upon the publick transactions of this Church 
and Nation, especially upon the deportment thereof to the King and the 



36 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

Royal Authority. And while the Lord is pleased to fix such thoughts upon 
our spirits, wo cannot, unless we would blindfold our own consciences, stop 
the mouth thereof, hide our sin in our bosom with Adam, and keep fast 
deceit under our tongue, but give glory to God in an humble and ingenuous 
confession, as of the national guiltiness of Scotland, so of our own iniquity, 
in so far as we have been any way accessory to these sinful and rebellious 
affronts and wrongs which have been put upon Royal Authority, whether 
during the Reign of our late most gracious Soveraign, that blessed Martyr, 
Charles I., or since his horrid Murder, to our gracious King, who now, in 
the Lord s most wonderful and gracious Providence, Reigns over us. And 
particularly we acknowledge these sad and grievous sins to be lying on the 
land, and upon us, according to the several degrees and measures of our 
accession, Avhcthcr driven thereto by force and violence of a prevailing party, 
through humane weakness in that hour of temptation, or by sinful silence, 
and want of courage to have pleaded against such courses, viz., the rising 
in arms against the King, the preaching up the lawfulness of defensive arms 
by subjects against the Supreme Magistrate, which is contrary to Scripture, 
to all sound Antiquity, to the constant practice of the ancient Primitive 
Church, to the judgement of all sound Orthodox Divines, contrary to oiir 
National Confession of Faith and to the Oath of Allegiance : Popular Refor 
mation without, much more against, the King s special consent and author 
ity : The assisting the King s enemies byjoyning our Forces with them, 
while as they were in Rebellion against their Soveraigu Lord and Master : 
The preaching down the King s cause and interest, and preaching up the 
interest of his enemies: The giving out a Paper called " A Seasonable 
Warning for delivering up the King at Newcastle ;" and that without any 
assurances, either by writ or pledges, for his Majesty s security, safety, 
honour, and freedom ; altho there was no sufficient hostage in that land to 
have been given for his sacred person : The preaching against the intended 
relief of his Majesty, of precious memory, when he was a suffering prisoner 
in the Isle of Wight, anno 10-18, where he was detained till at last these 
usurpers brought him to that fatal block : The putting unjust limitations 
and restrictions upon our gracious King, Avho now Reigns over us by God s 
blessing (in despight of all open and vailed enemies, who of late have put on 
the Robe of Loyalty), before he was admitted to the exercise of his Royal 
power : The indignities which were put upon his sacred Majesty by a factious 
and treacherous party, in that infamous and treasonable remonstrance : 
The opposing of the publick Resolutions, both of King, Church, and State, 
by that party, for the just and necessary defence of King, Religion, Honour, 
and all which was dear to men or Christians, the land being invaded, and 
one half thereof being possess d by an Army of Sectaries, who by force and 
fraud had inslaved their own native Country, that ancient and famous King 
dom of England. And altho these sins of the remonstrance, opposing of, 
and protesting against the public Resolutions, be not a national guiltiness, 
both the one and the other being testified against and condemned by the 
generality of the State, Church, and Country; yet these being the guiltiness 
of a party in the Nation, we could not admit them, as matters of just pro 
vocation against God Almighty : The excluding of the King s interest out of 
the state of the quarrel betwixt his Majesty s own Army and that usurper 
and tyrant Oliver Cromwel, by that infamous Act of the West Kirk : The 
forcing of the King s Majesty, being then in their power, rather as a noble 



JAMES SHARP. 37 

prisoner than a, free King, sore against his Royal will, to Subscribe Declara 
tions against himself and his Royal Family : The little sympathy with his 
Majesty in his sufferings abroad : The sinful neglect of duty, for fear of men, 
in not Praying for him in publick ; sinful silence in not preaching absolutely 
against the usurpers ; too much at least passive complyancc with them, 
sitting down like Issachar under the burden, and being like Ephraim, a silly 
dove without a heart. For these, and sins of the like nature, done against 
the Royal Authority, God in His justice and wisdom brought and kept us 
under a sad captivity and bondage. And have not all the land, and we, 
according unto the measure of our accession, more nor reason to confess 
guiltiness before God, men, and angels, and to intreat earnestly for mercy, 
therefore, at the Throne of Grace ? And now, since it hath pleased the 
Eternal God, by Whom Kings Reign, to bring back our native King, and to 
settle him upon his Royal Ancestors Throne, for which we shall desire to 
bless the Lord while we live ; we conceive that, upon this signal mercy, 
God calls us to engage, likeas hereby we do in the strength of God engage, 
ourselves never to be accessory to any disloyal principle or practice, but 
declare our utter abhorrence thereof, and of every thing that may have any 
tendency that way; obliging not only ourselves to subjection, obedience, and 
submission to the Royal Authority and Commands, but also to Preach loy 
alty, subjection, obedience, and submission, and to press the same from the 
Word of God, and, according thereto, upon all his Majesty s subjects under 
our Ministry ; and that it is sinful and ungodly for subjects to resist the 
King s Authority; but that in case of dissatisfaction in any command by his 
Majesty, it is their duty to suffer. And because it hath pleased the King s 
Majesty and his High Court of Parliament, for the over-reaching of many 
Ministers in Scotland, their outstretching of Prcsbyterial Government, by 
making it run in an excentick line, in naedling with Civil concernments, and 
topping with the Supreme Authority, and upon other grave considerations, 
known themselves, which becomes us not to search into ; to take away and 
rescind the Laws and Acts of Parliament whereby the Government of this 
Church had any Civil Authority : that it would please the King s Commis 
sioner s Grace and the High Court of Parliament to joyn with iis in this our 
earnest Petition, and to transmit the same to his sacred Majesty, that he 
will allow us to be still under his Majesty s protection, and that he may be 
pleased in his wisdom and goodness to settle the Government of this rent 
Church according to the Word of God, the practice of the ancient Primitive 
Church, in such a way as may be most consistent with Royal Authority, 
may conduce most for godliness, for i;nity, peace, and order; for a learned, 
godly, peaceable, and loyal Ministry, and most apt to preserve the peace of 
the three Nations. For doing whereof, we shall be earnest to supplicate 
God in his Majesty s behalf, for wisdom, counsel, and direction. We have 
conceived this emission to be a duty lying upon us, in reference to God, to 
the King, to this Church and Land, and for the exoneration of our own 
consciences before the world. And altho this has been our principal motive, 
yet it hath been no small encouragement to this Synod, that we have been 
put in remembrance by that noble and worthy Lord, the Earl Marshal, in 
his Letter to the Assembly, to this effect ; and for which the Synod renders 
his Lordship hearty thanks, considering that he, having so great influence 
in this corner of the land, may be very instrumental for advancing Religion, 
justice, and loyalty here. And tin s Paper we have ordained to be Registred 



33 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

in our Synod Books, cl fntnrani rcl nioiioi-lnni. And in testimony of our 
unanimity licrcin, \vc have all Subscribed it Avith our Lands, at the King s 
College at Aberdeen, the 18th of April, 1GG1 years. 

Mr. Ar.r.x. Ross, Minister of Monimitsk, and Moderator. 

Mr. JOHN PATERSOX, Minister at Aberdeen. 

Mr. JOHN MEINZIES, Professor of Divinity, and Minister at Aberdeen. 

Mr. GEORGE MEI.DRUM. Minister at Aberdeen. 

Mr. WILLIAM DOLT; LAS, Professor of Divinity in tbc King s College of old 

Aberdeen. 

Mr. ANDREW STRACHAN. Minister at Kintore. 
Mr. WILLIAM CUEYNE, Minister at Dyce. 
Mr. GEORGE MKI.YIL, Minister at Upper Macber. 
Mr. WILLIAM CHALMERS, Minister at Skeen. 
Mr. DAVID Lvr.r., Min. at Banchorie-Devnie. 
Mr. DAVID LINDSAY, Minister at Drnmmaag. 
Mr. ALKX. GAIUOCII, Minister at Peter-Coulter. 
Mr. JOHN SETOX, Minister at Fovrran. 
Mr. JOHN PATERSOX, Minister at Ellon. 
Mr. GII.BKUT ANDERSON, Minister at Crnden. 
Mr. "WILLIAM MUSHATT. Minister at Slaines. 
Mr. WILLIAM SETOX, Minister at Logie-Buchan. 
Mr. ROBERT Ooir.viK, Minister at Metblick. 
Mr. WILLIAM KEITH, Minister at Udny. 
Mr. JOHN Ross, Minister at Birss. 
Mr. GEORGE BURNET, Minister at Kincardin. 

Mr. WILLIAM SETON, Minister at Lumphanan. 

Mr. THOMAS Koss, Minister at Aboync. 

Mr. LODOVTCK DUNLOP, Minister at Tarlan. 

Mr. ARTHUR Ptoss, Minister at Kinarnie. 

Mr. ANDREW SKEEN, Minister at Cluny. 

Mr. JAMES FERGUSON, Minister at Glenmnik. 

Mr. ROBERT FORBES, Minister at Coldstone. 

Mr. WILLIA^r DOUGLAS, Minister at Mid-Marr. 

Mr. ADAM BARCLAY, Minister at To\vic. 

Mr. WILLIAM DUNCAN, Minister at Kildrimmie. 

Mr. JAMES GORDON, Minister at Touch. 

Mr. WILLIAM GLASS, Minister at Cnshnie. 

Mr. GEORGE GORDON, Minister at Clatt. 

Mr. THOMAS THORES, Minister at Daviot. 

Mr. WILLIAM FORBES, Minister at Momvheeter. 

Mr. JOHN GELLIE, Minister at Kinkell. 

Mr. ALEXANDER MIDDLETON, Minister at Rain. 

Mr. JAMES WILLOCKS, Minister at Keinnay. 

Mr. GEORGE MILNE, Minister at Premnay, and Clerk to the Assemblv 

Mr. ARTHUR ORE, Minister at Colsalmond. 

Mr. WILLIAM BURNE.T, Minister at Inch. 

Mr. JOHN STRANG, Minister at Oyne. 

Mr. WILLIAM CHALMERS, Minister at Boyndie. 

Mr. JAMES CHALMERS, Minister at Cnllan. 

Mr. WILLIAM STEVENSON, Minister at Fordyce. 

Mr. JOHN WATSON, Minister at Ordewhill. 

Mr. ANDREW SIMSON, Minister at Deskford. 

Mr. WILLIAM JAFFRAY, Minister at King Edward. 

Mr. ALEXANDER GARDEN, Minister at For<me. 

Mr. WILLIAM GRAY, Minister at Anchterless. 

Mr. GEORGE MORE, Minister at Rathen. 

Mr. JOHN ROBERTSON, Minister at Saint Fergus. 



JAMES SHAEP. 39 

April 21th, the Parliament wrote a most dutiful Letter to the King ; 
and the Earl of Glcncairn, Chancellor, and the Earl of Eothcs, President of 
the Privy Council, were sent up with it to give a full account of the proceed 
ings and state of affairs in Scotland. Ahout which time Mr. Eobert Douglas 
and Mr. Sharp were called to Court ; but the former excused himself by * 

reason of age and present indisposition, and the latter went in company with 
these noble Lords. 

The King having by singular acts of goodness restored Scotland to her 
rights and laws, consulted only Scots men on Scottish affairs ; and not only 
motioned, but was positive, that as the Government of the State was Mon 
archy, so that of the Church should be Prelacy ; and in a Council held at 
WMtehal, Nominated Mr. Sharp Archbishop of St. Andrews. This was 
agreed to by all present there, except the Earl of Lauderdale, who openly 
entred his dissent ; and coming out. met Mr. Sharp walking with the Earl 
of Stirling, to whom, with an austere voice and threatniug gesture, he 
express d these words: "Mr. Sharp, Bishops you are to have in Scotland; 
you are to be Archbishop of St. Andrews ; but who ever shall be the man, 
by God, I will smite him and his Order below the fifth rib." And his Lord 
ship was indeed as good as his word in many subsequent instances. 

Toward the latter end of August, Mr. Sharp came to Edinburgh, and 
had instructions and offers from the King to some of the most loyal and 
leading of the Preachers, particularly Mr. Eobcrt Douglas ; who indeed 
declined to comply with Episcopacy, but with no less modesty than charity 
said to Mr. Sharp, " Brother, I render his Majesty a thousand thanks ; but Douglas Reply 
I have dipt so far in Oaths, and the concerns of the late troubles, and par- Episcopate. 
ticularly in my Sermon before the King at his Coronation ; and now being 
turn d aged and infirm, I want strength to sustain the weight of the Office, 
and the difficulties I would be obliged to encounter. But if you can comply, 
who are young, and ly not under the same engagements, I neither can nor 
will blame you." And really this wise man s temper was so moderate and 
Christian, that he was a constant hearer of the Episcopall Ministers, and 
received the Sacrament from their hands, till an Indulgence ensued, which 
he thought absolved him from that necessity. 

Mr. Sharp was again call d to Court, as also were Mr. Fairfowl, Mr. Four Sees 
Hamilton, and Mr. Leighton, who were Nominated by the King to the Sees 
of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Galloway, and Dumblain; two of whom, accord 
ing to my best information, for want of Episcopal Orders, were first re- 
ordained Deacons and Priests, and then all the four were together Conse 
crated at Westminster. But since I wrote this, I find both Mr. Collier and 
Mr. E chard, and some other Writers who have copied from them, expressly 
say, that they were all four then Ordained, as wanting lawful Ordination. 
What authority these gentlemen have for so writing, I know not. It is true, 
indeed, that Dr. Sharp and Mr. Leighton had no Ordination till then ; but 
for the other two, tis more than probable that they were in Holy Orders 



40 



AECHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 



The other 
Eight Sees 
filled. 



Episcopacy 
restored. 



T?p. Burnet s 
compliments. 



before the year 1G37, and consequently Ordained by a Bishop. But the 
Controversy is of no great consequence, and only depends on this question 
in fact, Whether these were before Ordained or not ? If they were, then 
certainly only the other two were at that time put in Orders ; if not, then it 
was necessary they should all four be re-ordained. 

But these were not the only men of the Presbyterian Brethren who 
were then reconcil d to the Mitre, for no less than six others of them were 
prcferr d to Episcopal Sees, viz., Mr. Haliburton to Dunkcld, Mr. M-Kcnzie 
to Murray, Mr. Strachan to Brechin, Mr. Patcrson to Pioss, Mr. Fletcher to 
Argyle, and Mr. Wallace to the Isles ; so that ten of them were advanced to 
Prelatical dignities, tho by this I do not mean that all these had Presbyterian 
Ordination. About this time, also, the Sees of Edinburgh and Aberdeen 
were iilled with Dr. Wisehart and Mr. Mitchel, who had been Confessors for 
Episcopacy from the year 1G38 ; and Mr. Forbes, the noble Earl of Teviot s 
Chaplain at Dunkirk, was advanced Bishop of Caithness ; and old Dr. Syd- 
scrf (who of all his Order only lived to see it restored) was Translated from 
Gallow T ay to Orkney, and his Successor in his former See was Bishop Ham 
ilton, as we have already told. 

In the [year] 1GG2, the Ancient Government of the Church being fully 
restored, and these mentioned Bishops being wise and leading men, their 
example and influence drew the far greater and better part of their old 
Brethren into their interest ; so that Episcopal Government was soon 
strengthn d by their care, and carefully submitted to by the body of the 
people. The learned Dr. Burnet (now Bishop of Sarum), in his Preface to 
the Life of Bishop Bedel, informs us what kind of men the Bishops of Scot 
land about this time were. " I shall not (says he) add much of the Bishops 
that have been in that Church since the last re-establishing of the Order, 
but that I have observed among the few of them to whom I have the honour 
to be known particularly, as great and as exemplary things as ever I met 
with in all Ecclesiastical History : not only the practice of the strictest of 
all the ancient Canons, but a pitch of vertue and piety beyond what can fall 
under common imitation, or be made the measure of even the most angelical 
rank of men ; and saw things in them that would look liker fair ideas than 
what men cloathed with flesh and blood could grow up to. But of this will 
I say no more, since those that are concerned are yet alive, and their char 
acter is too singular not to make them to be as easily known, if I enlarged 
upon it, as if I named them." 

And no doubt this great man understood very well what he wrote, and 
knew to be a truth, for they studied harmony and love among themselves, 
and omitted no means of being serviceable to the Church in their respective 
Dioceses. 

Archbishop Sharp s methods were Christian and prudent, and attended 
with very great success. He entertain d his Clergy with much brotherly 
love and respect, and Avas a great judge and encourager of learning, wisdom, 



JAMES SHARP. 41 

and piety, and laboured to have all the Churches within his jurisdiction 
planted with such, particularly these in the Shire of Fife ; and brought that 
Country to such a Conformity, that from being Presbyterian and Covenant 
ing Fife, it became quite otherwise affected and principled, and so continues 
to this time; which shews the blessing and lasting strength of good conduct. 

The hatred the Presbyterians bore to the Order of Bishops, made them Hatred of the 
even enemies to their persons. The more rigid and violent of the gang p^ty. 
traduc d and malign d the whole, particularly Archbishop Sharp, with the 
falsest, most improbable, and bitter invectives and lybels that could be 
invented by restless, malicious, and calumniating spirits. And no small 
part of the quarrel was because many of them, they thought, had been once 
in their cause, but had separated from them, and were joj-n d to what they 
believed was more consonant to the Primitive Institution of Ecclesiastical 
Communion and ends of society. 

Some of the Furiosos of the party were incensed to what is next to rage 
and madness against Archbishop Sharp ; nay, their revenge and malice 
brought them the length of enthusiasm, and pretences of Prophecy that his 
Death would be violent ; which puts me in mind of an ingenious reflexion 
of the witty Author of the " Turkish Spy," who ( rul. 8, lib. 3, lei. 10), writing ^ftP** 
of his barbarous Murder, and the unparallel d rage of his bloody and sacri 
legious enemies, adds, " That it was easy to presage that he should die a 
violent Death, which they were resolv d to execute themselves." 

The Archbishop and his Brethren did bear these unchristian dealings 
with a patience which became their holy profession ; and considering their 
cause, and the seditious party who were their enemies, they esteem d their 
afflictions light, and were no way discouraged for doing that which they were 
perswaded was their duty, expedient, lawful, and necessary, yet always 
keeping themselves within the bounds of moderation and charity. For 
although no Acts could be better contriv d than these were which established 
Episcopacy and laid limitations on Presbyterian Preachers, yet these Laws 
were so far from being extended or rigidly executed, that scarce was there 
any Diocese where Presbytery had any tolerable share of the affections of 
the people, in which there were not some of these in the exercise of their Preachers not 
Ministry, by the connivance and favour of their respective Bishops ; and 
particularly in the Shire of Fife, there were severals of them allowed to 
enjoy their Office and Benefice during their whole lives, without being 
molested by the Archbishop. And even when one of these, who was his old 
acquaintance, had indecently from the Pulpit railed against the whole Order, 
and against himself in particular, all the use he made of it was, that he said 
to a noble Lord who was his ordinary hearer, " My Lord, tell my old friend, 
your Minister, to live easy with me, as I do with him ; otherwise, he will be 
the loser, and have himself to blame." But there were some whom he never 
thought it a kindness done to moderation to favour, particularly Mr. Gillespie, 
a pragmatick and factious man ; for when the Lord Sinclair desired of the 

VOL. II. F 



42 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

Archbishop to have him settled Preacher at Dysert, he answcr d his request, 
" My good Lord Sinclair, Mr. Gillespie hath Lorded it over his Brethren 
more than all the Bishops that I know ever did: one Metropolitan is enough 
for Scotland, and surely two for the Province of Fife would be too many." 
Bishop I believe it was much about this lime that Mr. Ilonyman, Archdean of 

Honcymau. g t Andrews, Published " The Seasonable Case," Ac., making the terms of 
Communion so very easy with respect to Episcopacy, that Mr. Calamy (one 
of the best and greatest Presbyterians at the time) said, when he read it, 
"What would our Brethren in Scotland bo at, what would they have? 
Would to (rod we had these offers." 

Covenant and But those who adher d rigidly to the Covenant, as affairs then stood, 

were no less enemies to the State than to the Church, and thought that the 
former s protecting the latter dissolv d their allegiance and obedience to 
authority ; so that Acts of Parliament were contravcen d, illegal Meetings 
and Conventicles held and resorted to, the Covenant prcach d up and 
renew d, barbarous indignities offered to the persons of Ministers and others, 
and the Government baftled and insulted. These growing evils called for a 
cure, and the methods in order to it were so far from being effectual, that 
the discontented party became thereby more violent and outragious ; for now 
they broke forth into open Piebellion, took up arms in great numbers, gave 
a defiance to the Government, renewed their Covenant afresh, and going on 
furiously in their blind career, us d all hostilities and cruelties against the 
King s good subjects, as it had been in a lawful war. But a check was 
speedily given to their unaccountable extravagancies, for they were cn- 
countred by the King s Forces and routed at Pcntland Hills, in anno IGOO. 
Judges blamed Thu the courses then taken, all circumstances being considered, were 
the e La\v lltmS suc ^ as no Society or Government could avoid that had any regard to its 
own security and preservation, yet such was the malice and unreasonable 
ness of the party, that all the measures and proceedings of the State (how 
necessary soever) were branded with the hardest names that a misled zeal 
and violent principles could vomit up; and the Bishops were loaded with the 
reproach of all, as if the Oflices of State, Council Board, and Supreme Courts 
of Justice had been only filled with them ; or as if they, had their inclina 
tions so disposed them, could have influenced so many wise and learned 
Judges. Thu we must not dissemble that two great men, who had the chief 
management, did overact in some things, on purpose to bring an odium 
upon the Clergy, which gave great encouragement to their enemies. 

The Archbishop of St. Andrews was most particularly aimed at, tliO his 
share was no more than that of others of the Privy Council, and very fre 
quently less, as appeared plainly from his conduct in many cases and dyets, 
as his attendance at the Council only on necessary occasions, his declining 
to move questions to several criminals, his patience under their open re 
proaches and indecencies, and his absenting himself in time of torture, &c. 
But neither his innocence nor character could screen him from the inhumane 



JAMES SHARP. -13 

design of sons of Belial, who thought if they could once destroy him, his 
Order would also follow. The first attempt to put this hellish project in 
execution was made llth of July, 1008, being Saturday; for as he came 
down in the evening from his brother s lodgings, which were over against 
the Blackfrier Wynd, and being placed in his coach, was distributing charity 
to the poor, and blessing them, and receiving their returns, he, with Dr. 
Horn-man, Bishop of Orkney (who was entering the coach) were assaulted by 

,,., TIT -i n L Mitchel shoots 

a wicked ruffian (Mr. James Mitchel by name, whose son and heir is present afc sharp all(1 
Preacher at Dunoter), who shot at them with a pistol eharg d with three Honeyman. 
balls, which broke the Bishop of Orkney s left arm a little above the wrest. 
In the confusion occasional by so unexpected an event, the bloody assassinc 
made his escape ; but being afterwards apprehended, he own d the fact, and 
maintain d such principles as arc destructive to society and hatefull to all 
sober men, for which, in or about the year 1070, he suffered the punishment 
due to such execrable crimes. 

To quiet the minds, if possible, of these restless people, the King, by indulgence to 
his Letter Dated at Whitehall, 7th of June, 100 J, granted an Indulgence the Preachers - 
(upon easy conditions as ever were), which many of the best and moderate 
of the Presbyterian Preachers did embrace, and were actually planted in 
Churches. Tho this was a dispensing with the Laws that had settled Epis 
copacy, and weakned its constitution and unity, yet it evidently shews that 
the Government could not be charged with anything that descrv d the name 
of severity or persecution ; which Avas the senseless cant and language of an 
incorrigible party, who, notwithstanding this lenity, still pursued their 
rebellious courses, renounced their allegiance, &c. Nay, they were so 
enrag d against the sober part of themselves who accepted the lloyal 
favour, that they branded the Indulged Brethren with as ill names as they 
did the Orthodox Clergy, calling them the King s Curates, the Council s 
Curates, &c. 

It may be reasonably enough supposed, that the Indulgence was not 
very agreeable to the Establish d Church, and that these Statesmen who 
had advis d the King to grant it might .some time or other be call d to an 
account for that and their other proceedings. Bat the Duke of Lauderdalc 
(then Earl, who had the greatest hand in it) coming down his Majestie s 
High Commissioner to the Parliament that sat anno 1000, overawed the 
house, and acted after a most arbitrary manner ; and in November 10th, 
caused an Act be brought in, asserting his Majestie s Supremacy over all 
causes and persons Ecclesiastical, which he got past, but not without much 
struggle. By this Act the intrinsick power and natural constitution of a 
Christian Church was too nearly struck at, and left to the mercy of the 
Regal. The Bishops therefore made all the opposition they could against 
it, and particularly Archbishop Sharp, who, arguing zealously upon the 
point, was interrupted and answered by his Grace from the Throne, after 
his Magisterial way of speaking, "That my Lord St. Andrews would not 



44 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

allow the King s Supremacy hi the terms of the Act, because he suppos d he 
design d that for himself." 

Act of Kind s Various are the accounts who gave first rise to this Act, but . 

Supremacy? a<rreec i to by many that it was contriv d by Mr. Robert Douglas, and several 
of his Brethren, in concert with some of the chief Ministry, in order to secure 
and justify the Indulgence, and make it as good as legal. Besides, some of 
the Statesmen had this in their view, that their actions in this and other 
affairs would be less censured while two parties were contending; and that, 
by encouraging them to be jealous of, and bandying them against one 
another, they might serve their own turns of either or both. Tho it be 
almost demonstratively certain that the principal design of this Act was to 
do a kindness to the Presbyterian party, and to justify all the tolerations or 
favours these of their faction could procure from his Majesty in their behalf, 
and consequently, that it was at first devised by themselves, yet so unrea 
sonable are some men, that there is not one topick of slander and reproach 
insisted so much upon by these snmc men against the then Bishops and 
Clergy and their Successors, as this, namely, that by this Act they tamely 
gaveup all their priviledges and rights, unchurch d themselves, and what 
not. Tho they very well know that the Bishops and Churchmen could pro 
pose no advantage to themselves by it, unless it were to have their rivals 
and irrcconcileable enemies cncourag d and their interests promoted, to the 
eminent danger or mine of their own, to which this did not a little contri 
bute. And therefore, thu there were no Documents of it yet extant, nor 
living Witnesses to inform us, yet we may rationally infer, that the regular 
Clergy, if they were in their right wits, could not fail to oppose it. And so 
they did, as much as they were able, and as much as their calumniators 
could have done, had they been in their place ; who in their turns have more 
than once truckl d under the State, and been made tools to designing Cour 
tiers, and have as little to boast of their iiitrinsick power as other people. 
But it is a Jesuitical fetch, a serpentine wisdom divested of the innocence of 
the dove, to dun the world with reproaching the Episcopal Clergy for suffer 
ing that which they could not help, and of which they themselves were the 
principal contrivers, and who only reap d benefit by it. 

The answer to this perhaps will be (for I do not sec what other they 
can make), that the Bishops and other Churchmen, rather than suffer such 
an Act to pass, should have Dimitted their Dignities and Charges (as, by the 
by, the pious Dr. Burnet, Archbishop of Glasgow, actually did), that is, they 
should have modestly given place to their inveterate enemies, and not only 
have abandon d their Offices and Livings, but brought on themselves anew 
all the miseries and calamities they had suffered in the glorious dayes of the 
Covenant. 

Feud between But to return to our Archbishop : It was much about this time that a 

Sharp and misunderstanding began, or rather was wideii d, betwixt him and the Duke 

of Lauderdale, who now took a contrary course to obtain the same end, and 



JAMES SHARP. 45 

to make good what ho had thrcatu d upon the Restoration of Episcopacy. 
For lie with his creatures and followers, and a set of men of his principles, 
screw d up the Laws against Dissenters to a higher pitch than before, hut 
with a far greater design to load the Church with the scandal of severity, 
than to rectify the disorders of the times and the iinaccountahle methods of 
a giddy headed people. Thus the Ecclesiastical Establishment had to grapple 
not only with the sober as well as wild Presbyterians, and Missionaries from 
Rome, and other despicable fellows in their shapes, but also with bosom 
enemies, and some who ow d most to the Royal bounty, and their underlings. 

While these confusions continu d and were fomented in Scotland, the 
Church and Parliament of England became mightily inccns d against the 
Duke of Lauderdalc, who, finding himself in danger, laid aside his ordinary 
haughtiness, and low d his sails, and in anno 107-i reconcil d himself to 
Archbishop Sharp, who was then at London ; by whose means not only 
Archbishop Burnet returned to his Sec, but the Duke was readmitted to the 
favour of old Dr. Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterburry, he giving all the 
signs of a sincere and humble penitent, after which he never gave ground to 
be suspected by the Clergy. 

Archbishop Sharp having done all the service he could for the Church, 
took leave of the King and the Court ; and this was the last time he had the 
honour to kiss his Majestie s hands ; and returning to Scotland in August, 
1675, he studied to bring affairs to unity and accommodation, and faithfully 
discharged the functions of his sacred Office. 

Having proceeded thus far, before I come to the melancholy scene and 
barbarous Murder of this excellent person, it will not be improper to take a 
short view of the temper of these people who were the causes and instru 
ments of it. 

Such was the state of affairs in Scotland from the Restoration, that Sad state of 
never any Nation or People had a more merciful and mild King, who loved Setlltlon - 
nothing more than the ease and happiness of all mankind, but more parti 
cularly of his own subjects. But 011 the contrary, let us look over all His 
tory, yea Romance and Fable too, there is not to be found such a mutinous 
and factious Race, and addicted to such tumultuary and seditious practices 
against all Society and Government, as some of the subjects were during 
that Reign. All the Acts of grace, favour, and indulgence had no effect on 
them, or could make them capable of the protection of Laws, such poisonable 
principles and practices were rooted in them. 

Now and then Law took place against some of the most notorious 
offenders among them, but where one suffered a hundred were winked at. 
But this, instead of curbing and restraining, heightned and encreas d the 
malice and rage of the rest, particularly from 1G75 to 1G79, insomuch, that 
the Furiosos of the party laid aside all respect to the Laws of God, Nature, No L aw owne d 
and of these of the land; so that murdering of common souldiers, barbarous b y the Cove- 
invasions upon the persons and families of the Ministers of God, and affront- 



16 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

ing everything that was in the least subservient to Authority, were familiar 
to them, and become their common practice. 

It was only want of opportunity and power that preserved the sacred 
persons of the Bishops, nay, and of tlie King himself too (whom they had 
Excommunicated, and design d the Devil s Vicegerent), from being assas 
sinated by their bloody hands. Of all these Fathers of the Church, their 
prejudice and rage was mainly levell d against Archbishop Sharp. They 
knew him to be an Atlas for his Order, and no less useful in the State. 
They thought if they could once destroy him, they would shake the very 
fabrick and unity of the Government itself. These fears and tlireatnings 
little troubled that great and good man, and the rest of his Order, while 
they were conscious to themselves they were acting nothing without their 
sphere ; and if these tlireatnings had any effects upon them, it was to 
strengthen and confirm them in the practice of their Christian vertttes and 
habits, which prepared them for all events. 

The Paper Towards the cue! of April, 1670, a Paper was dropt in the Burgh of 

droptinCupar. (j ow pci , full of opprobrious language, and insinuations of a design upon 
Archbishop Sharp s person, who then was at Edinburgh, and had resolved 
to go to London to give a fair representation to his Majesty of the state of 
affairs, and what was to be done for remedying these evils. It is believ d, 
that if the Archbishop had gone straight to Court, his enemies had fail d in 
their design, and also, that his wise counsels would have prevented much 
blood and ensuing confusions. That more than the wild people in Scotland 
were then framing deep and treasonable designs, I suppose is not to be 
doubted. Nay, in the Court itself, there were then an Absalom and Achito- 
phel too, who were stealing away the hearts of the people ; and they did not 
want many abettors, some of whom perhaps were the King s own servants. 
And twas against those, and other Statesmen too, who winked at the times, 
that Archbishop Sharp was to have made the complaint. But how far this, 
among other things, might have contributed to his fall, I am not to conclude. 
This much is certain, that upon Friday, May 2d, he determined to take 
journey to St. Andrews, with a design to return upon Monday to Edinburgh, 
and thence to begin his journey for Court. On Friday s evening he reach d 
Kennoway, where ho lodg d that night ; in which and next morning he w T as 
observ d to have eaten or drunk very little, but was known to have been 
very fervent, and longer than ordinary in his Devotions ; as if God, out of 
His great mercy, had thereby prepared him for what he was to meet with 
from the worst of men. His Religious behaviour was so much taken notice 
that morning by the pious and learned Dr. Monro (who had come to wait on 
him), that he said he believ d he was Inspir d. So 011 Saturday, May 3d, he 
entred his coach with his daughter Isabel, and went on in his journey. All 
the way he entertain d her with many Religious discourses, particularly of 
the Vanity of Life, the Certainty of Death and Judgement, of the necessity 
of Faith, Good Works, and Repentance, and daily growth in Grace. As he 



JAMES SHARP. 47 

pass d by the Struthers, lie sent his servant with an excuse to the Earl of 

Crawford, that he conhT not wait upon him at that occasion. And as he 

Avas going on, the coachman perceiving some armed men making hard after 

them, who look d not like friends, calls to the postilion to drive on. The 

Archbishop finding the coach run so hard, look t out to see what the matter 

was; and perceiving armed men pursuing him, he turned to his daughter, 

and said, ;> Lord, have mercy upon me, my poor child, for I am gone. In 

the meantime the coachman put faster on, and outrun the most part of these 

ruffians, while at last one of the best mounted of them got before the postilion, 

and, by wounding him in the face, shooting the horse which he led, in the 

back, and cutting him in the hams, turned the coach out of the way, and 

gave time to the rest to come up, who immediately stopt the coach, by 

cutting the harnessing with their swords. But now my blood trembles to 

relate what follows. One wounded him with the shot of a pistol, another 

with a small sword. Thereafter they called to him to come out, upon which The Murder. 

he composedly opcn d the coach door, and stept forth ; and while his daughter 

was crying, and all in tears, he besought them to spare his life, and obtested 

them not to bring innocent blood upon their own heads. But all in vain. 

Then he intreated them, through the bowels and mercies of Christ, that they 

would at least suffer him to die patiently, and have some time to recommend 

his soul unto God. "Which being denied him (but would have been granted 

by the most barbarous of all Heathens), he fell upon his knees; and while 

he was holding up his eyes and hands to ] leaven, and powring out his soul 

before God, and, after the example of his blessed Lord, Praying for his 

murtherers, he was first deeply wounded in the wrests and backs of these 

uplifted hands, which they did beat down, and then by these bloody canibals 

massacred upon the place, having received in his head and other parts of his 

body twenty-two great wounds. 

The inhumane monsters whom the Accounts and Records point out as Murderers 
authors of this unparallel d Murther, were John Balfour, of Kinloch; David namcs - 
Haxton, of Rathillet; George Balfour, in Gilston; James Russcl, in Kettle; 
Robert Dingwal, a tenant s son in Cadaln; Andrew Guillan, webster in 
Balmerinoch; Alexander and Andrew Hendersons, sons to John Henderson 
in Kilbrachmont ; and George Flcoming, son to George Fleeming in Bal- 
boothie. 

"With what amazement and horror the account of this sacrilegious vil- 
lany was received by all good men, may be easily guessed at by those who 
have any remaining sparks of humanity or goodness. Yet the violent of the 
party, and these were no small number, approved and extoll d the deed, and 
justified it by the examples of Moses, Phinehas, and Ehud, as may be seen 
at length in the "Hind let Loose," &c. But the Justice of God and the 
Laws of the Land so overtook that misled people, that they were soon made 
sensible that Archbishop Sharp was not the man they took him to be ; for 
if while he was alive some of them w T cre brought to condign punishment, 



48 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDEEWS. 

which in no sense was to be imputed to him, yet he being now dead, they 
wanted their best friend, as to their sufferings; and the Government did not 
think fit to make half of the ceremony as to their punishments they did 
before, as is clear from the Records of the Justiciary and other authentick 
Registers. 

Thus fell this great and good man, by the impious hands of nine fana- 
tick ruffians ; and in him the Church was deprived of a worthy Prelate, the 
King of a faithful Counsellor, his Country of an excellent Patriot, and all 
good men of a sure friend and a rare example of vertue and piety. 

Sharp s per- J} u t to give a more particular character of him. In stature, he was of 

ance. a! a, middle size ; he had broad shoulders, a large breast, strong limbs and 

arms, well furnished, but no wayes dispos d to fatness. So that he had all 
the signs of strength and a vigorous constitution ; and this was so apparent, 
that after his barbarous Murder, when his body was inspected by Physicians, 
they declar d there was no unsound symptom or natural decay in his noble 
parts. He had a comely forehead, but his eyes appeared to be somewhat 
sunk, yet full of life. His countenance was cheerful, yet grave ; and he had 
a presence which created a mixture of an agreeable respect and awe ; and 
was an absolute master of the art of address, with respect to. the quality and 
condition of the persons he had to do with. 

His virtues. For sobriety, he was next to a miracle ; so that his greatest enemies, 

and Calumny itself, could never charge him with the least breach of tem 
perance. 

Neither was his charity less, in all its excellent branches. His common 
speech of those who had always treated him with the greatest spite and 
malice, and to whose outragious and inhumane fury he at last fell a sacrifice, 
was, " Woe I am for those unhappy people, for they might live at ease, and 
have the protection of Laws, and differ as much from us as they will. But 
alas ! their crimes against the State are such that no set of Hereticks, much 
less Orthodox Christians, have attempted in any age of the Church. Their 
punishments are the natural issues of Treason, and their blood lies on their 
own heads. God help the misled people who follow such Teachers." 

In deeds of alms, and supplying the Avants of the poor, his conduct 
prov d he had more of real goodness and charity than any affectation to be 
thought so ; so that in the practice of this vertue, simplicity, prudence, and 
self-denial were his rule, and not ostentation and vanity. His soul was so 
capacious, and fill d with such universal love, that it was not confined to 
those of his own principles, but extended itself to the most necessitous 
objects; and if at any time he made distinction, it was to those of the better 
rank, upon whom poverty lies heaviest, because they are asham d to discover 
their necessities, or to beg supplies from others ; and that without any respect 
to party. I have it from a wise, reverend, and aged Presbyter, who had the 
advantage of knowing him very well, that, to his certain knowledge, he hath 
caused distribute by his Trustees fifty Crowns in a morning to the orphans 



JAMES SHAliP. -1U 

and widows of the Presbyterian Brethren, without their being acquainted 
from what hand it came. And it is now very well known ^ that a certain 
Presbyterian lady (whose father was the third and most eminent, except one, 
that suffered after the Restoration) was entrusted by him in dispensing no 
small sums of secret charity to the most needful of that party which differed 
so much from him. And his conduct in his family, and on other occasions, 
to the poor, was suitable to discretion and the true laws of charity. 

He was no friend to Pluralities in the Church, and he thought residence His Clerical 
one of the indispensable duties of a Bishop, and was never absent from St. couduct 
Andrews except when the affairs of the Church and the Publick call d him. 
Frequently he Preach d every Lord s Day, but at least once in the fourteen 
days ; and when he was necessarily at Edinburgh, he Preached on all Anni 
versary days, Festivals, and Solemn occasions. And for that part of the 
Evangelical function he was happily qualified, for his Sermons were meth 
odical, grave, and pcrswasive, altogether free from enthusiastick flights and 
bitter invectives, which were then the admirable talents of those denominated 
" a Gospel-gifted Ministry." That which made all Ecclesiastical perform 
ances easy to the Archbishop, was the great progress he had made from the 
days of his youth in the study of the Creek and Latino Fathers, the ancient 
Liturgies, Councils, and Canons of the Church ; neither was he a stranger 
to the Learning of the Schoolmen. 

In his Private and Family Pieligion, he was regular and devout. His 
closet was his first and last retreat in the morning and at night, where he 
always spent a considerable portion of his time in Spiritual Exercises. 

His house, when he was at home, was as it were a College of the Clergy; His or j er ] y 
and he always kept at least one Chaplain to Officiate in his family in times household, 
of his indisposition or necessary absence. Beading of the Holy Scriptures 
and Publick Prayers were alwayes perform d before dinner and supper; and 
by way of preparative and conclusion, he never faill d to bring into conversa 
tion some excellent, uscfull, and agreeable remarks, either upon or relative 
to the subject. And when supper was over, and all company remov d, he 
entertain d his lady and children after a very taking and familiar way upon 
some points of Morality and Beligion. 

He was very far from being an enemy to the decent and excellent 
Liturgy of the Church of England, but did not think it seasonable that it 
should be introduc d before affairs should arrive to a greater ripeness and 
disposition. 

In the most tender sense, he was a true Father of the Church, and her 
great support. His great wisdom, back d with great resolution, made him 
dear to the Clergy and dreadful to their enemies. 

He was a firm friend, a great encouragcr of Learning and learned men, 
a sure patron of Societies, particularly of the City and University of St. 
Andrews . He was a kind and affectionate husband, and happy in a vertuous 
wife ; a tender and indulgent father, and blessed with dutiful and obedient 

VOL. II. <* 



r,o AUCHBISHOrS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDKE\YS. 

H wife and children. His wife was Mrs. Helen Moncrief, daughter to William Moiierief, 
children. Laird of Bande/ston, descended of tlie ancient Family of the 

Ilis children by her were one son and two daughters, viz. : 

1. Sir William Sharp, who was provided by his father to a competent 
estate, and Married Mrs. Margaret Erskine, daughter to Sir Charles Erskine 
of Cambo, Baronet, Lyon King at Arms, by whom he hath a numerous and 

hopeful issue. 

2. Mrs. Isabel, who was in the coach with her father at the time oi his 
barbarous Murder, and was afterwards Married to John Cunningham of 
Barns, a gentleman of good note and antiquity in the Shire of Fife. 

3. Mrs. Margaret, who was Married to the Eight Honourable William, 
Lord Salton. Both these also have issue. 

Our excellent Archbishop being tints inhumanely massacred, to the 
extreme loss and grief of the King, the Church, and the State, all things 
were made ready for his Funerals, which were performed after a most sump 
tuous and magnificent manner, on the 17th of the same month, as may bo 
seen at length by the curious, in the Bccords of the Lyon-llerauld Office. 
And this was one" of the ways that his nearest concerns did take to testify 
the respect due to the memory of a man who, by his eminent vertues and 
accomplishments, did adorn and add lustre to his high character and dignity. 
Funcnl Doctor Patcrson, then Lord Bishop of Edinburgh, Breached his Funeral 

Sei. Sermon; and it must be owned, that the latter part of it must have been a 

very mortifying theme. 

lie was Buried in the south end of the High Church of St. Andrews, 
where, at great charges, his son erected a most magnificent and stately 
Tomb over him, and has Mortified a certain sum to be paid yearly to the 
Town for preserving the fabrick, and what s over to be given to the poor of 
the place. There is an Inscription on it, done by his familiar and intimate 
friend, Dr. Andrew Bruce, Bishop of Dunkeld, and thereafter of Orkney, 
which is as follows : 

F ,ita ,h on I). 0. M. 

hi^Tomb. 11 Sacratissimi antistitis, prudentissimi scnatoris, sanctissimi 

martyris, 

cincrcs pretiosissimos, 
Sublime hoc tcgit mausoleum, 

Hie iiamque jacet 

Quod sub sole rclirmum cst revereiidissimi in Christo patris, 

D. D. Jacobi Sharp, Sti Andreao archiepiscopi, totius 

Scotiae primatis, &c. ; 

QUEM 

Philosophiac et thcologiae professorem, academia ; 

Presbyterum, doctorcm, praesulem, ecclesia ; 
Turn ecclcsiastici, turn civilis status rninistrum primarium, 

Scotia ; 

Serenissimi Caroli Secundi monarchicique imperil 

restitutionis suasorem, 

Britannia ; 



JAMES SHARP. 51 

Episcopalis ordinis in Scotia instauratorem, Cliristianus 

orbis ; 
Pietatis exemplum ; pacis angelum ; sapientiae oraculum ; 

gravitatis imaginem ; boni et Moles subditi ; 

Impietatis, perduellionis et scbismatis liostem acerrimum, 

Dei, regis, et gregis inimici vidcrunt, agnoverunt, 

admirabautur. 

QUEMQ. 

Talis et tantus cum esset, novem conjurati parricidae, fanatico, 

furore perciti in metropoliticae suae civitatis vicinio, lucente 

meridiano sole, charissima filia primogenita et 

domesticis famulis vulneratis, lacrymantibus, 

reclamantibus, in genua, ut pro ipsis ctiam 

oravet, prolapsum, quain pluriniis 

vulneribus confossum sclopctis, 

gladiis, pugionibus, liorren- 

dum in modum truci- 

darunt, 3 die Mail. 

1070, aetatis 

suae 01. 

Mr. George Martin of Cleremont, sometime Commissary Clerk of St. 
Andrews, tbe Archbisliop s own servant, in his "Historical Account, c., of 
the Bishops and Archbishops of St. Andrews," gives the following character 
of him : 

The King being restored to his Crown and Plights, and the people to His Secretary s 
their wonted Religion and Loyalty, his Majesty, for recovering the Church character of 
from the anarchy, confusion, and tyranny under which (through the furious 
zeal of some cnthusiastick Ministers and corrupt Laicks) it had long groan d, 
by a most remarkable step and direction of Divine Providence, hit upon and 
imployed that great and eminent person, James Sharp. 

James Sharp, a man of profound wisdom, great courage, wonderful zeal 
for God and His Church; prudent in conduct, and indefatigably laborious 
in their service ; he, by an unusual sagacity, piety, sense of duty, foresight, 
and Providence, revived and cherished the small remainder of Loyalty that 
remained amongst the Ministry of this Church ; and for seven years main 
tained the same in life and being, against all the invidious insinuations and 
secret and open practices of the undermining party, till the happy change. 
And then he piously and dexterously contributed his effectual endeavours, 
most successfully, to the resettling of the Church of Scotland in its ancient 
and primitive Officers and Government ; maugre all the opposition that he 
met with from diverse parties and persuasions ; and by God s blessing, and 
the King s favour in his labours, he effectuate that great work as if he had 
been born thereto, which, tis thought, hardly any other could have done. 
A learned Author, the "Turkish Spy," gives him this character: "A man 
of an acute and extraordinary spirit, of a refined genius in sciences, to which 
he brought no small reputation and honour, through the vastncss of his 
abilities, his profound judgment, and dextrous sagacity in all things he 
undertook." He got the high and greatest Ecclesiastical Dignity in the 
Kingdom from King Charles II., after his Restoration to the Throne, as a 



.52 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

debt to his great abilities, and as a reward to his merits and services in 
labouring might and main to effect and compass the King s Restoration. 
And he no sooner acquired this honour but the enemies of Kings and Bishops 
in Scotland persecuted him with slanders and invectives, and the streets 
swarmed with libels against him, and all because of his endeavours to set up 
Episcopacy in Scotland, which was subverted by the Solemn League and 
the usurper Oliver Cromwel. This fabrick, as it was of his own raising, so 
while he lived he was the sole Atlas thereof, upholding the same by his 
extraordinary prudence, watchfulness, courage, prayers, and tears, against 
all its enemies, secret and avowed, in the State and in the Church ; dis 
appointing their designs and defeating their projects ; and supported by his 
own iunocency and duty, with the reverence, constancy, and magnanimity 
proper to himself and his character (undervaluing all perils and dangers). 
He encouraged some, and aw d many to a complyance. "Which eminent 
services to God, the King, and the Church, wrought and brought him to a 
Crown of Martyrdom ; for these procured him the inveterate, irrcconcilcable 
envy of the fanatick turbulent party, 

" Turba gravis paci placcdavjuc inimica quicti, 

Whose mad fury caused his fall, by an inhumane and barbarous Murder and 
Parricide, committed upon him the 3d of May, 1079, in Magask Moor, about 
three miles from his own house, by nine Religious Ruftians and Hellish 
Assassins, thereby sacrilegiously robbing God and His Church of a worthy 
Prelate, the King of a faithful Counsellor and Servant, his Country of an 
excellent Patriot, the Governments Spiritual and Temporal of a sure" Pillar, 
all good Subjects of a worthy Friend and Example, and myself of a dear and 
munificent Patron. 

The same Author has written a Latin Elogy of him, done also to good 
advantage, which therefore AVO thought would not be disagreeable to the 
Reader. 

TN -MEPJTISSmU.M STI ANDREW ARCIUEPISCOPUM. 

8 1 Mali, (Trucidatum. 
17J1679, (Tumulatum. 

ELOGIOI ET ELEGIA. 

Pdtius quam nesciant poster!, 
Quis aut qualis vir hie situs sit, 
Lapis e muro exclamabit, 
Eique succinct lacunar. 

Hie inlmmatur 

Eximius et perillustris D.D. JACOBUS SHARPIUS, 

Septentrionalis Scotiae alumnus ; 

Apud D. Leonardum Philosophia3 Professor ; 

Ecclesiffi Caraliensis Pastor, 

S. S. Theologian in Lyceo D. Maria? Professor, 

Academic Rector, et Caucellarius, 

Sancti Andreas Archipraasul et Protomysta, 

Ecclesias Scoticana? et Ecclesiasticorurn 



JAMES SHARP. 03 

Metroplita, Primas, ac longe primus, 

Priscorum Pontificum, et avitorum Antistitum nulli secuiitlus, 

Forsitan ct multis antefercnclus. 

Quippe qui 

Consilio, nixu, et ausis felicibus, 

Piegeni exulem populo, et populum Regi restituit, 

Utrique restitute ndelem operam navavit, 

lluiuas nostras reparavit, 

licmpublicam labefactatam redintegravit, 

Yulucra Democratise per Monarcliiam, 

Presbyteranismi per Episcopatum, unictis sanavit, 

Ptcligionem prope obsoletam reformavit, 

Ecclesiam fcedatam purgavit, 

Purgatam instauravit , 

Instauratam rexit, protexit ; 

Orthodoxos Ministros fovendo, 

liegimen Ecclesi asticum propugnando, 

Vincfe sepcm integram conservando, 

Hipocrysi, fuco, et dolo obviam cundo, 

Novationes, ct novaturientes Fanaticismos debellando. 
Vera) igitur Ecclcsise, rcligionis primaiYa?, recta>quc fidci 
Propugnaculum, Assertor, Yiudex ad extrcmuin spiritum. 

Idcirco, 

Inter opcrarios Diviuos Deo pcrquam gratus, 

Atquc magnnm ipsius erga Ecclesiam currc excmplum : 

Inter Consiliarios, llegi in primis intimus, ccrtus ct fidus. 

Gloriam qnamvis nactus, neutiquam tanien captans : 

Ecclesiao, Patriip, propter indefessos laborcs earns, 

Omnibus, pi\ cterquam a focdis sacrilcgis, 

Et scelestis sicariis, dcsideratus, 

A quibus passus cst parricidium, Martyrium. 

Quorum 

Livorem, immanitatem, rabiem, 
Feritatcm, ictus, et vuliiera, 
Patientia, caritate, prcecibus, 
Pietate, seqauimitate, 
(Deo, licgi, et Ecclesia) sacratus) 
Tulit, sprevit, frcgit, ct superavit. 

At plagis confossus, perfidorum, perditorum, manibus occubuit. 
A sole, coelo, quatriduo deploratus, omnibus sanctis in sccula dcflondus. 
Hinc migrans tiaram liuquens, aurcolam adcptus cst. 
It a parentat pristinus cliens, 
Cujus mine jubilum in gcmitum, 
Et gaudium in planctum versuin cst. 

The ingenious, and such as had any skill in Poetry, both of the Clergy 
and others, wrote so many Characters, Epitaphs, and Funeral Elegies upon 
him, with Satyrs on the horridness of the crime, that I am perswadcd, were 



54 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

they collected together, they would make up a Volume by themselves ; but 
that I might not grate the Reader s ears by dwelling too long upon the 
melancholy theme, I have contented myself with the two former Inscriptions. 
What I have advanc d in these Memoirs, is from the authority of his 
nearest friends and relations, and other persons of undoubted credit and 
veracity, who had the advantage of knowing himself, and several particulars 
relating to him. My other vouchers are the Records of Parliament and 
Council, with other publick and private Papers of those times, and especially 
the Letters I have mention d above. But for the greater satisfaction of the 
curious, I have thought fit to subjoyn the most material of them in the fol 
lowin A>it >nl!,r. 



APPENDIX OF ORIGINAL LETTERS AND PAPERS, 

RELATING TO ARCHBISHOP SHAIU s LIFE AND liARIUROUS MURDER. 



I- --I Lette 



at 



Reverend Friends, I received yours by Mr. Sharp, who is dear to me 
upon many accounts, as my very good friend ; but coming with your recom 
mendation upon so good and worthy an errand, I cannot but receive him as 
the Minister of Christ and the Messenger of his Church ; and you may be 
assured that I shall improve my utmost interest for the preservation of the 
rights of your Church, and shall do what I can for that afflicted Country, 
which I have great reason to love and lie tender of, having experienced so 
much kindness from you. I doubt not but you will have a further account 
from Mr. Sharp of my great affection to serve you, and that it shall be my 
care to endeavour that the Gospel Ordinances and privilcdges of God s people 
may be established both here and there with you. I do desire your Prayers 
to God for His blessing upon our counsels and undertakings ; and intrcat 
you that you would be pleased to promote the peace and settlement of these 
Nations ; and in what you may quiet and compose men s spirits, that we 
may, waiting with patience, reap the fruits of our hopes and fears. I have 
no further, but to beg of God the increase of Divine blessings upon your 
labours, and that you may be kept by His power, as glorious instruments in 
His work; and desire you to be assured, that none shall be more careful to 
preserve your Profession in that honour they so much deserve, than he who 
is Your assured friend and servant, 

GEORGE MONCK. 
Draper s Hall, 1C Febr., 1059. 

IL A Letter from sotne Ifinistent in London to the Ministers at Edinlimjlt. 

Reverend and beloved Brethren, We had sooner returned our thanks 
to you lor your brotherly salutation and remembrance of us, but that we 
expected the convemency of Mr. Sharp s return, hoping by that time things 
would grow to such a consistency that we might be able to give you a satis 
factory account of the state of Religion among us. We do with you heartily 
rejoice in the return of our Soveraign to the exercise of Government over 



JAMES SHAH P. 55 

these his Kingdoms; and as we cannot but own much of God in the way of 
bringing it about, so we look upon the thing itself as the fruit of Prayers, 
and a mercy not to be forgotten. Hitherto our God hath helped us in break 
ing the formidable power of sectaries, causing them to fall by the violence of 
their own attempts, and in restoring to us our ancient Government, after so 
many shakings (the only proper basis to support the happiness and just lib 
erties of these Nations), and freeing us from the many snares and dangers to 
which we were exposed by the former confusions and usurpations. Therefore 
we will yet wait upon the Lord, "\Vlio hath in part heard us, uutill all those 
things concerning which AVC have humbly sought to Him be accomplish! and 
brought about. We heartily thank you for your kind and brotherly encour 
agements, and shall in our places endeavour the advancing of the Covenanted 
Reformation, according to the bonds yet remaining upon our consciences, 
and our renewed professions before God and man; and though we cannot 
but forsee potent oppositions and sad discouragements in the work, yet AVC 
hope our God will carry us through all difficulties and hazards, and at length 
cause the foundations now laid to encrcasc unto a perfect building, that the 
top-stone may.be brought forth with shoutings, and His people cry, Grace, 
grace unto it. 

We bless God, in your behalf, that your warfare is in a great measure 
accomplished, and the Church of Christ, and the interests thereof, so far 
owned in Scotland, as to be secured, not only by the uniform submission of 
the people, but also by Laws, and those continued by the Royal assent ; a 
complication of blessings which yet the Kingdom of England hath not 
obtained, and (though we promise ourselves much from the wisdom, piety, 
and clemency of his Pioyal Majesty) through our manifold distractions, dis 
tances, and prejudices, not like suddenly to obtain. Therefore we earnestly 
beg the continuance of your Prayers for us, in this day of our conflict, fears, 
and temptations ; as also your advice and counsel, that on the one side we 
may neither by any frowardness and rigid counsels of our own, hazard the 
peace and safety of a late sadly distempered and not yet healed Nation ; and 
on the other side, by undue compliances, destroy the hopes of a begun 
Reformation. We have to do with men of different humours and principles. 
The general stream and current is for the old Prelacy, in all its pompe and 
height; and therefore it cannot be hoped for that the Presbyterial Govern 
ment should be owned as the publick Establishment of this Nation, while 
the tide runneth so strongly that way; and the bare toleration of it will cer 
tainly produce a mischief, whilst Papists and Sectaries of all sorts will wind 
in themselves under the covert of such a favour. Therefore no course 
seemeth likely to us to secure Religion, and the interests of Christ Jesus our 
Lord, but by making Presbytery a part of the publick Establishment, which 
will not be effected but by moderating and reducing Episcopacy to the form 
of Synodical Government, and a mutual condescendence of both parties in 
some lesser things, which fully come within the latitude of allowable differ 
ences in the Church. This is all we can for the present hope for, and if we 
could obtain it, should account it a mercy, and the best expedient to ease 
his Majesty in his great difficulties about the matter of Religion ; and we 
hope none that fear God and seek the peace of Sion, considering the per 
plexed posture of our affairs, will interpret this to be any tergiversation from 
our Principles or apostacy from the Covenant. But if we cannot obtain this, 
we must be content with Prayers and tears to commend our cause to God, 



50 AKCHBIS1IOPS OE THE SEE OE ST. A 

and by meek and humble sufferings to wait upon Him until lie bo pleased 
to prepare the hearts of -the people for His beautiful work, and to bring His 
ways (at which they arc now so much scandahYd) into request with 

Thus we have with all plainness and simplicity of heart lay d forth our 
straits before you. AVc again beg your advice and Prayers, and heartily 
recommend you to the Lord s grace, in AYhom we are 

Your loving Brethren and fellow-labourers 
in the work of the Gospel, 

Emi. CALAMY. 

SIMEON ASIIE. 

London, August 10th, 1GGO. TIIO. MANTON. 

Directed tJnis: To our reverend and highly esteemed Brethren, Mr David 
Dickson, Mr. liobert Douglas, Mr. James Hamilton, Mr. John Smith, Mr. 
George Ilutchinson, Edinr. 

HI. Letters from Mi: Wutri> to Mr. llolert ])mi jl<tx, Minister at F.iHulunjli. 

1. 

Reverend Sir, Yours, that May 22d, and of the 8th, with other Letters, 
I received. By the last Saturday s Post, I could only give you notice of my 
safe return to London. General Monck gave the occasion for my journey 
to Holland; and I did observe a Providence in it, that his motion did tryst 
with your desire, which gave me encouragement to follow the Lord s pointing 
at my going thither, which for any thing doth yet appear hath been ordered 
for good. General Monck s intent for my going was, that I might give his 
Majesty an account of all the passages of his undertaking, from the begm- 
nhi" of it in Scotland to the progression he had made at the time of the 
Parliament s owning his Majestie s Title; and that 1 might acquaint the 
King how necessary it was to follow the counsels of moderation in the future 
management of his affairs ; and 3ly, that I might move his Majesty for 
writing a Letter to some of the eminent City Ministers, to be by them com 
municated to the Presbyterian Ministers throughout the Kingdom, intimat 
ing his Majestie s resolution to bear down profanity, and to countenance 
Religion in the power of it. My own special motive for going was, to give a 
timous information of the condition of poor Scotland, as to the several par 
ticulars which yours of May 8th doth bear. My thoughts at my going over 
did run upon diverse of these which digestedly and fully that Letter doth 
mention, and it hath much satisfied me that upon the perusal of yours at 
my return, I rcmcmbred I hit upon some of those you touched. I came 
very seasonably in the beginning of the growth of the Court, and was the 
first Minister of the Kingdoms who made an Address avowedly to the King 
since his exile ; which I did with the more confidence, that having your 
Wai-rand, before my going, made it in name of the body of the Ministry of 
the Church of Scotland, who had persever d in their integrity and loyalty 
in all Pie volutions. I cannot express what welcome I had, and _ with how 
kindly an acceptance my application was entertained by his Majesty, who 
was graciously pleased to put such a respective usage upon me all the time 
I was there, as it was noticed by all at Court. I do not mention this out of 
a tickling vanity, but as an evidence amongst others of our Prince s affection 
to our Countrey and Kirk, of which I am aboundantly satisfied ; though 



JAMES SHARP. 57 

before my going over, lie was falsely represented, even to some of the Pres 
byterian judgment, as an enemy and Later of both. He did at P>reda, at his 
table upon occasion, give his publick testimony to the fidelity and loyalty of 
his Kingdom of Scotland, and to me in private more than once or twice ; 
and I am perswaded a sweeter and more affectionate Prince never a people 
had. The first time he allowed me to speak to him in private, which was 
for the space of one hour and half, I took it up in giving a full account of 
General Monck s proceedings, and of the activity of those of our Nation to 
improve that opportunity for his Majcstie s service. The next time he called 
me to him in the garden, where he caused me walk with him, almost 200 
gentlemen being at his back. Almost two hours was imployed in his moving 
questions and my answering, about the affairs of the Parliament : and in the 
close, somewhat in reference to Scotland, and asking kindly how it was with 
the Ministers Avho had been in the Tower, and with Mr. Hutchison, Mr. 
Wood, Mr. Bayly, of which I gave you some touch in my Letter from Breda. 
The 3d time lie spoke to me (doing it upon every occasion he saw me) was 
in the Princess Royal s Room, where I was amazed to hear him express such 
knowledge and remembrance, both as to persons and things relating to Scot 
land, while he was there, as if the passages had been recently acted. He 
mentioned Ministers South and North, and other persons, not forgetting 
John Boswel of Kinghorn, and another in Crail, where, he said, himself was 
Provost, asking how" it was with them. There was opportunity of speaking 
of those with whom we have had so much vexation, and of the condition of 
our Kirk, and the carriage of honest men in it ; and had he not been taken 
up by the interposing of a Lord come straight from England, I think I had 
said all was then upon my heart in reference to that matter. After this the 
Court thronging by multitudes from England, and the croud of his affairs 
growing upon him, it was unbecoming for me to press for private conference, 
but when he did call to me, which he was pleased to do twice more before 
his coming from Breda ; and both those times he asked me only about some 
of his concernments with General Monck, bidding me at the last time meet 
him at his first coming to the Hague, which was upon May 15th, wait upon 
to receive my dispatch immediately to England, both as to General Monck 
and the Letter to the City Ministers. AYhcn I offered to speak a word in 
reference to Scotland, he told me he would reserve a full communing about 
that till his coming to England. And indeed it had been unseasonable and 
impertinent for me to have urged further, finding the necessity of his affairs 
in England so urgent ; but this I can say, that by all these opportunities I 
had, in every of which I did not omit the moving about Scotland, I found 
his Majesty resolved to restore the Kingdom to its former Civic liberties, and 
to preserve the settled Government of our Church; in both which I was bold 
expressly to move, and had a very gracious satisfying answer. Upon the 
apprehension that I might be sent into England presently upon his Majestie s 
arrival at the Hague, I hastned from Breda by the way of Dort, Amsterdam, 
Harlem, and Leyden, to take a transient view of those goodly Towns, and 
came the next day after the King to the Hague, about the very time of the 
Reception of the Commissioners from the two Houses and the City, to which 
I was an eye-witness. Dr. Reynolds, Mr. Calamy, Dr. Spoistre, Mr. Case, 
Mr. Mantou, were received privately in his Bed- Chamber. They delivered a 
Letter Signed by above 80 Ministers, met at Sion Colledge. I am promised 
a Copy thereof, which I shall send unto you (and had done it before this, 

VOL. II. H 



58 AltCILUISIIOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDP^YS. 

could they have given me one, "because they had left it in the City). They 
expressed much satisfaction with his Majestie s carriage towards them, 
speaking him to he a Prince of a deep knowledge of his own affairs, of sin 
gular sweetness and moderation, and great respectiveness towards them ; 
hut they were much more satisfied as to these after they had spoke with him 
two by two, in private, three days after, in so far as they speak highly to 
his commendation to all their friends, as a most excellent Prince, restored 
for a puhlick hlessing to these Nations; and do profess it to he their duty 
to promote his interest amongst their people. They have often since _said 
to me, they have no reserve nor hope hut in his Majesty s good disposition 
and clemency. At my coming to the Hague, when I had gone to the Lord 
Chancellor, who hy the King s order was to give me my Dispatches, he 
desired me to stay so long as the London Ministers stay d, telling me he 
would send hy another the King s pleasure to General Monck. I was ready 
to lay hold upon this motion, knowing that the King was speedily to go for 
England, and so kept in company with those Ministers, and therehy had 
occasion to know what may give me ground of a probable conjecture of the 
tendency of matters as to the ordering of Religion in England, i have much 
to say of this purpose, which I cannot communicate in this way. At present 
I shall only say this, that for me to press uniformity for Discipline and 
Government upon the King and others, 1 lind, would he a most disgustful 
imployment, and successless. For though the King could he induced to he 
for it, it were not in his power to effectuate it, the two Houses of Parliament 
and the hody of this Nation hcing against it. And if I may speak what I 
know, and could demonstrate to you, it is already past remedying. I know 
very few or none who desire it, much less appear for it ; and whoever do 
report to you, or helievc, that there is a considerable party in England who 
have a mind for a Covenant-Uniformity, they are mistaken: and as you 
judge, by what you write in that of May Sth, if they themselves will not 
press it, we are free. I see no obligation by Covenant to impose that upon 
them which they care not for. If you knew at a distance what I have occa 
sion to know since my coming hither, of this matter, I am confident you 
would not be very urgent in that point. For my part, I shall have no 
accession to what may cross that uniformity; but I have no freedom to an 
imployment which can have no other effect but the hcightning of an odium 
upon our Church, which is obnoxious already to many upon such an account, 
though I know causelessly. I have heard of your Letter to Mrs. Calamy, 
Aslic, and Manton ; which Mr. Ashe only hath seen, Calamy and Manton 
not being in Town ; and the rumor goes up and down the City (I know not 
if occasion be taken by that Letter), that the Ministers of Scotland have 
declared their dissatisfaction that the King is brought in but upon the terms 
of the Covenant. I am afraid that such rumors are at this juncture studi 
ously raised, and I see more and more the need we have of using caution 
with those here. We have had large experience of Anglorurn, &c., and I 
have cause to think that we shall have a discovery of it as much now 7 as ever. 
I shall present your Letter to his Majesty at the first opportunity, which 
I think I cannot have till some dayes pass over, because of the great press 
upon him at his first entry into Whitehall. God hath done great things for 
him ; I pray He may do great things by him. It hath been observed, that 
never any Prince did enter upon his Government with such a general repute 
and applause. The satisfaction expressed by the Dutch could not be more 
if he had been their Soveraign ; and for England, the expressions of extatick 



JAMES SHAEP. 59 

joy and universal exultation are admirable. This day, from morning till 7 
a clock, I have been a spectator of what the magnificence and gallantry of 
England could bring forth in testimony of the greatest reception was, they 
say, ever given to their King ; the manner whereof you will have by the 
Diurnal ; and it hath taken up so much time to me, that, the Post calling, 
I have confusedly writ this, and must break off till the next, with commend 
ing you to the Lord s grace, who am Yours, &c., 

London, May 2 ( .)th. JA. SHARP. 

2. 

Reverend Sir, I have received none from you by this Post. This day 
the King called for me, and heard me speak of our Church matters, which I 
perceive he does thorowly understand, and remcmbred all the passages of 
the publick Resolutions. lie was pleased again to profess that lie was 
resolved to preserve to us the Discipline and Government of our Church, as 
it is settled amongst us. \Vhcn I spoke of his calling a General Assembly, 
he said lie would call one how soon lie could; but he thought the Parliament 
would be called and sit first. I found the end of his Majesty s calling fur 
me, was to give me notice that he thought it not convenient to send for 
Ministers from Scotland at present : when his affairs were here brought to 
some settlement, he would then have time and freedom to speak with them, 
and to send for them to come to him. lie thought it was lit for me to go 
down and give you notice of this, and the state of his affairs here, and said 
that he would write by me to you, and called to one of his Bed-Chamber to 
seek for your Letter, which I delivered, saying it would be found in one of 
his pockets, and a return should bo sent, and my Dispatch prepared this 
next week. I find his Majesty speaking of us and our concernments most 
affectionately, and that I needed not to inform him of the usage we have 
had from the Rernonstrators. There hath been since some talk in the City 
of a Petition from the Ministers about Religion, but some leading men not 
thinking it expedient, it is waved. Mr. Calamy, Dr. Reynolds, and Mr. 
Manton were Sworn yesterday Chaplains in Ordinary to his Majesty, by the 
Earl of Manchester, Lord Chamberlain. Some say Mr. Baxter is to be 
admitted one also. They have this indulged to them, that when it is their 
course, they shall not be tyed to Officiate at the Liturgy ; but others having 
performed that Service, they shall be only tyed to Preach, till they be clear 
to do it. The King hath ordered a Letter to Dr. Reynolds and Mr. Calamy, 
intimating that they may Nominate ten to themselves of their judgment, to 
meet in a Conference about the settling of the Church, with twelve of the 
Episcopal party, whom he would Nominate himself. In the meanwhile the 
Episcopal men increase and get ground. One of the King s Chaplains was 
made Dean of Westminster the other day, and Dr. Cousins Dean of Durham. 
They talk as if there were diverse Nominated to lie Bishops in Ireland. I 
find that it is intended that the Field Forces bo withdrawn from us how soon 
can be, but that the Garrisons be kept still, till the King s affairs take settl 
ing. Some stumble at this exceedingly, others are satisfied after they have 
spoke with the King and known his mind. The Lord Broghill is come to 
Town, and does remember you all very kindly. The Earl of Cassils and 
Lowdon came to Town last night : I purpose to-morrow to visit them, hav 
ing notice of their lodgings. 1 recommend you to the Lord s grace, who am 

Yours, JA. SHARP. 

London, June 14th, 1GGO. 



00 AECHBISHOrS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANPRF^YS. 

8. 

Sir, I cannot see how it is possible for mo or any else to manage the 
business commitecl to me by your Letters of the other week, with any shadow 
of advantage ; but a certain prejudice will follow upon our further moving 
in these particulars, which were so disgustful here. I am baited upon all 
occasions with the Act of the West Kirk and the Declaration at Dumferm- 
ling. It cannot be believed what advantages arc thereby taken, both by our 
professed adversaries and those who formerly carried as friends. As to the 
Protesters Meeting, it is well you have not mingled with them : sure they 
must have a strange daring confidence, that they offer to send up one hither. 

1 cannot say they will have welcome ; and though I have been sparing to 
speak of them, finding that the King and others sufficiently know and hate 
their way, yet the next time I speak witli the King, I will give them one 
broadside. Their doom is (light, unless it be that some upon design of 
heightning our division, to break our Government, do give them any coun 
tenance ; which I am not apt to believe will be done, tho I hear it is whis 
pered by some Noblemen here that it were lit this were done. I had it from 
a sure hand, that the other week Gillespie s wife came to the Lord Sinclair, 
and having Avept, and told him that the stream against her husband she saw 
to be so great, as he would lie ruined, desired if she might use freedom witli 
his Lordship. AVhen he had bid her speak- what was in her heart, she shew d 
him a Letter from Mr. Patrick to her, bearing that she might deal with the 
Lord Sinclair, that he would move the King on his behalf, and know what 
length his Majesty would have him to go as to the bringing in Episcopacy 
into Scotland, and give all assurance that he would do the King service to 
his utmost ; and nothing could be enjoyn d to him for promoting thereof, 
which he would not most faithfully and vigorously obey and perfect. This 
Sinclair hath undertaken to move (as seeing no other way for securing of 
Patrick), and was prompted to it by the person to whom he communicated 
it, Avho yet resolves to break the design upon that account by another way ; 
for I find our Noblemen have no will of (iillespic s coming into play, know 
ing his domineering humor. For anything doth yet appear to me, I find it 
iswell that you have not come up at this time, upon several respects. I 
see no good will follow upon this accommodation they are upon with the 
Episcopal party; for those who profess the Presbyterian way, resolve to 
admit of moderate Episcopacy, and the managing of the business by Papers 
will undo them. The Episcopal men will catch at any advantage they get 
by their concessions, and after all resolve to carry on their own way. These 
motions about their putting in writing what they would desire in point of 
accommodation, are but to gain time, and prevent Petitionings, and smooth 
over matters till the Episcopal men be more strengthened. I find that there 
is a conjecture, and I suspect not without ground, that Midleton shall be 
Commissioner to the Parliament. It is resolved the Garrisons will not be 
taken off before the next summer. The Committee of Estates will sit down 
and make work for the Parliament, which will be called soon after. The 
King hath declared his resolution not to meddle with our Church Govern 
ment, which hath quieted the clamourings of some ranting men here, as if 
it were easy to set up Episcopacy amongst us. 

I saw this day a Letter from an intelligent person in Paris, bearing that 
some learned men of the Protestants in France, and of the Professors of 
Leyden, were writing for the lawfulness of Episcopacy; and if the King 



JAMES SHARP. 01 

would write to the Provincial Assembly at Cliarenton iii July next, there 
would l>e no doubt of their approving his purpose to settle Episcopacy in 
England. I find our Xoblemen last enough against Episcopacy amongst us, 
but I suspect some of them are so upon a State interest rather than con 
science ; and all incline to bring our Church Government to a subordination 
to the Civil Power. I have read your last, about the Protesters Meeting, 
to Crawfurd and Lauderdale. It is not probable that that party shall have 
any countenance ; sure the Committee of Estates and Parliament will exer 
cise severity towards them. I would gladly come oil , but 1 fear I cannot 
get away these 10 dayes. I must take leave of the King, and have some 
time to" speak with him, and some of the Grandees, which in this throng 
cannot be easily done. I will be forced to draw a Bill from this upon my 
brother. These 10 dayes I fear I shall not be in readiness to come away, 
and therefore you may write till you hear from me. 

J. SHARP. 
4. 

Reverend Sir, Yours of the 28th of June I have received. I did write 
by that Saturday Post which you mention did not come to hand ; every week 
I write twice at least. My return is still delayed, though 1 press it from 
day to day, because the King s Letter, which lie is to send by mo, is not in 
readiness. I have spoke yesterday with the Secretary of State, and this day 
with the Manjuis of Ormond, who have both engaged for an opportunity for 
me to speak with the King. I could any day go to his Majesty and get a 
word of him ; but to have that time and privacy which is fitting for my 
speaking what I would before parting, is difficult in this throng of applica 
tions to him. The next week I am hopeful to have the occasion, and there 
fore I must have patience under this disappointment as to the speedy return 
I expected. Since my last by the Tuesday s Post, the Ministers have had 
several Meetings at Sion s Colledge, about the drawing of a Paper to be 
presented to the King, bearing three concessions in the matters of Church 
Government and Worship. They have many Debates, and though all who 
meet are not of one mind, yet they have agreed to Episcopacy moderated 
according to Bishop Usher s inducement, to Set Forms of Prayer, to the 
former Liturgy, if amended by such Divines as shall be Nominated for that 
purpose. They desire liberty from Ceremonies. The Paper, it is said, will 
be in readiness this night. The most of the Episcopalians proceed to impose 
their way: some pretend to a Moderation." The House of Commons, having 
appointed a Committee for Religion, do now and then start some motions 
about the Reports of that Committee. Some yesterday spoke in the House 
for Episcopacy ; Mr. Bamtield offering to speak against it, was hissed down 
by the clamours of others, which suits not with the Orders of the House. 
Some Lawyers are giving Papers to the Court, proving that the Bishops of 
England have not been outed by Law of any point of their Jurisdiction, save 
of the High Commission Courts. The cloud upon publick affairs, upon this 
and several other accounts, is become more dark than was apprehended. 
The Lord Reigns, and knows how to be seen in His glory, and to appear for 
His own interests. To His grace you are commended by 

London, July 7th. Yours, JA. SHARP. 

POSTSCRIPT. Sir John Clatwatby told me that he expected this night 
three Ministers from Ireland, Mr. Hart, Richardson, and Kaies. Their 
coming is verv ill relished bv the Commissioners from the Convention who 



62 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDEEWS. 

arc here, who have Petitioned that Episcopacy be settled there, and accord 
ingly the most are Nominated hy the King; Bramhal, Primate of Armagh ; 
Dr. Taylor, Bishop of Down, &c. 

5. 

Sir, I am exceedingly impatient of the delay of my Dispatch. Those 

who should draw the King s Letter arc so taken up with English business, 
that I cannot get them to set about this. However, I have a toilsom life of 
it. The Lord s anger seems not yet to be turned away from these Kingdoms. 
Affairs here begin to lie much involved ; many forseeing men apprehend a 
breach; we know not upon what foundation to stand. The Presbyterians 
are like to be grownd betwixt two mill-stones : the Papists and Plianaticks 
are busv at work. I cannot write what I would, but lie is now returned who 
said, God make all well. This is a strange people. I wish our countrymen 
were at home. Argyle this day, I hear, hath come to Town, and some 
believe he will not find kindly \velcome. The King is baited with contrary 
applications from our Countrymen, as if they were two Factions driving on 
the old divisive work. "We must look on, and wait what the Lord will do. 
It is promised, that in the beginning of the next week both Scotland and 
Ireland shall have their Answer from the King. The Parliament have done 
nothing as to the publick settlement and to the paying of the Army as yet. 
July7tli. 

G. 

Sir, You mention not the receipt of mine of the 1-ith. I thought his 

Majesty s gracious Ans\ver would be acceptable to you; and albeit it be 

ready, and the King hath approven it //; tt niiinix, yet I am advised not to 

take it till it be Signetted, Avhich is only delayed till the King declare the 

Secretary, of which we are every day in expectation; and then 1 hope I shall 

have no longer stop. It was told here !> dayes ago by the Karl of Tweddale, 

that Mr. Stirling had disclaimed lately the Remonstrance, and owned the 

publick Resolutions : it seems lie begins to be affraid of sklenting of bolts. 

For me, I can say it, I have not been accessory to anything done, or to be 

done, against the Protesters, further than to the justifying of our cause, and 

endeavouring they might not have any countenance put upon them, which I 

am free to profess ; and when I heard of a process to secure some Ministers 

among them, I did interpose that it might not be executed at present. Their 

folly is so manifest to all now, that their wonted impudence will not cloak 

it. I shall mention to you some passages of my discourse with the King at 

Breda. He asking me what should be done with those Remonstrators, in 

my answer I closed with this, Though it be not lit your Majesty give them 

countenance, or put power into their hands, yet I think we will be all suiters 

to your Majesty that pity and pardon may be their measure. The King with 

a smile reply d unto me, "Were they in your case, they would not allow you 

such a measure. "We have sufficiently found evidences of their malice against 

us ; I pray it may not be charged upon them. Our Noblemen yesterday paid 

their thanks to his Majesty for his gracious condescensions to their humble 

desires, and in the beginning of the next week such as may get off will be 

droping away. The Countess of Crawford, with the Earl of Haddingtoun, 

and Ardross, think of taking journey upon Monday ; my Lord Crawford will 

speedily follow after, if he do not come along. It is a great trouble to me 

thus to be detained, could I tell how to help it. 

Yours, J. S. 



JAMES SHARP. 03 



Reverend Sir, I received yours of the 5th. I have communicated your 
thoughts upon the matter of accommodation to some of the Brethren here. 
They have some sense of the inconveniences you have mentioned, but they 
excuse themselves from the present necessity, and the duty they owe to the 
peace of the Church. They gave in their Paper upon Wednesday last to the 
King, which he ordered not to he communicated till his further pleasure be 
made known. This hath put a stop to my obtaining a Copy of those Con 
cessions, which yet within a day or two I am hopeful to procure, and shall 
send it to you. His Majesty, after hearing them read that Paper, did com 
mend it, as favouring of learning and moderation, and hoped it might give a 
beginning to a good settlement of the Church. He said he would hear what 
the Episcopal men would offer, and before he proceeded to a determination, 
he would acquaint them. They told me they were intertained with fair 
smooth expressions from his Majesty and the Lord Chancellour, the Lord 
Chamberlain and the Earl of St. Albans being present. "When I had an 
account of the contents of that Paper, I asked if they thought it consistent 
with their Covenant engagements. They told me they judged so, for they 
had only yielded to a constant Presidency and a reformed Liturgy. I am at 
the writing hereof now straitned, that by this I cannot give you a larger 
account of those passages ; but for any thing I can conjecture, I fear they 
have thereby given a knife to cut their own throats, and do iind that the 
Episcopalians prosecute their own way. This morning, his Majesty was 
pleased to call me into his closet alone, where 1 had the opportunity to give 
a full information as to all these particulars you by your former Letter did 
desire ; and I must say, we have cause to bless the Lord on the behalf of so 
gracious a King. He hath ordered a Letter to be written within a day or 
two, which, I hope, will be refreshing to all honest men. After this he will 
call for me once more, and then order my return, Avhich I do passionately 
long for, were it the Lord s good pleasure to take me oil this toyl. The 
Parliament have Voted the King s Lands to be restored into his possession. 
It is thought ere long the Bishop and Dean and Chapter s Lands will be also 
restored. There are several complaints of the ejection of many good Minis 
ters throughout the Land, and the re-admission of many not well qualified, 
because they have a Legal Title to their Livings, which the other have not. 
A messenger from the Sound this night gives certain intelligence of a Peace 
concluded amongst the Protestant Princes, the Swede, Dane, and the Brando- 
burger. They speak of an Address to the Prince of Conde to be King of 
Polland, and that there is a Piebcllioii in Rome raised against the Pope. 
This afternoon the King commanded my Lord Lauderdale to go to the 
Tower, and examine Lambert about the Conferences at the Lady Hume s 
house in the 48th, about his Correspondencies with Scotsmen during the 
time of the Wars, and his Intelligences at the time of his being in Newcastle 
this winter ; in all which, Lauderdale received no account of any moment. 
His Lordship would have me to go along with him (but I was not present 
at their Conference), and paying some visits in the City hath kept me so 
late, that I must break off. 

I am yours, JA. SHARP. 

London, July 14th, 1000. 

P.S. We hear our last Letters were stopt. 



(j-i ABCHBISHOPS OE THE SEE OE ST. ANDREWS. 



Reverend Sir, Yours of the l!Hh I received; by the two preceeding 
Posts I had none from you. That my Letters to you came not sooner to 
your hand, is my trouhle, and 1 know not where to lay the blame, but 1 am 
sure to scud them betimes to the Post-house. 1 sent you the last week some 
account of the beads of that Letter which his Majesty did approve, and order 
to be written for his Signing. 1 did acquaint my Lord Crawford and Cassils 
with it, and I know not if by them onr Countrymen here had notice of it ; 
but I fear many of them are not satistied with his Majesty s declaring his 
gracious resolution to preserve the Government of our Church as settled by 
Law. I wait, for the Sealing of my Dispatch with the Signet, which the 
King hath not yet put into the hands of my Lord Lauderdale, but will within 
few days, and then I see nothing to hinder my return but waiting upon my 
Lady Ualcarras her coming to London, according to your desire; after which 
I hope 1 shall not be detained above a day or two. Upon her Lord s account, 
that Lady deserves this testimony of our respect towards her. i have shown 
your Letter to some of her friends here, who take it kindly at your hands. 
Though 1 have cause to be very impatient to have my return thus delayed, 
yet some of our friends advise that I put off two or three dayes, that I may 
take care, that by the Instructions to the Committee of Estates, the King s 
assurance given by his Letter with me may be made good. Those Instruc 
tions will probably this next week be perfected, so that 1 begin to apprehend 
1 cannot now come from this before the beginning of the week following. 
The King s condescension, that the Acts and Authority of the General 
Assemblies at St. Andrews and Dundee be owned, doth take in the Acts of 
the Commission proceeding it. I pon my motion of it to his Majesty, he 
was satisfied with the reasons 1 gave from his own concernments and ours, 
which I do (the more I think of it) the more judge to lie much importanced 
by it. I am very hopeful that, after the Parliament, the General Assembly 
will be Indicted. When his Majesty hath declared who shall be Secretary 
of State, I shall acquaint him with the Proclamation you sent me, which I 
have shown to some of our friends, who think it may do well ; but not hav 
ing opportunity to table it as I would, I cannot yet give you an account of 
it. Upon Saturday the 2-ith, I gave you an account (of which you do not 
mention the receipt) of the large opportunity I had with his Majesty of clear 
ing you from mistakes and aspersions, according to all the particulars of the 
information you sent me. 1 may say it, that his Majesty and others arc 
convinced that the exorbitances chargeable upon the Administrations of the 
Church of Scotland, came from the overbearing sway of those men, whose 
way hath been pernicious to our Church and State. And shall they still 
presume to keep Meetings, and persist to follow what is good in their own 
eyes, as if there were no King in Israel \> They had best bethink themselves, 
that Cromwcl, Lambert, and the Yalingford House men are out of fashion; 
the sun and shine they have looked big under, is set. We have heard here 
of an indicted Meeting of theirs. I believe they have cause to suspect their 
encouragement from Court ; and if they take no warning in time, they will 
draw a check upon themselves which.will not be pleasing. I cannot imagine 
how they can expect you will join with them. 

I believe, ere this come to your hand, you have notice of his Majesty s 
Answer to the Paper presented by our Lords ; by which, after insinuation of 
his great regard to Scotland, he tells them of withdrawing the Field Forces 



JAMES SHAEP. 05 

presently, and of the Garrisons as soon as with conveniency may be ; of 
withdrawing the English Forces from the Castle of Edinburgh, how soon a 
Scottish Garrison can be raised. The Committee of Estates is to sit down 
the 23d of August, and not to meddle with persons or Estates. They are to 
fill up their number with those who have not by remonstrance or any publick 
acting disclaimed the King s Authority. The Parliament is to sit the 2od of 
October following. Our Countrymen are desired to repair home at their 
conveniency, which many of them intend to do this next week. The Pro 
clamation for the Committee of Estates is a preparing. I can write little in 
reference to Church matters here, but that I see the proceedings towards 
settling Episcopacy in England and Ireland do go 011 apace. The Presby 
terians and their favourers neither do nor can take any effectual way to 
oppose them. I find they will speedily Nominate the Bishops of England, 
as they have already Nominated the most of Ireland. All Deanries, and 
Prebendaries, and Collegiate Churches are lilled. The Brethren from Ire 
land are at a great stand what to do : the General, Manchester, or any 
person of interest, refuse to introduce them to the King, if they present their 
Address. They have write to the Brethren who sent them how they find 
matters stated. By what I can learn, 1 find the most they can expect will 
be a forbearance for a time in the exercise of their Ministry ; but it will not 
be permitted to them to meet in Presbyteries or a Synod. I give them all 
the assistance I can, though they get nothing of it from the City Ministers. 
I recommend you to the Lord s grace, who am 

Yours, JA. SHARP. 

London, July 20th. 

0. 

Reverend Sir, Yours of the 2d I received. I have shewn the former 
part of it to my Lady Balcarras. Lord Laudcrdale, and Sir Robert Murray, 
who take it very kindly: and I confess I sec a conveniency for testifying our 
respect to that noble and vertuous lady, which I have, since her coming to 
this place, endeavoured to evidence amongst my acquaintance here, of which 
she is sensible. I have not of late written frequently to you, because my 
Negotiation here is at a close, and I have been in daily expectation of a 
Dimission from his Majesty. I did not imagine some Aveeks ago my stay 
would have been so long continued, and yet I cannot say it hath been 
altogether in vain ; for the apprehensions of our Countrymen here arc much 
altered within this month from what they were, concerning our Church 
affairs. After his Majesty was pleased to yield to what I humbly offered, by 
his condescensions in that Letter, I thought it was not amiss to acquaint 
some here with it, though I did not intend a divulging of it, because the 
signification of his Majesty s pleasure might silence the clamours of some, 
and bring them to be more moderate in their expressions about the Govern 
ment of our Church; which I find hath been the consequent of it, and there 
upon am the less troubled that the contents of the King s Letter are noticed 
by so many. The Letter was this day by Lauderdale s hand written in 
nuoidn, and Subscrib d by his Lordship as Secretary, and offered to be Super- 
scrib d this night by the King, which he hath done, and ordered it to be 
Signeted upon Munday. The Letter contains the heads I formerly told you, 
and the strain of it, I doubt not, will give abundant satisfaction to satisfiable 
men, as you write ; for others, I believe they must resolve upon more ply- 
ableness than heretofore. I have nothing now to hinder my return, which 

VOL. II. I 



Oil ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

I desire may be as soon as can be wished, for. I know there be reasons for 
my hastning. I am to take leave of the King upon Munday or Tuesday, 
and shall, as I did the last Munday, acquaint his Majesty with what you had 
written by the former Post, so to take occasion to hint at what you have 
writ by tliis, which I am confident will be acceptable. He expressed satis 
faction with what you had writ then. I have engaged with company to 
enter on our journey upon Thursday next, by the Lord s help. We hear the 
way is dangerous, and the weather so excessively hot that I dare not venture 
to Post, and therefore must wait for company, and make as speedy a journey 
as we can. Tlie Letter of the Ministers of London, in return to yours, is 
now, after much belabouring. Signed by them, and to be delivered to me 
to-morrow. The Episcopal parly are still increasing in number and con 
fidence ; some think they fly so high, as they will undoc their own interest. 
The King hath, by a Letter to the House of Commons, expressed his resolu 
tion to have a better provision of maintenance for Vicarages in England, 
but expresly did insinuate the owning of the Church Government of England 
by Bishops and Archbishops. The Letter is now Printed. The Bill for 
securing of Ordained Ministers in their Livings is now ready to be Ingrossed 
in the House of Commons. The Bill for Indemnity hath past the House of 
Lords, and this day was sent down to the House of Commons; but it is 
thought the two ] louses shall not agree about it, which will prolong the 
compleating of it for some longer time. I did, according to your desire, 
wait upon the Lady of Argylo. Many of our Countreymen take journey this 
next week. I shall by the Tuesday s Post write once more. I recommend 
you to the Lord s grace, who am 

Sir. your^. -T\. SIIAIU\ 

London, August llth, 1000. 

IV. A clear dixcoreri/ of the in<il!ei(nts Fulxliooth c<t tinned in <( 1 ajier, Printed 
at Loud/in, intituled "A True Helntimi of irlixt in diworered concerniiui the 
Murther /if the Archly. of Si. Andreir*. iul of irluit (tjtjietir* to hare been 
tlie occttxioii thereof." A* also a fnithj ul /nil /<r/V/ Xtirralire <>t tlie xaid 
t .eccrt ilile M^itrtlnr. !>>/ Order- <;/ ///* Jl/<(/V.s//V .s I r tnj (. nuneil. 

A most calumnious and scandalous Paper having lately been Printed, 
intituled "A True Relation of what is discovered concerning the Murder of 
the Archbishop of St. Andrews, and of what appears to have been the occa 
sion thereof," of the falshood whereof both Printer and Author appear to 
have been sufficiently convinced, neither of them daring to own it by prefix 
ing their names unto it, it is just and necessary, for vindicating of the 
truth, and for doing right to the Martyr s memory, to satisfie the world, by 
a clear discovery of the malicious calumnies and falshoods contained therein, 
and by a faithful and brief Narrative of the occasion and manner of that 
horrid and execrable Murther. In order to which, that Paper shall be 
Reviewed in its several Paragraphs, and the truth manifested by the most 
clear and authentick evidences, and most satisfying proofs. 

Parafirii}>h 1. " One Lovcl of Cunuchic, being Vassal to the Bishoprick 
of St. Andrews, the late Archbishop, upon the account of some Few-duties 
resting to him, did gift to his own behoof the Escheat of Lovel of Cunuchie, 
in prejudice of his numerous family and many creditors. One Haxtoun of 
Rathiilet being one of these creditors, and at that time a favourite of the 



JAMES SHAKP. 67 

Archbishop s, prevails with him, upon his giving Bond to the Bishop for 
WOOL Scots, or therein , to assign the gift in his favours. Thereafter the 
Archbishop conceiving prejudice against him, Eegistrates Ilaxtoun s Bond, 
surprises him at St. Andrews ; having called for him, takes him with cap 
tion, and keeps him prisoner in St. Andrews for several months, until one 
Mr. Falconer, a Conform Minister, obtains his liberty. But Ilaxtoun having 
stronger resentments of his imprisonment than of the liberty to which he 
was restored, at his liberation, in presence of witnesses, Vowed and Swore 
God-danm-him if ever he went to Church as long as there was a Bishop in 
Scotland ; and that, if he lived, he should be revenged on the Bishop s per 
son. This Ilaxtoun was a vile person, had nothing of good in him, and 
was scarce admitted to the society of sober men. He was not only once a 
favourite, but servant of the Bishop, having collected part of his Kents." 

The falshood thereof appears manifestly malicious, in so far as Hax- 
stoun of Kathillet was so far from having been cither servant or favourite 
to my Lord Archbishop, that he was a man altogether unknown to his Grace, 
in so" much as he had never spoken with him in all his life before the time 
he, out of pure charity to Lovcl of Cunuchie s children (whose Tutor this 
Haxstoun was left by the father, in regard of his near relation), made a 
Transaction and Agreement with him in favours of the said children, which 
Agreement is Dated February, 1077. And so favourable and charitable was 
my Lord Primate to the poor children, that not only did he authori/.e Hax 
stoun, their cousin, to manage and uplift the Bents of Cunuchie (which by a 
Decreet and Sentence of the Judges were due to his Grace), that thereby he 
might have opportunity to be helpful to them, but gave them a yearly allow 
ance for their subsistence and maintenance. "\Vheii Haxstoun had uplifted 
a year s Kent thereof, and disposed on it, he was so far from being rigid to 
him, that he condescended to take his Bond, to pay at the expiring of three- 
quarters of a year what was presently due. The time of payment being 
come, Haxstoun still delays to fulfil his obligation, though frequently minded 
of it by my Lord s Factor, who, finding nothing but delays and shifts, did 
Registrate the Bond on the ninth of January, 1078. And on the twelfth of 
March thereafter, while the Archbishop was in Edinburgh, and without his 
Grace s knowledge, Haxstoun was, by a Messengcr-at-Arms, apprehended in 
the Town of St. Andrews ; and after his positive declining to give any 
manner of satisfaction, was committed to Prison by order of Law : of which, 
when the Archbishop had notice, he would not have given way to it, had he 
not been credibly informed and assured, that the money arising by the sale 
of the corns had been disposed of by Kathillet to Kinloch, and made use of by 
him, for buying horses and arms, for his keeping of rebellious Field Conven 
ticles. Kathillet s Agreement, his Intromission and stated Accompt, are still 
extant under his own hand, to satisiie any who desire to sec them, llax- 
stoun having continued some time in Prison, Dr. Falconer, being his cousin- 
german, mediated his liberation, and having ingaged for the sum due to 
the Archbishop, obtained it ; and the Doctor declareth, that being present 
at his enlargement, he heard him express none of these desperate words 
above mentioned, either as to his deserting the Church, nor utter any 
terrible imprecations to be avenged on the Lord Archbishop s person. This 
now clearly discovers the villany and malice of the Author of this infamous 
libel, so far as relates to the business of Haxstoun of Kathillet, and the 
falshood of these malicious insinuations suggested by him, as if the Lord 



08 



AUCI1B1SHOPS 01 THE SEE OE ST. ANDKEWS. 



\rchbishop had been au oppressor uf orphans, and that by the ^rigorous 
usage of the former he had provok d him to si revenge so sacrilegious and 
execrable. 

Pai-ftg. 2." However, now the Archbishop, who was enemy to any 
thin" that had interest in HaxsUmn, commands Captain Carstairs, Garret, 
and one Scarlet, a tinker, to apprehend John Balfour, of Kinlocb, brother- 
in-law to the said llaxstoun (no Presbyterian, though an enemy to the 
Bishop, upon the injury done to Ilaxtoun, his brother-in-law), who resisted 
the said Carstairs, and wounded some of them ; and thereupon was cited 
before the Council (though Carstairs had no AVarrand to apprehend him, 
only to gratify the Bishop), where, not daring to appear, he is denounced 
and intercoinmuued, and made a stranger to his own house for two years. 

The malice and faWiood beivof is plain and manifest, in regard that 
this John Balfour of Kinloch, brother-in-law to the said llaxstoun of 
Kathillei, hath for these last seven years deserted the Church, and been a 
noted ringleader of Field Conventicles, and ordinary resetter and entertainer 
of vagrant incendiaries, of fugitive and intercommuned persons, Preachers 
and others, for which he was denounced rebel, and intercommuned long 
before the Archbishop had any knowledge of or dealing with llaxstoun, his 
brother-in-law; and for which Captain Carstairs had received orders from 
the Privy Council to apprehend him, as he had to seize several other turbu 
lent schismaticks and intercommuned persons. In pursuance whereof, 
Captain Carstairs, with one Mr. Garret, and several of his servants, came 
to the house of this Balfour, to seize and apprehend him, and such other 
turbulent and outlaw d persons as he should lind therein. Balfour having 
intelligence of the design, did remove his wife and children out of the house; 
and when Garret and two others comes and enters the outer gate of Kinloch, 
they are saluted with eleven shot from within, and, presently retiring, were 
bot ly pursued hy thirteen or fourteen men on horseback, with naked swords 
hanging on their wrests, and eockt pistnls : who, having given eleven cruel 
wounds to Mr. Garret, leaving him for dead, they follow hard after Captain 
Carstairs, calling to him that he would yield, and render himself in the name 
of God and of the Covenant, wounding him in the face, and firing many 
pistols at him and his servants, till by llight they made their escape from 
their fury. And here, out of the Depositions taken upon Oath, before his 
Majestie s Privy Council, and yet extant in the Becords thereof, are set down 
the names of those bloody zealots, who thus resisted the King s Authority, 
and deforced and wounded those who were empowered by the Privy Council 
for executing the Laws, viz., John Balfour, of Kinloch ; Hamilton, of 

Kinkell ; Andrew Henderson, son to .John Henderson in Kilbrachmount ; 
Jaincs Kussel, in Kings Kettle ; Patrick Miller, in Nether-Urquhart ; John 
Henderson, servant to the said Hamilton of Kinkell ; John Balfour, 

tenant in the Lands of Lundie ; James Beid, in Kettle ; John Airthie, 
Thomas Eairn, James Skinner, all these three in Stramiglo ; James Thom 
son, in Easter Collessie ; Turnbul, tenant to Broomball ; Alexander 
Walker and Alexander Cowper, shoemakers in Leslie ; severals whereof are 
now found to be actors and parricides in committing the nefarious Murther 
upon the Archbishop. And this attempt made by Captain Carstairs, and 
rebellious deforcement made by John Balfour of Kinloch, happened on the 
sixth day of November, 1G77, of which the Archbishop knew nothing, until 
Captain Carstairs sent one to give him account of what he had met with in 



JAMES SHABP. 69 

the executing of the Council s Orders in Fife, juul what h;ul so contingently 
fallen out, mecrly upon an information the Captain had, as he went in quest 
of other rebellious and intercommuncd persons, without any design in the 
Captain at that time to have seized John Balfour, and therefore without any 
intention in the Archbishop, much less command to apprehend him. From 
all which it is casie to observe how many impudent Forgeries are heaped 
together in this particular, relating to John Balfour of Kinloch, by this 
malicious Author : 1. That the Archbishop should have enmity against 
Balfour of Kinloch, because of his interest in Ilaxstouu, and from that 
motive should have commanded Captain Carstairs to apprehend him ; 
whereas the Order to seize Balfour was from the Privy Council, and not 
from the Lord Primate. And this design and attempt to apprehend him, 
being made in the sixth of November, 1077, did fall out four months before 
Haxstoun was imprisoned, he being apprehended with caption on the 12 of 
March, 1078 ; and so before it can be supposed that the Archbishop could 
have any malice or enmity against Balfour of Kinloch, upon the account of 
his relation to Haxstoun of Kathillet. 2. That this Balfour should be no 
Presbyterian ; \vhereas he is one of the zealots of that party, and greatest 
leaders of Field Conventicles, and at this present a chief Officer or Commander 
among the Bebcls who have proclaimed the Covenant at Puitherglen. 8. 
That one Scarlet, a, tinker, should have been with Captain Carstairs at the 
encounter with Balfour ; whereas it is nottour that this fellow was one of 
Welch s Guard, and would neither have undertaken nor have been trusted 
in any such enterprise ; and is now in Prison, and to be arraigned for this 
treasonable crime of guarding and assisting a declared traitor. 4. That 
Carstairs had no Warrand to apprehend this Balfour ; it being apparent that 
he had an express Order for that effect from the Privy Council. 5. That 
this Balfour was denounced and intcrcommuned for the deforcement of 
Carstairs ; whereas he was declared fugitive, and intercommuncd several 
years before that violence was committed. 

Pdniij. 3. "Wherewith, and with the robbing and spoiling committed 
by Bailiff Carmichael, the Secret Council s Sheriff-Depute in Fife, the said 
Haxstoun and Balfour, being inrag d and infiamm d with the desire of 
revenge upon the Archbishop, they did upon the third of May instant, with 
eight or nine other ruffians (three of them called, as they say, Balfours), wait 
his return from Edinburgh to St. Andrews, and there near a house called 
Magus, in an open muir, and within two miles or thereby of St. Andrews, they 
pursue him ; the coachman and postilion perceiving, advertise him, and 
drive with all their might to escape, so that for near three quarters of a mile 
they could not overtake them. At last Balfour and Haxstoun, being better 
mounted than the rest, Balfour comes up with the postilion, commands to 
stop, and he refusing, strikes him over the face with his sword, dismounts 
him, and disorders the coach horses. Haxstoun comes to the coach and 
fires several pistols at the Bishop ; but none of them, although they hit 
his body, did pierce him ; they peirced through his cloaths, but left only 
blunt marks upon his body, somewhat like to burning. 

" Whereupon Haxstoun drags him out of his coach, strikes him over 
the left eye with a deep wound, who thereupon fell ; and gave him several 
other mortal stroaks upon his head, and cuts in his arms, rifles his pockets 
and his daughter s (who was with him in the coach) of their gold watches 
and papers, disarms his servants without hurting any, except the postilion, 



70 



AKCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OE ST. ANDFtl^YS. 



who was wounded ut first : and that liis daughter received a wound on her 
tlmml), grasping to save her father and then iiee nil together. 

This is the Account both of the persons, the occasion of their wicked 
act, and the circumstances of the act itself, which is discovered and made 
known l>y the examination of the Bishop s own servants upon Oath, and a 
servant of the house near the place where the fact was done, where Haxstoun 
and Balfour left their coats before they attacked the Bishop, and after it 
was done came and brought them away. 

The Bishop s servants depone, that a man mounted on a bay horse 
struck the postilion and turned the coach : and that lie mounted on the white, 
draped the Bishop out of the coach, and killed him with bis sword. 

--And tin; servant in the house depones, that it was John Balfottr of 
Kinloch was mounted on the bay horse, and Haxstoun was mounted on the 
white. That these two persons had a personal spite and hatred at the 
.Bishop for the causes before, all know, and the Records witness. That the 
bullets did not pierce his body was seen by the Chyrurgcon, William Borth- 
wick, who was sent by the Council to view his body." 

As for the robbing and spoiling pretended to be committed by Bailiff 
Carmichael, the Secret Council s Sheriff-Deput, &c., it is sad to see what 
shifts malice will contrive, to justiiie even the most sacrilegious and bloody 
crimes, it being a strange inference, suppose it were true, that Bailiff Car 
michael had done ill tilings in Fife, that therefore their rage against him 
should have provoked them to so horrid and barbarous a Murther of any 
other person. 2. Bailiff Carmichael, being deputed by the Sheriff-Principal 
of Fife to execute the Laws against Field Conventicles and other disorderly 
person in Fife, did neither rob nor spoil, but proceeded in a legal and 
moderate manner, in sentencing and fining according to Law, such as were 
cited before the Sheriff-Court, according to very considerate and legal 
Instructions he had received from the Privy Council for that effect. Nor 
doth it appear that any of the bloody murderers of the Lord Archbishop 
were ever so much as cited before the xiid Depute, much less iined by him; 
so that this pretence for so bloody a villany is altogether vain, groundless, 
and frivolous. 

As to wliat is said of his body being hit with several shots but not 
pierced thereby, and that they left only blunt marks somewhat like unto 
burning ; whereby the Author in a most hellish manner insinuates that the 
body of this Consecrated person was hard and proof of shot, and whereby he 
commits a more villanous murder upon the fame and character of the 
Martyr, than the bloody assassines did upon his person ; the falshood of 
this is apparent from the subscribed testimony of a Doctor of Medicine and 
of three Chyrurgcoiis, produced before the Privy Council, and still extant in 
the hands of the Clerks thereof (whereof William Borthwick is one, and the 
principal), whereby it is attested and declared, that among his many other 
wounds, that he received one, two or three inches below the right clavicle, in 
betwixt the second and third rib, by a shot. 

It shall be unnecessary to say any more of the other manifest and bare 
faced lies contained in the foresaid Paper, such as that the murderers hurt none 
of his servants except the postilion ; whereas the best armed of his servants 
was wounded in the head by a sword, and his daughter, besides the wound 
of her thumb, had another 111 her thigh ; and that they dragg d him out of 
his coach, whereas indeed he very compos dly opened the door of the coach 



JAMES SHARP. 71 

himself, and with meekness and resolution stept out, and went forward to 
the murderers, who were, with so grave and reverend a presence and resolu 
tion, so much stunn d and amazed that they looked upon one another, and 
stood a little while like men confounded, and unresolved what to do ; since 
enough is said to discover this infamous libel to he a congestion of lies and 
malicious untruths heaped together, upon design to vindicate the fanatick 
party and keepers of Field Conventicles from the guilt of that sacred and 
innocent hlood, as if nothing hut private picque or revenge had provoked 
the barbarous assassines to this nefarious Murder ; whereas the actors 
thereof arc all known to have been Presbyterian zealots, bigot fanaticks, and 
constant frequenters of Field Conventicles, and are now in arms, and some 
of them prime Officers and Leaders in the present Rebellion against the King 
and the Government ; which insurrection is made upon design to overthrow 
the Monarchy and the present Government of this Church, and to model 
both according to the Covenant. 

But for the clear and full satisfaction of the world, concerning the Lord 
Primate s fair and equitable transactions with Haxstoun of Rathillet, and 
his charitable goodness to the children of Lovel of Cunuchie, together with 
the falshood of what that Author alledgeth concerning the motives of 
Balfour of Kinloch, provoking him to commit this execrable Assassination, 
I shall here subjoyn a Missive Letter from Mr. David Falconer, Doctor of 
Divinity, and Professor thereof in the University of St. Andrews, directed to 
Sir \Yilliam Sharp, of Stonie-hill, concerning this affair; to which the more 
credit must be allowed, in regard he is the person who transacted with the 
Lord Archbishop for the money due to him by Haxstoun, and is cousin- 
german both to him and Balfour aforesaid. 

Sir, The Paper you sent me, under the Title of i( A true Relation of 
what is discovered concerning the Murder of the Archbishop of St. Andrews, 
and of what appears to have been the occasion thereof," contains so many 
gross and notorious lies, Published upon the most malicious design, that tis 
no wonder you are greatly troubled thereat. My relation to Lovel of 
Cunuchie and Haxstoun of Rathillet being the nearest save that of a brother, 
as it moved my Lord Archbishop to make me privy to his transactions with 
both, so it gives you a just ground to expect from me a faithful and true 
account thereof, which I do impartially give you. upon certain knowledge, in 
the following Narrative. 

At the time of Lovel of Cunuchie his Decease, a considerable sum, vi/., 
betwixt 4 and SOOO merks, was owing by him to my Lord Archbishop, for 
the Few-duty of his Lands, that for many years had not been paid (my Lord 
forbearing him in his life time out of pity, because of his incumbred estate, 
and out of a personal kindness to himself), my Lord Archbishop being by 
Law preferred to all other creditors, was to have the Rent of the Lands ay 
and while he should be paid, and thereof gave order to Cunuchie s own 
servants to labour and sow the land that year he Died as formerly ; after 
which he gave a gift of his Escheat, comprehending the corns that Avere left 
after the seed, with the cattc-l and whole furniture of the house (which might 
have been claimed by my Lord, though he had been no creditor, as Superiour 
of the Lands), to a confident person, who was to have made money of them 
for the behoof of the children. This donatar of the Escheat was, by my 
Lord s order, to assign his gift to the said Haxstoun of Rathillet (a "man 
altogether unknown to my Lord, and, so far from being a favourite or 



72 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

servant, that lie had never spoke with him in his life before that time), he 
obliging himself, that, after payment of that creditor, at whose instance 
Lovel of Cunuchie was denounced Rebel, he should imploy the remainder of 
what money he could make thereof for the relief of the children. The truth 
of this can be made appear, to any that will desire to be satisfied therein, 
by a Paper extant, Signed by Rathillet s own hand; and that Rathillet did 
actually dispose of these goods, and uplift the money and prices of them, 
can also be made appear by a stated Accompt of his intromission, sign d 
also by his own hand, to lie shown to any that has a mind bv my Lord s 
Factor. The reasons why this Trust was given to Rathillet were, his nearest 
relation to the children, his being nominated their Tutor by their father, his 
many protestations to be faithful in it. and importunity upon these grounds 
to have it. The first year s cropt, that should have been uplifted for my 
Lord s payment, was sold to Haxstoun, at the easiest rate of the Countrey, 
on purpose that he. taking the opportunity of selling the corns at the best 
avail, might have something, after the price that was to be payed to my 
Lord, to bestow upon the children. However, all that my Lord received for 
that year s Rent, was Rathillet s Bond for between eleven and twelve 
hundred pounds Scots, to be paid three-quarters of a year after the Term at 
which the Rent was payable. The time of payment being come, before which 
Rathillet had sold all the corns, he nevertheless fulfilled not his obligation, 
and, giving nothing but fair excuses for what was past, and peremptory 
promises of speedy payment at dyets, which he always deserted, he eluded 
execution of the Law for near four months, while at last he was appre 
hended by a messenger in St. Andrews, by order from one of my Lord s 
servants, my Lord himself knowing nothing thereof, as being then iit Edin 
burgh. All that day he was kept in a private house, and offer was made to 
him, if he would pay presently any considerable part of the sum, which, as 
my Lord s Factor averred, he faithfully promised he should have brought 
with him the day before, or give a Precept for so much upon any honest, 
responsible men, who had bought the victual, it should be accepted in part pav- 
ment, and discharged accordingly, he himself be set at liberty, and a further 
time granted him for the payment of the rest. Roth which he shifted and 
declined; whereupon at night he was committed to the public Prison, where 
he lay for some time, until I became debitor to my Lord for the sum, and so 
procured his inlargement ; at which time, neither l, nor any person that was 
with him at his coming out of Prison, heard any thing\>f the desperate 
resolution, either to desert the Church or be avenged on the Archbishop s 
person, alledgcd (by the Author of the Paper) to have been expressed by him, 
with a terrible imprecation, before witnesses. After this, my Lord hearing 
of the straitned condition of the children, ordered, by his Precept, the tenant 
of Cunuchie to deliver for the children s use twenty bolls of victual, and 
thereafter Signed a Paper with the other creditors, some of whom he moved 
to condescend thereto, and to all whom he gave the example, being the first 
subscriber for a yearly allowance to them. 

By what hath been said, the falshood of that Paper, and the malice of 
its Author, is clearly discovered, as to that part of it which relates to 
Haxstoun, and how groundless the insinuations are of the Archbishop s 
uncharitable oppression of Cunuchie s family, or creditors, his rigorous 
usage of Haxstoun, and provoking of him thereby to so execrable a revenue 
by that horrid Murder. 

As to what is reported in the Paper of John Balfour of Kinloch, brother- 



JAMES SHARP. 73 

in-law to the said Haxstoun of Eatliillet, that ho is no Presbyterian, though 
an enemy to the Bishop upon the injury done to Haxstoun, Balfour himself, 
and all that have conversed with him these seven years, will disprove it, he 
having deserted the Church and followed after Field Conventicles all that 
time, and glorying to he reputed one of the most furious zealots and stoutest 
champions of the phanatick party in Fife ; for which he was denounced and 
intercommuned long before my Lord had any knowledge of or intermeddling 
with Haxstoun, his brother-in-law; and for which. Captain Carstairs had 
received orders from the Privy Council to apprehend the said Balfour. In 
pursuance whereof. Captain Carstairs, with his servants, and one Garret, an 
Englishman (for Scarlet, the tinker, known since to be one of Welch s 
Guard, as he would never have assisted Captain Carstairs in any attempt 
against any of that gang, so was he never reported or suspected by any of 
this Countrcy to have been one of their number), coming one day near by his 
house, resolved to make search for him there, it being known he was no 
stranger to it, as is alledged. lie was found with a company of armed men 
feasting in his house, and upon Garret s alighting, fired his pistol upon him, 
and thereafter breaking out of the house, overtook him before he could reach 
his horse, knockt him down with their swords, and left him not, while by 
many fearful deadly wounds they thought they had murthered him, and 
then pursued Captain Carstairs most furiously, while being desperate of 
getting the like done with him. though they fired frequently at him, they 
retired. It is to bo observed of this scuffle, that it happened some four 
months before liathillet s imprisonment, and consequently before it can be 
supposed Balfour should have suffered any thing from the Archbishop on the 
account of his brother-in-law Haxstoun. And farther, that besides Balfour 
of Kinloch, there were others said to be present there, who arc found to have 
been with him also at the Archbishop s Murder. 

For what is further said to have been the occasion of the execrable 
Murder, vi/., "the robbing and spoiling committed by Baillie Carmichacl," 
I leave it to all sober men to consider, whether the executing the Laws of 
the Land by a person, cloathed with Commission from his Majestie s Privy 
Council, and the Principal Sheriff of the Shire, conform to their instructions, 
and a Warrand under his Majestie s own hand, deserves these epithets. 
Only this I must say, that it can be proved that my Lord Archbishop had, 
out of his own mouth, ordered the Sheriff-Deputes to suspend the execution 
of their sentence in poinding or distraining of goods, six dayes before his 
Murder. 

As for what concerns the Murder itself, and the inhumane and barbar 
ous manner thereof, I hope you arc sufficiently inabled to expose the defects 
and falshoods of this pretended true Piclation, by the full information you 
have thereof from my Lord s own daughter and his principal servants, who, 
to their inexpressible grief, were forced to be eye-witnesses thereof. This 
Account I cheerfully give you, for your satisfaction, or whatever use you 
please, providing it be accepted as a part of the duty that is and ever will be 
owing to the blessed memory of my dear Lord, by 

Your most humble servant, D. FALCONER. 

As for the manner of this horrid and execrable Murder, the following 
Account, attested before famous Witnesses (by my Lord s own daughter and 
his servants, who had the misfortune to be helpless but sorrowful spectators 

VOL. II. K 



74 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

and eye-witnesses of this barbarous cruelty), will, I hope, prove very accept 
able and satisfactory to the world, and ji sullicient refutation of all false 
Relations and Narratives concerning it that have already been spread abroad, 
or may hereafter appear in Writing or Print. 



On the third of May, a day remarkable in the Church Calendar for the 
invention (if the Holy Cross, this excellent Prelate found his, and I hope 
obtained his Crown ; in which month, also, Henry the Fourth of France, and 
Cardinal P>eaton, one of his Predecessors, were assassinated. About nine of 
the clock in the morning, he took his coach in Keimoway, a Village ten 
miles distant from St. Andrews, where lie lay the night before, accompanied 
only with four of hi- own servants, and his eldest daughter in the coach with 
him. About hah an hour before lie was attack !: (his great soul, it_ seems, 
presaging what came to pass), he fell on a most serious and pious discourse 
to his daughter, giving her such pious, instructions and directions as he 
would have done if upon his doath-b< d ; whcreunto she gave such becoming 
and satisfactory answers, that he imbraeed and formally blessed her. After- 
Avard, coming near to a farmer s house, called Magus, he said, There lives an 
ill-natured man ; Clod preserve us, my child. Within a very little time after, 
the coachman perceiving some horsemen on the spur after them, calls to the 
postilion to drive on, for those men had no good in their minds. My Lord 
finding the coach run so hard, look t out to see what the matter Avas, and 
then perceiving armed men pursuing, he, turning to his daughter, said, Lord 
have mercy upon me, my poor child, for I am gone ; upon Avhich presently 
three or four of the rui iians tired at the coach, but touched neither of them 
in the coach. The coachman put the fast T on. and outrun the most part of 
the rogues tmy Lord s own servants, of Avhieh the best armed Avas wounded 
in the head by a sword, being mounted on Aveak hackney horses, had fallen 
behind before tins, and Avere disarmed at the first coming up) ; Avhile at last 
one of the best mounted over-lived the postilion, and by wounding him on 
the face, shooting the coach-horse Avhich he led in the back, and cutting him 
in the hams, turned the coach out of the Avay, and gave the rest the advan 
tage to come up. Then they tired again : one of them had his pistol so near 
my Lord, that the burning calting was left on his gown, and Avas rubbed otf 
by his daughter, Avhich Avounded him two or three inches beloAV the right 
clavicle, in betAvixt the second and third rib ; and then another of them, on 
the other side of the coach, run him upon the region of the kidneys with a 
small SAVord. Thereafter they called, Come out, cruel, bloody traitor; but 
not any offered to lay hands upon or drag him out of his coach, as is falsly 
reported in the relation, the assassines being all yet on horseback ; whcre- 
upon most composedly he opened the door of the coach himself and stept 
out, and then said, Gentlemen, you will spare my life, and whatever else 
you please to do, ye shall never be questioned for it. They told him there 
Avas no mercy for a Judas, an enemy and traitor to the cause of Christ. 
Well then, said he, I shall expect none from you, but promise to me to spare 
my poor child directing his speech to one Avhom it is suspected, by his look 
ing him broad in the face, he knew, and reaching forth his hand to him, the 
bloody villain starts back from my Lord, and by a mighty bloAV cut him 



JAMES SHARP. 75 

more than half through the wrest. Then said my Lord, I hope ye will give 
me some time to pour out my soul to God, and I shall pray for you ; and 
presently falling on his knees, he said, Lord forgive them, for I do : Lord 
receive my spirit. While thus praying on his knees (one of the traitors 
standing some paces oil called to the rest, Spare those gray hairs), and his 
hands lifted up, they struck furiously at them, and wounded him therein in 
three places, which nevertheless lie kept up hlecding to Heaven : while one 
of them cut him to the very hone, a little ahove the left eye. Whereupon 
my Lord said, Now you have done the turn ; then falling forward, lie 
stretched himself out, and laid his head on his arm, as if he had been to 
compose himself for sleep, when some of the villains from their horses, and 
others afoot (having alighted), gave him about fifteen or sixteen wounds 
in the head; and in effect, the whole occipitial part was but one wound. 
After which, they rimed his pockets and took some Papers out of them : and 
so mad was their spite and rage, that even after he was dead, and the 
murderers gone some way from the body, one of the furious and bloody 
assassincs returned, and thrust twice or thrice at him with a sword. They 
robbed his daughter of some gold and other things she had in a little box 
(they had wounded her thrusting at her father, betwixt whom and them she 
had interposed herself, by a stab in her thigh, and one of her thumbs) then 
they took away my Lord s iiight-bag, ."Bible, girdle, and some Papers of 
moment. They also robbed his servants, and took their arms from them, 
and then went away as they came ; and encountered one of my Lord s 
gentlemen, he had sent off some time before to salute the Earl of Crawford 
in his name, having passed near to his house. One of them called to kill 
him, for he was one of Judas servants; others came and toolc his Papers in 
his fore-pockets, and arms, and bid him be gone, for his nuttier was gone 
home before him. The place where this horrid Murder was committed is called 
Magus Moor, within two miles and in sight of the Town of St. Andrews. 

Thus fell that excellent Prelate (whose character and worthy acts 
deserve, and no doubt will find some excellent pen), by the hands of nine 
fanatick ruffians. That they were so is not to be doubted, their names being 
all now known, and all of them denounced or intcrcommuncd for frequenting 
Field Conventicles, and the known champions of that party in the Shire of 
Fife ; besides, their holy sanctified discourse at the time of their bloody 
actings shews what temper and spirit they were of. I have done with my 
relation (attested to me before famous Witnesses, by my Lord s daughter, 
and those of his servants that were so unfortunate as to be spectators of this 
execrable villany), when I have observed how ridiculous the Author of the 
pretended true one is, where he indeavours to discover the occasion of the 
Murder of the Archbishop of St. Andrews ; for what need was there of any 
thing more to provoke them, than his being an Archbishop, and the Primate 
of Scotland ; and the most active as well as the most Picvcrcnd Father of 
this Church ? Was it not for this reason that he was, on the streets of 
Edinburgh, shot at by Mr. James Mitchell, while in his own coach ? Was 
not this the reason that these fanatick Books from Holland, both sometime 
ago and of late, marked out his Sacnim Cajntt, as they termed it, and devoted 
him to a cruel death, and gave out predictions that he should die so ? 
Which they easily might, being so active in stimulating and prompting 
instruments to fulfil their own prophecies. " Lord, how unsearchable are 
thy judgments, and thy ways past finding out." 



76 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OE ST. ANDREWS. 



May it please 1 your Grace, The Archbishop oi St. Andrews, Primate of 
this your Majesty s ancient Kingdom, one of your Majesty s Privy Council, 
having been yesterday assassinated upon your Majesty s highway at noon 
tide, by ten or eleven fanatick rufiians, baro and open faced, by .so many 
wounds as left one of many instances of their unparalell d cruelty, most of 
his wounds having been given after he was visibly dead, we could not but 
acquaint your Sacred Majesty by this Express, by which your Majesty 
may easily consider whether we have been needlessly jealous of the 
cruelty of that Sect, that is by our enemies said to be so unnecessarily 
persecuted by u-, ; and by which, and the many late murders committed 
upon your Souldiers and others for doing you service, your Majesty 
and we may certainly conclude these of that profession will be unsati- 
ablc, till by crimes and cruelties they do all that in them lies to force 
your Majesty from your Royal (iovenmient. This being the natural 
product not of their humors but of their principles, out of which these 
flames will undoubtedly at last ari-c, that will consume even those Avho 
accuse the necessary zeal of your servants, as illegal oppressing of tender 
consciences, albeit we never straitned the liberty of any Religion, save 
that which dissolved the principles of humane society and unhinged your 
Majesty s Royal Covcnum nt ; nor can we omit upon this occasion to inform 
your Majesty that this assassination has been revived by a Paper lately spread 
here, whereby the just Ex< cul ion of Mr. James Miteheh who Died for attempt 
ing formerly the same crime, is charged upon your Ministers and Judges as 
also illegal murder as dial which he designed to commit, though he Died 
inveighing to the greatest height of bitterness against your Majesty in his 
last speech. Anil therefore we humbly beg that your Majesty would enquire 
into the authors, spreaders, and abettors of that villanous and treacherous 
Paper, and would send them (if of this Kingdom) hither, to be judged here; 
or (if subjects of your Majesty s other Kingdoms) that your Majesty may, for 
the security of your own Crown, and the just vindication of your Judicatures, 
and the incouragement of others to serve you, require your respective Judges 
to bring them to condign punishment, as we would do to such as defame 
their Judicatures amongst us. The Proclamation, herewith sent will inform 
your Majesty of the outmost endeavours that we could use upon this dread 
ful occasion ; and we hope that your Majesty, who takes such effectual 
means to punish the murder of one of the meanest servants of your Laws in 
England, will use all endeavours to punish the murderers of one of your 
Majesty s chief Ministers here, whose affection to your Royal interest has 
occasioned his being brought to this fatal period. 

We are, 

Your Majesty s most humble, most faithful, and most obedient Sub 
jects and Servants. Si/b*cril>iliir ul wlrntnt. Chancellor, Glas 
gow-, Douglass, Montrose, Mar, Glencairii, Murray, Wigtoun, 
Linlithgow, Edinburgh, Elphinstoun, President of Session, 
Edinburgh, Depute, Register, Advocate, Collingtoun, General 
Dalzell, Abbots-hall, Rossie ; Mr. Maitland, Lundy, Tarbet. 
Edinb., 4th May, 1679. 



JAMES SHAHP. 77 

VII.- 



May it please your Grace, Upon notice oi the horrid assassination 
committed yesterday, upon the person of the Lord Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, the Council being frequently met this day, have by a Letter 
acquainted his Majesty therewith, and sent a Copy of the Proclamation past 
on this occasion to your Grace, with a Copy of the Depositions of the Lord 
Archbishop s servants, taken by the Council, to be offered to his Majesty. 
In time of the sitting of Council, no\v at seven hours at night, the Justice- 
General and Laird of Lundy having returned from Fyfe, gave us a new 
account of that bloody tragedy, and that some of the Forces have overtaken 
two suspect persons ; and having resisted, one of them was shot in the back 
and taken prisoner, who is found to be young Inchdearny, and it is thought 
will die in his wounds. And another, Henry Scliaw, in Kirkcaldy, an inter- 
communed person, was also then taken. The Council has appointed their 
next meeting to-morrow, in the forenoon. The inclosed Copy of a Declara 
tion was dropt in Cowper some few days before the Murder. 

Your Grace s most humble servant. 
Ldinb., 1th Mav, 1U70. 



Charles, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and 
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, to our Lyon King-at-Arms, and his brethren 
Hcraulds, Maccrs, or Mcsscngers-at-Arms, our Sheriffs in that part, con- 
junctly and severally, specially constitute, greeting. "We being fully and by 
legal proofs assured of the late horrid and bloody Murder committed upon 
Saturday last, being the third day of May instant, by ten or eleven fanatick 
assassinates upon the person of the most l!evercnd Father in God, James, 
late Archbishop of St. Andrews, Primate of all Scotland, which barbarous 
and inhumane Assassination and Parricide will, we doubt not, spread horrour 
and amazmcnt in all the hearts of such as believe that there is a God or a 
Christian Religion : a cruelty exceeding the barbarity of Pagans and Heathens, 
amongst whom the Officers and Ministers of Religion arc reputed to be 
Sacred, and arc 1 , by the respect born to the Deity, which they adore, secured 
against all such bloody and execrable attempts: a cruelty exceeding the 
belief of all true Protestants, whose Churches have justly stigmatized with 
the marks of impiety all such as defile with blood those hands which they 
ought to hold up to Heaven : and a cruelty equal to any with which we can 
reproach the enemies of this true and Reformed Church. By which also not 
only the principles of humane society, but our Authority and Government 
(the said Archbishop being one of our Privy Council) is highly violated, and 
example and encouragement given for murdering all such as serve us faith 
fully, according to the prescript of our Laws and Royal commands : daily 
instances whereof we arc to expect whilst Field Conventicles, those rende- 
vouzes of Piebellion and forges of all bloody and Jesuitical principles, are so 
frequented and followed, to the scandal of all Government and the contempt 
of our Laws. And which Murder is, as far as is possible, rendred yet more 
detestable by the umnask d boldness of such as durst openly with bare faces, 
in the midst of our Kingdom, at mid-day, assemble themselves together to 



78 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

kill in our highway the Primate of our Kingdom, and one of our Privy 
Council, by so many stroaks and shots as left his body as it were but one 
wound, and many of which being given after they knew he was dead, were 
remarkable proofs they were acted by a spirit of hellish and insatiable 
crucltv. AVe have therefore, with advice of our Privy Council, thought lit 
hereby to command and charge all Sheriffs, Stewarts, P>aillies of Regalities, 
and Bailliaries. and their Deputes, Magistrates of Burghs, and Officers of our 
Standing Forces, to search, seek, take, and apprehend the. persons guilty of 
the saicfhorrid Murder, or any suspect by them, and to imprison them until 
thcv be brought to justice : and all our good and faithful subjects to concur 
in the taking and securing, as far as is in their power, these assassinates. 
And in respect there is a company of vagrant and seulking ruffians, who, to 
the great contempt of all Government, do ride thorow this Kingdom, killing 
our Souldiers, deforcing such as put our Law,, in execution, and commit 
ting such horrible murders, who might be easily discovered, if all such 
among-,! whom they converse did. according to their duty, endeavour to 
apprehend them, or give notice whereof they haunt or resort. A\ e have 
therefore thought tit, conform to the 1-11 Act, Par. l"2, K. James (5th, to 
command and charge all our subjects, that whensoever any unknown men or 
vagabonds shall repair amongst them, that they with all possible speed 
certify any of our Privy Council, Officers of our Forces, or any having trust 
under us thereof; with certification to them, that if they omit the same they 
shall be punished with all rigour, conform to the said Act. _ And since 
several of the said assassinates arc known to have been tenants in the Shire 
of Fife, whose faces will bo known to such of the witnesses as were present, 
we hereby require and command all the Herctors and Masters of the said 
Shire of Fife and Kinross to bring their tenants, cotters, and servants, and 
others dwelling in their Lands, to the respective Towns at the civets after- 
mentioned, vi/.. those within the Presbytery of St. Andrews, to the Town of 
St. Andrews, upon the 13th day of May instant ; those within the Presbytery 
of Cowpcr, to the Town of Cowper, upon the 10th day of the said month; 
those within the Presbytery of Kirkcaldy, to the Town of Kirkcaldy, upon 
the 10th day of the said month ; and those within the Presbytery of Dun- 
fermling, to" the Town of Dunfermling, upon the 2:-)d day of the said month, 
at Ten a Clock in the forenoon, upon each one of the saids dayes, there to 
continue and abide till they be examined by the Sheriff-Deputes of the said 
Shire, who are hereby Commissionatc to that effect, and to be seen by the 
saids witnesses ; with certification to such of the saids tenants, cotters, 
servants, and others aforesaid, as shall be absent, they shall be reputed as 
accessory to the said crime ; and the Masters, if they produce them not, or 
if hereafter they harbour any that shall not compear, they shall be reputed 
favourers of the said Assassination. And whereas there are some persons 
under caption or intercommuning in the said Shire for several causes, and 
lest persons who are innocent of that horrid crime may be thereby debarred 
from appearing and vindicating themselves, we have thought fit hereby to 
sist and supersede all execution upon any Letters of caption or iutcrcom- 
muning, or any other AVarrant for securing of any persons for any cause, for 
the space of fourty-eight hours, before and after the saids dyets of appear 
ance, that they may safely come and go without any troiible or impediment 
whatsoever. And to the end the said cruel Murder may be the more easily 
discovered, we do hereby offer, and give full assurance of our indemnity, to 



JAMES SHARP. 79 

any one of the saicls assassinates who shall discover his complices, and such 
as hounded them out, and of present payment the sum of ten thousand 
merles, to any who shall inform who were the saids assassinates, if upon his 
information they or either of them can be apprehended, that they may he 
brought to condign punishment. And ordains these Presents to be Printed 
and Published at the Mercat Cross of Edinburgh, and at the Mercat Crosses 
of all the Royal Burghs in the Shires of Fife and Kinross, and to be read at 
all the Paroch Kirks of the said Shires, and Jurisdictions within the same, 
upon Sunday next, being the eleventh of this instant, immediately after the 
ordinary time of Divine Service in the forenoon, that the same may come to 
the knowledge of all persons concerned. (liven under our Signet at Edin 
burgh, the fourth day of May, 1071), and of our Pieign the thirty-one year. 

ALEXANDER Giusox, Cl. !>li. Condi ii. 

VIII. Another Letter f row the I 



May it please your most Sacred Majesty, By a flying Packet this day 
we had the honour of your Majesty s Commands, in order to our procedure 
against the execrable murderers of the late Archbishop of St. Andrews, to 
Avhich we shall pay most careful raid exact obedience, and are now preparing 
the best expedients for that effect. 

"We have already ordered the Lords of Justiciary to proceed against some 
of the ringleaders in the late liebellion, who have accordingly sentenced 
two of the incendiary Preachers therein, viz., Mr. King and Mr/Kidd, to be 
Executed as traitors, on the fourteenth of August next, at the Cross of Edin 
burgh ; and we shall be careful to require them to go on to the tryals of the 
other Heretors, Preachers, or ringleaders who were ingaged in the lute 
liebellion, and are already in custody, and such others in their circumstances 
as shall be apprehended hereafter. For this purpose we have appointed a 
Committee to prepare the best methods to be offered to us for giving the 
more exact and speedy obedience to your 1 oyal Commands hereancnf, and 
we shall in every thing endeavour with our utmost ambition to approve 
ourselves, 

May it please your most sacred Majesty, 

Your Majesty s most humble, most obedient, and most faithful 
Subjects and Servants, liothes, Chancellor ; Dowglas, Mon- 
trose, Marshall, Marr, Murray, Airlie, Ahoyne, Dundonald, 
Kintore, Edinburgh, Elphingstoun, James Foulis, Abbotshal, 
Mery, Mr. Maitland, Lundy. 
Edinb., last July, 1079. 

IX. A Letter fnnn the / ///// C onnril to the ]hil,e of Lainlertlale cmicerniin/ 

the same. 

May it please your Grace, Having perused his Majesty s Letter of the 
2Gth instant, and your Grace s sent therewith, we thought fit immediately 
to make the inclosed lie turn to his Majesty, of which we have sent a Copy. 
By your Grace s Letter we have an account that a great many of the Eebels 
are taken in several places in Ireland, and that his Majesty has ordered them 
to be sent prisoners to this Kingdom, with direction that timeous notice may 



80 AECHBISIIOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

be sent to us for sending a sufficient guard to receive them at their landing, 
to he brought to secure Prisons. And having considered of the fittest place 
for landing such prisoners from Ireland, we conceive they may he most 
securely landed at Greenock. or Newport-Glasgow, in the mouth of Clyde. 
And we desire Advertisement to be given thereof to such as have the custody 
of these prisoners in Ireland, that they may be landed there, where they 
shall be received by a sufficient guard, and secured until his Majesty 
declare his pleasure anent them. Signed in Name and by Warrant of his 
Majesty s Privy Council, by 

Your Grace s most humble servant, 
Edinb., last July, lG7 ->. ROTUKS, Chancellor, F, P, I). 



X. A Proclamation against iJic ^lurtliercru t if tin late Arclibislwp of St. 



and appointing MaijistrateK and ( ouncih f Biin/Jis I!<\i/nl to 




Charles, by the grace of God. King of Great Britain, France, and Ire 
land, Defender of the Faith, io our Lovits, lleraulds, Macers, Pursevants, 
or Messengers-at-Arms, our Sheriffs in that part, conjunctly and severally, 
specially constitute, greeting : We, taking to our consideration how much the 
Protestant Religion and the honour of this our ancient Kingdom are stained 
by that barbarous and horrid Assassination and Murder of the late Arch 
bishop of St. Andrews whereof we have by several Proclamations expressed 
our abhorrency, and prohibited the reset of these murderers, Avhom we have 
exempted from our late gracious Pardon and Indemnity; and albeit it was 
the duty, not only of those in authority under us, but of all our subjects, to 
use their endeavours for discovering and bringing to justice these execrable 
persons, enemies to all humane society ; yet we understand that these 
murtherers, and likewise diverse Heretors and Ministers, who were ingagcd 
in the late Rebellion, and are exceptcd from our Indemnity, have~been 
harboured and reset in some places of this Kingdom, to the great reproach 
of the Nation and contempt of our Authority and Laws. Therefore, we, 
with advice of our Privy Council, do command and charge all Sheriffs, 
Stewards, Baillies of Regalities, and Bailliaries, and their Deputes, Magis 
trates of Burghs, and others in authority under us, to search for, seek, take, 
and apprehend the persons after named, viz., John Balfour, of Kinloch ; 
David Haxstoun. of Rathillet ; George Balfour, in Gilstoun ; James Russell, 
in Kettle; Robert Dingwal, a tenent s son, in Caddam ; Andrew Guillane, 
webster in Balmerinoch ; Alexander and Andrew Hendersons, sons to John 
Henderson, in Kilbrachmont : and "George Flecming, son to George Fleem- 
ing, in Balbuthy who did perpetrate and commit the said horrid Murder ; 
and also any Heretors and Ministers who were in the late Rebellion, and 
any persons who have reset and harboured these Murderers and Rebels, 
wherever they can be found, within the bounds of their respective Jurisdic 
tions, and put them in sure Ward and Firmance until they be brought to 
justice. And in case these persons fly out of the Shire, that they give notice 
thereof to the Sheriff, or other Magistrate of the next Shire or Jurisdiction, 
that they may in like manner search for, apprehend, and secure them until 



-This George Fleeming was a f ew voars ai , livinf at j j01K | ()11( an( j p ro fessiiK 
physick, and may be still alive there. 



JAMES SHARP. 81 

they be brought to justice, with power to the Sheriffs and other Magistrates 
aforesaid, if they shall find cause, to call to their assistance our subjects 
within their Jurisdiction, or such a number of them as they shall think fit, 
who are hereby required to concur with, and assist them, under all highest 
pain and charge. And we expect that the Sheriffs and other Magistrates 
aforesaid, will use exact diligence in the Premisses, as they will be answer 
able on their highest peril. And seeing, by the Fifth Act of the Second 
Session, and the Second Act of the Third Session of our First Parliament, 
the Magistrates and Councils of Burghs are ordained, at and before their 
admissions to the exercise of their Offices, to Sign the Declaration appointed 
to be Signed by all persons in publick trust, under the Certifications therein 
exprest. Therefore, we, with advice aforesaid, do command and require 
the Magistrates and Council of the respective Burghs of this Kingdom, who 
shall be chosen at the next ensuing Elections, to Sign the foresaid Declara 
tion, as is prescribed in the saids Acts, and to return the Declarations so Signed 
by them to the Clerks of our Privy Council, betwixt and the third Thursday 
of November next, certifying such as shall not give obedience, that they shall 
be proceeded against and censured, conform to the said Acts of Parliament. 
Our will is hereforc, and we charge you strictly and command, that incon 
tinent these our Letters seen, ye pass to the Mercat Cross of Edinburgh, and 
remaneiit Mercat Crosses of the head Burghs of the several Shires of this 
Kingdom, and other places needful, and there, by open Proclamation, make 
Publication of the Premisses, that none may pretend ignorance of the same. 
And we ordain these Presents to be Printed. Given under our Signet at 
Edinburgh the twentieth day of September, 107 .), and of our Reign the 
thirty-one year. 

"WILLIAM PATKRSON, CL Sli. 



The Registers of the Privy Council being in some disorder, the other 
Papers relating to Archbishop Sharp s Murther could not be got. 



At one time it was my purpose to incorporate herewith 

1. The Letters which passed between Principal Baillie (Born 
in the Saltmarket of Glasgow) and the Archbishop, Edited by 
Dr. David Laing, who sways with Wodrow. 

2. The Lauderdalc Papers, collated by my kind Correspon 
dent, George Yore Irving, Esq., 5 St. Mark s Crescent, Regent s 
Park Road, London. 

3. The Letters between the Archbishop and Robert Douglas, 
the Originals of which were in Wodrow s possession, and which 
are Printed in the Introduction to his History, Burns Edition. 
Transcripts of these are in the Library of Glasgow College, B Y. 
G. 3., pp. 214, thin 4to. 

VOL. II. L 



82 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

Excepting the mutilations, noticed in the " True and Im 
partial Account," etc., as also hy Lyon and Stephen in their 
Histories, it must he owned that the Letters No. 3 are, upon 
the whole, "true Copies." Hence, it is unnecessary to reprint 
what have heen so largely circulated in what AVodrow terms his 
" History of the Suffering Church of Scotland." AYodrow s bent 
of mind towards " Prelacy," and all connected therewith, is un- 
mistakcable, and the purpose for which he brings out his treasures 
is undisguised ; but those who have unprejudicedly weighed the 
YVrits of our Prelate, are now inclined not to take for granted 
what Scotch Presbyterians have for centuries handed down, but 
to turn the balance the other way, opining that the Letters which 
have been preserved are not " full of cunning and diplomacy," 
but honest, open, and manly. They evidence that the Minister 
of Crail laboured hard to prop up a hopeless cause, and that he 
only parted with it when it became untenable. 

I. CONTEXTS OF PAPKP.S IN Tin: EPISCOPAL CIIKST OF DIUWKT:* AT TRINITY 

CoLT.KOK, Cil.KNAI.MONl), PKRTI1SIIIKK. 

The "Episcopal Clicst" is a tall box or bureau (not very pretty), some 
eight feet high, opening by a door the whole length in front. The Contents 
are arranged in fifteen open shelves, which draw out. All are in excellent 
dry condition, and pretty complete. They have been at one time arranged 
chronologically, so that there is the common difficulty of a double notation. 
The Chest contains a great many Official Documents and Correspondence, 
and was last in rotation in the custody of the late Primus William Skinner, 
from whose care it passed to its present place of rest. It contains Records 
of all the Xonjuror Consecrations, with the Episcopal Seals appended. Of 
a later Date are two interesting Deeds, viz., the Original Agreement with 
Bishop Seabury, Nov. 17, 178 J, and the Signatures agreed to at Laurence- 
kirk, Oct. 14, 1801, beginning with the name of John Skinner, Primus, and 
continued by later Signatures on the same Parchment, the last three names 
being David Wilson (the present Dean of Aberdeen), Arthur Rankcn 
(the present Synod Clerk), and John Taylor, Deacon. The latter became 
somewhat notorious. He was for many years Incumbent of Cumineston, 
Aberdeenshire. A Correspondence between Bishop Skinner and him was 
got out of his hands by Sir William Dunbar, of S. Paul s, Aberdeen, who 
gave it to Messrs. Charles Popham Miles, M.D., of S. Judo s, Glasgow, and 
David Thomas Kcrr Drummond, of S. Thomas , Edinburgh, who Published 
it, animadverting on Bishop Skinner for the style of "Dear John," "Dear 



JAMES SHABP. 83 

Taylor," " Yours us you merit," Yours us you demean yourself," in con 
nection with "your mulish obstinacy" in refusing to read the Baronet s 
Sentence of Excommunication. Ere this, Taylor had imbibed the Ratioual- 
ism of a Rev. Alex. Allan, Episcopal Minister at Monymusk, who Preached 
a Sermon full of "German Neology" in the Chapel of Inverurie. Taylor 
was tried before a Diocesan Synod, and Suspended. 

From boyhood he was eccentric, and went under the soubriquet of 
Pheasant." There was a famous apple tree in his father s garden, upon 
which youths of the Town were wont in season to make furtive attacks ; and, 
to make the path to -Pheasant s" fruit more convenient, he placed an old 
harrow against the tree, as a step-ladder to ascend, at the top of which Avas 
nailed the poetic warning, in Banffshire Doric 

Steal an apple, steal a pin. 
Steal a cmv. ere a lie deen. " 

John was often the butt of burlesque while at King s College, Aberdeen. 
His fellow-students tied him into an arm chair, while they lathered and 
tonsured him a In iiuidc, and then set him at large. During the College 
vacation he occasionally taught the School kept by the Rev. Mr. Murdoch, 
Keith, where he had to endure all sorts of tricky annoyances from the 
disciples. As a penance to defaulters, they were made to stand in couples 
in the large lire-place, with their heads up the sooty vent. 

Latterly he resided in his native Town of Keith, in great poverty. 
While on a visit to Huntly, he Died suddenly of indigestion, and was Buried 
beside his relatives, at the west side of the old Belfry-gable of the Church of 
Ruthvcn, where a Head-stone sets forth his natural endowments. He was 
meek, peculiar, and insufficient. The poor creature had a hobby about 
Missionary and Bible Societies, and made a Will, leaving of his penury 
some few shillings, as a mark of respect. 

The Matrices of the J , ///.sro/^/ Smls, formerly kept in the Chest, are now 
deposited in the Antiquarian. Museum, Edinburgh, Cuts and Descriptions of 
which arc to be found at their proper places in this Book. 

The Papers arc copied from a Folio Catalogue in the hand-writing of 
the Rev. Piobcrt Forbes, of Date 1758, pp. 01, and arc "taken out from 
among those of Archbishop Sharp by some of his Grace s friends, and 
delivered to the Plight llcv. Bishop Keith." They are as follow : 

Xinnln r l.sV. 

1. (Original) Lauderdaill to Mr. James Sharp, Min 1 of the Gospell at 
Craill, Deci\ 2d, 1GGO, whereby it appears that Mr. Sharp was then a man 
of consequence. 

2. (Original) Lauderdaill, Jaiiry. 24th, 1601. For my Revd. and worthie 
friend, Mr. James Sharp, his Majestie s Chaplain in his Kingdom of Scot 
land, thanking him for his Sermon before the Parliament, and desires a 
Printed Copy of it for the King, and one at least for himself. 

3. (Original) Lauderdaill, August 26th, 1661. For the Right Revel. Dr. 



si AiiCllJ.5IhjJ.iOPS OE THE biiE OE ST. A:\DKEYvb. 

James Sharp, lleeior of tlio Umvcrsilie of it. Andrews, wherein L;uulerd;ull, 
so fiirr from having Corresponded with ircton, as calumniated, tliat lie had 
never scon ircton till he saw him hanging on tlie gallowes at Tyburn. 

-I. (Origin; 1 !) Archbishop Sharp, Novr. 20ih, KK55, to the Earl of Kin- 
cardine, in answer to two J roni his Lordship about his countenancing, tho a 
Privy Counsellor, disorderly and schmismaiical 3-ieei in gs, Ac. Herein is 
asserted the Divine Eight of Episcopacy, which was believed (says the Arch 
bishop) ly Iving diaries the 2nd. ;ind his 1 ayr and grandfather. [Very long; 
Printed in i iill in Stephen s Life and Times of Sharp, p. oil).] 

ii. (Original) Lauderdaill. Janry. iJOih. j(ilii). Eor my Lord Archbishop 
of St. Andrews, his Grace, in which a promise no Bishop to be oli ercd hy 
Lauderdaill to any Yaccancy but whom Archbishop Sharp shall first recom 
mend. 

0. (Original) Lauderdaill, Oetor. 1. KJI57. Eor his Grace my Lord 
Archbishop of bt. Andrews. Primate and Metropolitan of all Scotland; 
herein it is plain, J5ps. of Scotbind melt without Presbyters, to deliberate 
about and order Church mati 

7. (Original) Lauderdaill. July 18, 1GG8, to Archbishop Sharp, con 
gratulatory upon the shot missing his Grace on ye street of Edinburgh, and 
condoleing upon its wounding the Bp. of Orkney, and giving an Account 
y 1 a villain had wounded my Jjord General s porter; and on being taken, he 
said he intended to have murdered the King and ye Duke of Albemaiie. 

8. (Original) Lauderdaill, Augt. 2 .), 1(371. to Archbishop Sharp, where 
in of the Vacancy of Edin 1 , and that it is not lit that any Presbyter, at first 
dash, should be preferred to it, and desiring to know whom the Archbishop 
judges to be fittest i or it. 

10. (Original) Lauderdale (so spelled here), June 13, Ki7i, to Arch 
bishop Sharp, about the King s commands to suppress all scandalous and 
seditious Conventicles, and great endeavours being used to alarm all Eng 
land w l the fears of a present Pebellion in Scotland, and the Petitions in 
Scotland for a National Assembly, us being intended more against Epis 
copacy than against Conventicles, comparing such Petitions to those of 1037 
and 1038; and about the King s being very careful that ye honour and 
authority of the Bishops may be preserved, and all contrivances against 
them suppressed and punished, Ac. [Printed in Stephen s Life and Times 
of Sharp, p. -155.] 

11. (Original) Very angry Letter of Bp. Puunsay of Dunblane, June 7, 
1(575, to Archbishop Sharp, both then at London, about his being turned 
out of JDunblaiio Diocese, &c., w l the Archbishop s answer, June 8th, 1675, 
tacked to it. and in his own holograph. 

12. (Original) Lauderdale, March 21st, 1G7G, to Archbishop Sharp. 
Herein a promise of King Charles 2, not to Sign a Presentation to any See 
in Scotland, but such as shall have the approbation of the two Archbishops 
wtiii their respective Provinces, Ac. 

13. (Original) Lauderdale, July 18th, 1G70, to Archbishop Sharp, 
wherein, inter alix, to ye same purpose: " Therefore, I beseech your Grace 
to write to me whom you will pitch upon for the vacant Bishopricks, and 
then we shall be quiet," IS". 13. Copy tacked to this Letter of a remarkable 
paragraph from the Life of Dr. Berwick, afterwards Dean of St. Paul s, im 
porting, "that as in the Usurpation of Oliver Cromwell, the usual method 
of filling the Sees in England was utterly impracticable ; therefore the King 
should be Petitioned to grant his Koyal License, impowering the Bishops to" 



JAMES SHARP. 85 

meet together and to make clioico of fitt persons, according to ye Canon and 
practice of the Primitive Church ; which scheme his Majesty most graciously 
received and approved of, etc. And thus the Consecrations were to be per 
formed in a Canonical manner, and with the utmost prudence and precaution 
as to ye safety of the Consecrators and Consecrated from any persecution 
from the enemy." 

14. (Original) Laudcrdale, Janry. 25, 1G79, to Archbishop Sharp, 
intimating cnmje d dire to the Dean and Chapter of Ross to Elect the Bishop 
of Galloway. 

15. (Copy) Augt. 19, 1G70, of the Declaration of King Charles the 2d, 
in favours of the Archbishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow, concerning 
Presentations to the Churches that arc at his Majesty s disposal, to be only 
by their recommendations. 

1(3. (Original) May Gth, Lauderdalo to Archbishop Sharp, about ye 
increase of lawless Conventicles, and particularly that ye common hangman 
of Irvin keeps Conventicles and Preaches. 

17. (Original) Octor. 20ih, at noon, Holyroodhouse, Rotlics and Laudcr- 
daill to Archbishop Sharp, informing that the King had restored the now 
Earl of Argile to that Title, but not to be a Marquis, with a small competency 
to him, and the rest of the Estate to the Creditors. 

18. (Copy) Some Account of the Murderers of Archbp. Sharp, by name 
and surname, without a Date. 

19. (Original) Some Account of the Murder and Murderers of Archbp. 
Sharp (not the same with the foregoing), in an anonymous Letter to Sir 
William Sharp, without a Date. 

20. (Copy) Order of James, Lord Archbishop of St. Andrews, his 
Funerals, on Saturday, May 17, 1(57 .). [Given under IV., following.] 

21. (Original) Warrant for the Execution of Andrew Guilan, one of the 
murderers of Archbishop Sharp, July 12, 1083. Subscribed by Perth, 
Maitland, Jas. Foulis, &c. 

dumber 2ml. 

0. (Original) July 0, 1G75. lip. Patcrson to Archbp. Sharp, then at 
Bath for health ; wherein of a Meeting of 5 Bishops at Edin r , about ye 
Malleurs infesting the Church, and not a word of any Presbyter present, or 
invited to be present. Subscribed thus Jo. Gallovidicu. 

7. (Original) Without Date. Abp. Patersou to Abp. Sharp, concerning 
Bp. Ramsay s removal by the King (Sec. 11 in Num. 1st), from one See to 
another, for fomenting and abetting the Clergy insolently to insist for a 
National Synod or Convocation ; concerning bad tendency of such a Synod; 
and concerning an Address by the Commons in England against Lauderdale. 

11. Authentick Copy of a Paper, Signed at Court by the Abp. of St. 
Andrews and the Bishop of Edin 1 , March 1G8G, for taking off the sanguinary 
Laws concerning Religion w* relation to ye Papists. 

22. (Copy) Act of Indemnity, K. James 7, June 14, 1G88, excepting 
the murderers of Abp. Sharp, Fcrgusson the Plotter, Home of Polwart; 
Fletcher of Salton ; Mr. Gilbert Burnet, &c. 

What follows is from a Letter from the Rev. Robert Forbes of Leith 
(afterward Bishop of Caithness) to Bishop Alexander at Alloa, about the 
delivery of the Episcopal Chest, directed thus : 



ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. AXD11EAYS. 



Madam, _ By ye -appointment of the Bps. of ye Church. Bp. Keith, 
your worthy husband, was to provide ;i Chest, and put therein all such 
AYrits, Registers, and Tapers as related to our Church affairs, which he 
cither then had or should procure- from his Brethren or oyrs. And it was 
ordered also that this should remain in his custody, hut on his Demise in 
the custody of the succeeding Primus; which Providence having ordered to 
he inv lot, it becomes a duty incumbent on me to call for that Chest and ye 
contents y lv of ; and being so, 1 intreat you ll be pleased to deliver it to the 
Kd. Mr. "William Bell, whom I have commissioned to call for it and send it 
to me ; who, if you desire, will give you a, f !ec l for it, q l h shall be sustained 
bv me. You see. Madam. y l I am obliged to make ye demand, q ch I hope 
you ll take in good part, and believe y l q v in it lies in my power to serve you, 
I am (w l ye tender of my best wishes to you and yours), Madam, 

Your most humble servant, 
Cupar, July 19, 1757. Uou- 



XI. _ EXCERPTS FROM TIIK HOUSEHOLD BOOK OF MY LORD ARCHBISHOP OF 
ST. ANDREWS, FROM 1008 TO 10(30. 

The Book contains several Journey-charges of the Archbishop from and 
to St. Andrews and Edinburgh, as also frequent Alms, at home and while 
travelling, to the poor at Crail, Kinghorn, Eeith, Edinburgh, and Falkland ; 
to widows, lame soldiers, and Highland pipers. A great space is devoted 
to diet expenses, for different sorts of wines, for capons, rabbits, and part- 

- X<> such Appointm*. Order, or Regulation on record, that 1 know of. It must 
have heen onlv oral. "Was not said Chest in ye keeping of B. K. even q n .Dr. Rattray 
was Trimus . " Is not Kd r , or the vicinity of it, the properest place lor such Chest to 
lie in . It \vas ye opinion of 1!. I\. that Bonnyhaujji was the host and safest place 
during the time of the Distress, and that there, B. F. and R. 1 . could always have 
easy access to it on all emergencies. Jf Memoirs should appear in Trint. q ch is still 
much threatened, is it not advisahle that Chest should he at hand lor expeding an 
answer, q ch is not to he expected from Cupar or its neighbourhood? Mr. 13. delivered 
ye above L r (Dated on the very day on q ch T>. F. parted from B. "W.i, out of his own 
hand, and Mrs. K. made this answer : " Indeed. Mr. B.. I can make no answer to this 
till I see Mr. Forbes, who is searching among Mr. K. his Tapers, and adding greatly 
to the Chest, insomuch that it cannot contain all y* he lias already picked out for that 
purpose ; and therefore 15. F. has bespoke a larger Chest to be made at bis own ex- 
pence. And now you must see that 1 can make no ans 1 till I see B. F. himself. 1 
" O. Madam. 1 said he, " there is no haste, no hurry at all in the matter. Take your 
own time. Tut who is employed to make the said Chest . " "I believe, 1 said 
she, " Thomas Wilson." 

N.B. It will be hard, methinks, if ye Chest should go a bellii tu eriny into ye 
Country over the Forth, especially q n I m at so much pains about it. Please return 
the inclosed with your coiiveniency. It came after I had scribbled all this some 
hours. HOBT. FORBES. 

[The Initials in the above Note are B. K., for Bishop Keith; B. F., Bishop 
Freebaim; 11. F., Rev. llobert Forbes; B. W., Bishop White; Mr. B., Rev. William 
Bell. ED.J 



JAMES SHAEP. 87 

ridges ; tobacco pipes, flnicks, and moor fowls ; tame pigeons, ducks, 
chickens, and turkeys. 

The Money columns are Sent*. Twenty Pounds Scots 1 Sterling. 
One Shilling Scots - One Penny Sterling. One Penny Scots = - 7 .y of a Penny 
Sterling. 



Aug. 15, 1068. For a pair of shiverines to my Lord and drink 

money to the boy, - 001 18 00 

20. To the harbour for trimeing my Lord, - 000 18 00 

Sept. 22. For washing my Lord cloathes at ?> several tymes, - 003 01 00 

For a link to wait 011 the coatche, - 000 00 00 

28. For ribbanes to my Lord shoes, - 000 0!) 00 
Oct. :->. For 2 ellis of creap for a murneing string when the 

Bishop of Orknay Died, at 2 / 1:-) the ell, is - 005 00 00 

For a pair of black shainbo gloves to my Lord, - 001 10 00 

For quarteris of black silk coard to my Lords halt. - - 000 05 00 

11. For tuo linkis at the Laird of Grantis buriall, - 000 12 00 

14.- For a bybill to Y\"illiamc Sharpe, - 004 10 00 

For six fjuartcris of black ribbanes to my Lord, - 000 08 00 

15. For a link to wait on the coatch to the abbay, - 000 00 00 

Xov. 11. For two linkis at my Lord Glasgowes buriall, - 000 12 00 

14. For a link to the coatche going to Ladie Glasgowes hous, - 000 00 00 

For holhuid to be band and cufiis to my Lord, - 004 00 00 

For cours holland to be stockis to the band and cufiis, - 000 12 00 

17. For a link goeing to my Lord Chancellours hous, - 000 00 00 

For a link to my Lord Presidents hous, - 000 00 00 
The compt of the money given to the poore in smallis thir 3 

monthcs bygane comes in haill to - 010 19 08 

To a poore shoulder at the abbay church doore, - 000 00 00 
To the poore people at the abbay church on both sydes of the 

coatche, - 000 04 00 
To poore people at scvcrall t3*mes at the hous and abroad at the 

coatche theis ten daycs bygane, - 001 02 00 
Nov. Payed to ane apothecarie at St. Androis for some oyllis 

and droiuns to the coatch horse. - 001 08 00 




Monenday, Dec. 7, 1004. For fyrc in the morneingand at night, 000 17 00 
For bread and drink in the morneing and at night, and for 

cheese, - 001 01 00 

For a coatche to Yorcester hous, Durham, zaird Lady Balheavin 

and home, - 002 08 00 

Dinner for a pullet, - 001 08 00 

For butter limou turnepis and pepper and egges, - 000 09 00 

For dresing the pullet and a peice of beiff at 4 .s the piece, - 000 08 00 
For aile, bread, fyre, and a pynt of claret at dinner, - - 001 10 00 



88 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

For fyro at night, - 000 10 00 
Saboth. Dinner to many noblemen for 2 barrell of oysteris, - 004 00 00 

For a clisho of fislio with egges and butter, - - 003 00 00 

For a Yestphdia ham with chcekiner., - 013 0-i 00 

For a coaclis head and oysteris, - 000 0(5 00 

For a dishe of stewed carpis, - 000 00 00 

For a dishc of dried quhil tines, - 003 00 00 

For a dishe of fried smeltis, - 001 1(> 00 

For a chyn of salmond, - 003 12 00 

For a jouyll of sturgeon, - 000 00 00 

For a tart, - <>or> 0-2 00 

For oringis, Yincgare, spycc, and tobaco pypis, - 000 18 00 
Die llnrlij*. For a ]\vnt of wormwood wyne in the morning, and 

a quartclaret at night, and for pippins, - 001 10 00 

Supper to many noblemen and ntheris for a young tnrkie and 

dressing, " - 003 10 00 

For 3 phesines at 3 lib. the peh-e, - 00!) 00 00 

For tuo woodcockes, - 002 08 00 

For tuo pullctis, . 003 00 00 

For 4 pcrtrigis, - 004 10 00 

For 4 chcekincs at 10 the peicc, - 003 04 00 

For aples and carvie, - 000 18 00 

For oringis and limones, - 000 10 00 

For anchoves to be a dishe to be sauce, - 001 02 00 

For olives, capcris, vinegare, spycc,, and butter, - 001 00 00 

For oysteris, ailc, mustard, suggar, and pearsle, - 001 08 00 

For 4 bottillis of cedar, - ()0l 04 00 

For a peice of beef at dinner to the servants, - ()()() 10 00 

To the Landlady for supper dressing, kitchene, and fyrc, - 001 10 00 

For pypcs io Lauderdaill, and for bread at night, - 000 10 00 

Item in drink money to my Lord Lauderdaill s scrvands, - 000 00 00 



(>f M~/i< i/ (jlrt-ii in mi/ Lnnl ArclilisJinp <>f St. Antlroix Jiis Grace, and 



/it his iliirrtion in L>i<!oit>i frmn November 23, 1003, //// J 




For a chair to the waiter my Lord going to Lambeth, - 000 12 00 

For ribbones to my Lordis tippet, . OQO 00 00 

To my Lord going to the Kingis chappill, - - 000 00 00 

For a chayre thcr, . QQQ 12 00 

For a chayre to the waiter, . QQO 12 00 

For trimming my Lord, and for a newos book", - 001 05 00 
For a pair of shoes and galloshes to my Lord and ribbanes, - 000 08 00 

To Mr. Bloures man bringing home the new gowno, - - 001 10 00 

For ane ivorie cabinet, . Q72 00 00 

For ane new halt to my Lord, . 003 00 00 

For dressing the old halt, and for pock and string, - 003 00 00 

For cutting my Lordis litell seall, . 012 00 00 

For a new satin cap, . 03 00 00 

For small ribbanes for the key of the cabinet, - 000 03 00 

Given to a poor widdow at my Lordis direction, - 001 04 00 



JAMES SHABP. 83 

Cristmas Day to my Lordis going to the Chapill, - 003 06 00 

To the doore keeper of the Chapill, given by my Lord, - 006 00 00 

For a chayre to Bishop Winchesters, - 000 12 00 

For a chayre from Whithall in tyme of rayne, - 000 12 00 

Jan. 1664. To the keeper of Lambeth Chapill to see the 

cushyon, - 000 12 CO 

For rebbanes, necklaces, and pendentes for the childrene, - 012 00 00 

For tuo satin capis to the bairnes, - 004 04 00 

For a paire of stockingis to my Lord, - 003 12 00 

For 2 stemiu petticoatis and 2 bairnes coatis, - 040 10 00 

For 4 timber combes for my Lady, - 001 10 00 

For 2 home combes and a caice, - 001 04 00 

For a pair of gray schooes to my Lord, and drink money, - 003 12 00 

To my Lord to give in drink money for the asses, - 006 00 00 

For the asses stable and meat a night, - 001 04 00 

To Mr. Lockhart for my Lords pistolls, bought be him, - 018 00 00 

For a new scabboord to my Lord sword, - 001 04 00 

For orange flower watter to my Lord, - 002 OS 00 




i* Lordship since February 3. 

At the Consecration to his Lordship in the Churche, - - 005 16 00 

For vashing his Lordships cloathis at Edinburgh, being all foull 

efter the journey, - - 001 05 00 

To a tailziers man for mending his Lordships cloak and doublet, 000 12 00 

For 3 Spainsche bisomes and 3 mapis sent to St. Androis, - 001 16 00 

For a new bitt to my Lordis new Londoun brydill, - 001 10 00 

May 21. For drugis to the childrene quhen they got all phisick 

2 or 3 dayis together from Doctor Pittilluo, - 007 

28. For fixing a ston in a ring, - 000 

To a barber the day of the Chanclours buriall, - 000 

For a pair of murneing shoes to his Lordship, - 002 

For dressing his Lordship hatt and a new pock therto, - 002 

For a Solen goose sent to St. Androis, - 000 

Debursed tit 7i/.s (Trace s direction. 

1664. Feb. 8. To the Earle of Athollis mane that brought wyld 

foull, - 001 16 00 

To John Wilsone, bell man of Crail, - 001 04 00 

To the Ladle to buy a pig, - 000 18 00 

For a pocket inkhorne for "William Sharpe, - 000 05 00 

For sex new bee scapis at 8 .s- the piece, - 002 08 00 

May 4. To William Sharpe for a paire of arrowes, - - 000 10 00 

For a glove and a brace, - 000 14 00 

For a bow string, - 000 03 00 

Aug. 22. For soiling his Lordships stockengis, - 000 03 00 

Ane Accompt of 1m Grace i>nj Lord Archbischop of St. Androis, his Debursementis 

for neccssarix and other way is at Londoun from Auyust 30 till Oct. 18, 1664. 

Sept. 19, 1664. To the Archbishop Laudis devotion and a newes 

book, - 000 13 00 

VOL. II. M 



1 JU AitCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDKKWS. 

Sept. 22. For a paire of French litill sweet gloves to his Lord 
ship, - 001 16 00 
Oct. 4. For mending and soiling his Lordships stockeines, - 000 12 00 
6. Payed to Jolino Kirkwood for his Lordships scale, - 02-1 00 00 
To a staff with a silver head, 2 caice of knyves, and a hell, - 020 08 00 
8. To a hoy with ane lanthrene from Lauderdaills, - - 000 06 00 
Dec. 13. For a horse hvre to Balcarras for Mr. Gilhert Burnet, 000 12 CO 



Dec. 8. To his Lordship tho day Margaret Sharpe was home, 

10 dollars, - 029 00 00 

For a Yirgall to \Yilliame Sharp and for glasping it, - - 000 16 00 

12. To the poorc the day of Margaret Sharpe s christeneing, - 002 1-1 00 

For a quart of wyne the day of hir christeneing, - 002 00 00 

I lixcJmi t/i , 16(>-">. 

April 13. For black silk cord for breeches, - 000 04 00 

May 2. For a great satin cap to his grace, be accompt. - 004 02 00 

3. For a silver needle to Agnes Sharpe, - 001 10 80 

29. For a tarr barrell to the boncfyre, - 000 12 00 

Oct. 4. For the heirdis fie this half yeire. - - 002 04 00 

19. To a poor man and to a pypcr, - 000 08 00 

20. For a pairc of chamber gloves to his Grace, 000 14 00 

For 2 vnces of fine sealling waxe, - 000 12 00 

For 2 clubs and 2 ballis to AYilliamc Sharpe, - 001 04 00 

Nov. 14. To his Grace going to Church on Tuysday. - 000 12 00 

16. To his Grace going to Church on Thursday, - 000 12 00 

For two goff ballis to AYilliame Sharpe, - 000 08 00 

19. To his Grace, being Sabboth, - ()01 09 00 

To my Lord Bischop of Dunkeldis man with muirfoullis, - 001 09 00 

June 13. To the waiter wyff that furnished waiter to the lions, 000 06 08 

Accompt <>J ^loneyis ijircn to Jtis (jntce start 1 Jmt<ir 1666. 

Feb. 9. To your Grace on Sabboth at St. Androis, - - 001 09 00 

To your grace at Edinburgh comeing doune to Leith in small 

money and turneris, . Q03 14. QQ 

15. To your Grace going to Church on Thursday, - - 000 12 00 

To your Grace the day Johne Sharpe was Christened, in small 

money and turneris, . Q04 07 00 

Mar. 18. To your Grace at Agnes Sharpis burial, 10 dollars, - 029 00 00 
Apryl 12. To your Graces going to sermon on Good Fryday, - 001 09 00 
To your Grace goeing to Sermon on Easter day, - 001 09 00 

20. To the medwyff, - . 902 18 00 

May. To your Grace in a Paper given to my Lady, - - 100 00 00 

Accompt of Monet/is delmrscd at his Grace s directione to Barberis, Puore, 

and others. 

For carieing up of tuo puncheons of vine from Anstruther, - 004 00 00 



JAMES SHARP. 91 

For a quarters board of Margaret Sharpe, - - 010 00 00 

To the violcrs in the Abhay, - 002 18 00 

To the Laird of Xydies man that brought troutis, - 000 12 00 
To Goor fr c Xairne for bowelling A. S., and for a schear cloth, 

15 dollors, - 043 10 00 

Mair to Andrew Sword for the same vse, 3 dollors, - 008 14 00 

To be distribut among the poorc the day of the buriall, - Oil 12 00 

To the servantis about the kirk, 2 dollors, - - 005 1C 00 

For the mortcloath, 1 dollor, - 002 18 00 

To the pcrsones that carried the silver stailis, 3 dollors, - 008 14 00 

To the poor boxc in the sessione, - 000 13 01 

Acconnit of i/oi/r (_rr<irix clutin/ix l London, ami of money ijircn at i/oiir (rnicis 

ilircctinii xtin-e M>i 15. 

For tuo fanes and tuo rollis, - 000 00 00 
For a silver needle to my Lady, - - 001 10 00 
For 2 ell and . , of skarlet, at 19 lib 10 *, to be my Ladies petti 
coat, - 047 00 06 
For 5 ycardis . , of tiannen for a petticoat to my Ladie at 1 lib 

ll .,, - 009 00 00 

For another greene tuillcd night cap, - 002 14 00 

For tuo quint tuillcd capis at night, - 003 00 00 

Foure fyne timber combis and 2 home combis, with caices, 000 00 00 

For 2 pocket Bibillis, - - 007 00 00 

For a seare cloth for your Gracis issue, - 000 09 00 

III. XOTANDA. 

In the old Church-yard of the Parish of Banff, there was a Stone with 
the following Inscription, which has been renewed in erecting a new wall : 
"In this Cemetery are interred the remains of Robert Sharp of Kiniuvie, 
Provost of Banff, and the father of Dr. James Sharp, Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, who was Born in May, 1013, in the Castle of Banff, the residence 
of the Family, and basely murdered on the 3d of May, 1079. Also Robert 
Sharp, Sheriff Clerk of Bauffshire ; his spouse, Janet Abercromby of Birken- 
bo rr ; Mrs. Ann Hamilton, his niece, and other descendants of the Family. 
The above Inscription was renewed on the present enclosing walls, erected 
by public subscription in the year of our Lord 1805. Domine, dirigie nos." 
Beside the Inscription is a representation of the Armorial Bearings of 
" Robert Sharp," with the Date 1007, and several initial letters. 

Archbishop Sharp was made a Burgess of Glasgow: "Decline tertio 
Xoveris, 1000. The cj lk day the most Reverend Fay 1 in God, James, Arch 
bishop of St. Androwes, Primat and Metropolitan of Scotland, is made 
Burges and Gild Broy r of ye s d Burgh. [A. (>>r Eintujs View of the Mer 
chant * HoHKC (if (jltlNt/011-, p. 125.] 

1865, July- While on a visit to St. Andrews, the Rev. George Gordon 
Milne, late Incumbent of S. James , Cupar, shewed me the original Letters 



U2 AllCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OE ST. ANDKE\YS. 

Patent from Charles IE, of the Present ulion Charter of Archbishop Sharp 
to the Metropolitan See of St. Andrews, found ut Magus Moor, soaked with 
/m- murdered blood. It is given in Lyon s History, vol. ii., 381, App. This 
Chart had boon repeatedly put to the test by competent Antiquaries. Mr. 
Milne said" In the bowels of my compassion, I lent this to an importunate 
friend, who was anxious to take an impression of the lloyjil Seal, and he 
gratefully returned to me the one h\f. The seal, the friend said, broke 
among his fingers ! 

Mr. Alex. Camming, farmer at Craigherbs, near Mill of 13oyiidie, Banff- 
shire, while ploughing, turned up a small stone, on which some engraving 
appeared, and which, on examination, was supposed to be the Seal of Arch 
bishop Sharp, as it bore his Family Arms, in conjunction with those of the 
See, with the Legend Jaro/nt* J-:j>i>-<>jix Smicli Amlrc. 1838. [Stephen s 
LLixtonj, col. ir., ]>. 518.] 

The Wail <tiul M/nuicr oj the L onxccnttinit of tin S<-utti*li ]lixlioj>* at Westminster, 

J),r. 15, 1001. 

The fourc Doctors, Sharpp, Eairefoule, Hamilton, and Lightoun, come 
in coach to the Dean of Westminster s house in the Cloister, where they 
were mctt by four Englishe Bishopps, London, AYoorester, St. Asaph, and 
Carlilc, and were conducted by them to the Church, where all were placed 
over against the Pulpit. The -4 Scots in the habite of Doctors, with their 
Canonicall coates, girdles, gownes, tippets, and corner caps. Sermon being 
ended, they went to the east end of the Church, where the Altar stands. 
London having the action, placed himself upon the right side of the Altar, 
Worcester on the left; the rest, Scotts and English, standing before it. 
Then Canterburie being Commissioner, the Commission w r as read, and 
London proceeded to read the forme of the booke of Common Prayer, each 
of the Scotts having one in their hand. After some time spent in reading, 
the Scotts sate down before the Altar on their knees, in which posture the 
oath of supremacie was tendered to them by the Bishop of London, they 
having their hands on the booke and kissing it. This done, they removed 
to a by-roome, and after a little returned, having a limicii garment above 
their gownes, such as a shirt without sleaves. In this garb they stood some 
time before the Altar, and then returned to another roome, and after a little 
come in againe attired as Bishops, thus Above the liimen garment called 
a rocket, they have a gowiie without sleaves, of a rich silk stuffe, and to it 
were pinned lawne sleaves. Having stoode a little, they kneeled againe 
before the altar. Then came the English Bishops and laid their hands on 
their heads, one by one. The Consecration being ended, they communicated 
thus 2 English Bishops and the fourc Scots, kneeling before the altar, 
receive the bread and wine from London. This done they rose, and the 
foure Scots Bishops went toward the Altar, one after another, bowing as 
they went, and then kneeling laid downe the offering upon it. After which 



JAMES SHAEP. 93 

they went to Sir Abraham William s house, the place where ambassadours 
are received, and there had a sumptuous feast, where diverse of the Scottish 
Nobilitie were present. But the Lords Middleton and Crawford were not, 
they being sicke. All this is testified by one who was ane eye witnesse. 
(Andh ctd Scoticti, ml. i., j>. 70.] 

IV. THE PROCESSION AND BURIAL. 

The remains of the murdered Prelate were removed to his house in St. 
Andrews, from which, after thirteen days, they were removed to the Parish 
Church. The Privy Council determined to honour him with a public 
Funeral. It was performed with the utmost magnificence, agreeable to a 
Programme issued by the Government, the original of which is in the 
Episcopal Chest at Glenalmond. The Order directs, that the Prebends and 
Clergy of the Metropolitical Church shall meet the Body in their Robes, in 
good order, at the door of the Church. The respectable inhabitants were 
directed to be drawn up in two lines, betwixt the Abbey and the place of 
interment, for keeping off the crowd, so that the Procession might pass 
through a lane betwixt two files, without interruption or disorder. The 
Privy Council appointed the Archbishop of Glasgow to act as chief mourner, 
assisted by the other Bishops in deep mourning. The Privy Council were 
to walk in a body, and the Macers of Court were to walk bare-headed, as a 
guard to the honours of Purse and Mace. 

The Procession, as marshalled by order of the Privy Council, proceeded 
in the following order : 

Sixty-one old men, corresponding to the years of the defunct s age, each in 
mourning-hoods and cloaks, and bearing on staves the Arms of the 
Archiepiscopal See, impaled with those of the defunct, one preceding 
and bearing a little Gumphion, :;; the rest following two and two. 

The Horse of State, 
Equipped in furniture, as for the Riding of Parliament, 

led by footmen in the defunct s livery ; 

Two close trumpets, with mourning banners ; 

A horse in mourning, led by footmen in mourning ; 

The Great Gumphion borne on a lance ; 

The great mourning Pencil, j borne 

by Sir John Strachan ; 
The defunct s servants, and those of the Nobility 

and Gentry in mourning ; 

The Magistrates of St. Andrews ; 

The Magistrates of the other Royal Burghs ; 

The Magistrates of Edinburgh ; 

Professors of the University of St. Andrews ; 

Clergymen of the Diocese ; 

;;: From the old French word, Gonfalon, a banner. 

-\ TVobably from the French, Pennonc^nn, a small pennon. 



9-4 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OE ST. ANDHEWS. 

Doctors and other Dignitaries in the Church ; 

The Kector of the I niversity, ushered by his three Maces ; 

Gentlemen and Knights, two and two ; 

The Lords of Session, 

ushered by their four ordinary Maccrs ; 

The Nobility, according to their rank, two and two ; 

Two close trumpets; 

A mourning standard, borne by Sharp of Houston ; 
Four coats-of-arms. two paternal, and two maternal, borne 

each after the other : 

The great mourning banner, borne by Cunningham of Barnes ; 

His Grace s .Physician, Secretary, and Chaplain ; 

Six Pursuivants, in their coats, 

two and two ; 
Six heralds in their coats. 

two and two : 

The first bearing, on an antique shield, the Arms of the See, 

and of the defunct, impaled ; the second, that of the 

See; the third, the crosier; the fourth, the 

scarf: the iifth, the gown; 

the sixth and eldest, the mitre on a velvet cushion ; 
The Lord-Lyon, Iving-at-arms, in his coat; 

The Lord High-Chancellor, 
preceded by the purse and great mace 

.d THE COFFIN, ^ 

"o a adorned with scutcheons of the defunct s j ^ 

o arms, impaled with those of the See, ^ |" 

^ and with a mitre placed on a velvet cushion, c" 2 

^ . fringed and tasseled with gold, % g_ 

and covered with crape ; sL 

Chief mourners. Sir William Sharp of Scot s Craig, 

the deceased s only son, and 
Sir William Sharp of Stoneyhill, the deceased s brother. 

Over the Coflin 

A canopy, adorned with the mitre, with small escutcheons, 
mort-heads, and cyphers, borne by six Moderators 

of Presbyteries. " 

The Archbishop of Glasgow, aiid all the Bishops of Scotland ; 
The bloody gown in which his Grace was slain, borne 

by the Chaplain of his Household ; 

The coach out of which he was taken and murdered, with the 

coachman, horses, and postilion, all in deep mourning. 

A troop of horse-guards. 

The Church was all in mourning; the Pulpit, and before it a table 
covered with black velvet, on which the coffin was placed. The Funeral 
Sermon was Preached by John, Bishop of Edinburgh. The body was laid 
in the grave with the sound of open trumpets. Over the grave a canopy was 
erected, covered with black cloth, and adorned with the gumphion, stand 
ards, banners, &c., which had been carried in the procession. 



JAMES SHARP. 



95 




AIK liniSHOP SHARPS TOMB, TOWN CHri .CII, ST. ANDREWS. 



90 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

Y. THE TOMB AND THE INSCRIPTION. 

About a year and a half after the Archbishop s Murder, his sou, Sir 
William Sharp, of Scotscraig and Strathtyrmn, applied to the Kirk Session 
for permission to erect a Monument over his father s grave, in the Town 
Church. The Magistrates and Session, considering " the honour and duty 
which they owed to the memory of the late Lord Primate," and that the 
Monument would be an ornament to the Church, gave their consent for the 
erection. So Sir William disponed to the Kirk Session an Heritable Bond 
which he held over Lands at Boarhills, to the amount of 2500 Merks, or 
i lGGG 13* -if/ Scots, the annual Rent of which was to be drawn by the 
Session till the principal sum was redeemed, and was to be applied towards 
keeping the Monument in repair, and for behoof of the Poor. On the prin 
cipal sum being realized, about 85 years after, the Kirk Session hud it out 
in purchasing eight acres of land, in that portion of ground called the 
Prior s Acres, and in assisting to pay the price of other six acres, in the 
vicinity of the Town, purchased from Mr. George Hay of Leys. These lands 
continued to remain in the possession of the Kirk Session till the passing of 
the Scottish Poor Law Act, when they were transferred to the management 
of the Parochial Board. The Papers adducing these facts cast up in 1849, 
being found among the Kirk Session Records in an old box, and on being 
produced to the Board they gave instructions for the complete repair and 
renovation of the Tomb. At the commencement of these repairs, it was 
resolved to open it. Accordingly, on the Gth of March, 1840, the workmen 
proceeded, in presence of the Magistrates, the Parochial Board, and others 
interested, to remove the large flat stones in front of the Monument ; which 
being done, an entrance was easily effected into the Vault below. 

The Yault may be described as a Stone Chest, the inside measurement 
of which is 7 feet 4 inches in length, and four feet in depth ; breadth, at the 
head 3-J, and at the foot 2.V feet. Each side and end is composed of one 
standing on edge, and the top is one stone, about 10 feet by 5. In the 
Yault was found a large quantity of human bones, and the remains of 
numerous coffins, under all of which were discovered the remains of the 
coffin of the Archbishop. As the place was very damp, not a vestige of the 
wood or of his remains were to be found, after a deposit of 172 years. The 
large iron handles, and some of the corners, plates, &c., of coffins, were 
found all lying in their places. Considerable anxiety was displayed to get 
hold of the Skull, but it was not to be found. On that part of the lid which 
had been over the breast was found what was allowed to be a composite, on 
which was slightly discernible some traces of figuring, the whole surmounted 
by a knot of silk ribbon. Previous to closing up, a bottle was placed in the 
Yault, containing the names of those who were present, some Documents 
relative to the Monument, and a few Hand-bills. It appears that when the 
Town Church was repaired GO years ago, the Yault was opened then, and 
the Skull carried off. Others think that from the fact of the Town Council 



JAMES SHAH P. 97 

in 1725 having offered a reward of 10 Sterling for the discovery of persons 
who had broken into the Church at night, defacing the Monument, and 
carrying away part of the marble, that the Tomb must have been pillaged 
then. Previous to that Date it was very common to have Interments in the 
Church. When the floor came to be levelled for the seating, all human 
remains, c., were thrown .in here to be out of the way, which accounts 
exactly for the state in which the Vault was found. 

A few years before his Death, his Grace presented to the Town Church 
a silver Baptismal Basin and Communion Cup. The former weighs 6i oz. 
5 dwts., the latter weighs 87 oz. 12 dwts.; and, will it be believed, that on 
Sacrament Sundays, at the Evening Sermon, this Chalice is used as a 
Collection Plate at the door! The same use of the Communion Cups is also 
made at Craill. Each has the following Inscription : " In usum ecclesiae 
parochialis civitatis Scti. Andrcae, donavit Jacobus archiepiscopus, anno 
1G75." 

On the upper part of the Monument is an emblematical representation of 
the Archbishop supporting the Church, rent rather grotesquely ; next below 
are two Angels with wings extended, supporting the Shield, Mitre, and Crosiers. 
In the centre the Archbishop is kneeling, while an Angel places the Crown 
of Martyrdom on his head. I ro tnitr/t cornnmn from that time became the 
Family Motto. Beneath is an Urn, containing the Inscription, under which 
is a Bas-relief representation of the Murder. In the background the assas 
sins are in pursuit of the carriage ; in the front view they are putting the 
Primate to death, Guillau holding the horses, Ilaxton lingering aside on 
horseback, and the others in the act of the Murder. The daughter of the 
Archbishop is detained by two of the conspirators, while in an imploring 
attitude she begs her father s life. The following is a Translation of the 
Epitaph on the Urn of the Monument : 

To GOD, THE GREATEST AND THE BEST. 

This lofty Mausoleum covers the most precious remains of 
a most holy Prelate, most prudent Senator, 

and most holy Martyr ; 
For here lies all that is left under the sun of the most 

Reverend Father in Christ, 

JAMES SHARP, D.D., Archbishop of St. Andrews, Primate of 
all Scotland, &c. ; 

WHOM 
The University, as a Professor of Philosophy and Theology ; the 

Church as a Priest, a Doctor, and a Ruler; 
Scotland as a Chief Minister, both in her Civil and Eccle 
siastical affairs ; 
Britain, as the Adviser of the Restoration of King Charles II. 

and of Monarchy ; 
The Christian World, as the Restorer of the Episcopal Order 

in Scotland 
Saw, Acknowledged, and Admired ; 

VOL. II. N 



98 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OE ST. ANDREWS. 

WHOM 

All good and faithful Subjects perceived to be a Pattern of 
Piety, an Angel of Peace, an Oracle of Wisdom, 

an Example of Dignity ; 

And all the enemies of God, of the King, and of the Church, 

Found the implacable Eoc of Impiety, of 

Treason, and of Schism. 

AND WHOM, 

Notwithstanding he was endowed with such great and excellent qualities, a 
baud of nine parricides, through the fury of Fanaticism, in the light of noon 
day, and in the "Vicinity of his own Metropolitan City, murdered in a horrible 
manner, with many AYounds, from Pistols, Swords, and Daggers, after they 
had wounded his most beloved eldest Daughter and Domestics, weeping and 
imploring mercy on their knees, and whilst he himself had also fallen on his 
knees to implore mercy for them, on the 3d of May, 1071), in the Gist year 
of his age. 

LIT. ALEXANDER BUHNET. A.D. 1679-1684. (No Seal.) 

Alexander Burnct was son of Mr. John Biirnet, a Parochial 
Minister, who was of the Family of Barns. His mother was a 
daughter of the Family of Traquair. He was Born in 1614, 
and was Chaplain to the great Earl of Traquair. After the 
troubles began, he retired into England ; and, being there, was 
put into Holy Orders. He had a llcctory in the County of Kent, 
but was turned out of it by the Puritans, upon the score of 
Loyalty, in 1650. After this he went beyond sea, and had the 
good fortune to serve his then Majesty, King Charles II. , by 
intelligence from England and some other parts. Upon the 
Restoration, he became Chaplain to General llutherfortl, his 
father s first cousin, who was made Earl of Teviot sometime 
after. When this heroic Lord was constituted Governor of 
Dunkirk, Mr. Burnet had an English Congregation there. He 
was made Bishop of Aberdeen upon the Death of Bishop 
Mitchell, in 1662. [Bishop Mitchell Died in February, 1663. 
According to a MS. correction now before me, he succeeded to 
the Bishopric of Aberdeen in September, 1663. M. E.] He was 
Consecrated at St. Andrews by Archbishop Sharp, " some other 
Bishops being present at that time" [Lament s Dianj\, on the 
18th September, 1663. On the llth April, 1664, he was Trans 
lated to Glasgow, and after Archbishop Sharp s Murder, to the 
See of St. Andrews, 28th Oct., 1679, where he Died on the 24th 



ABTHUE EOSS. 99 

of August, 1684, and was Buried in S. Salvator s Church, near 
the Tomb of Bishop Kennedy. There is no trace, however, of 
his grave. On the last Letter which Archbishop Bancroft 
received from this Primate, he endorsed the following lines : 

" Obiit, Aug. 22, 1G8-1, horn 2<1 Matntina. 
Multis ille bonis flebilis oecidit ; 
Xulli fk bilior quam tibi, Scotia." 

Fountainhall says that Archbishop Burnet " Died at his 
house, in the Abbey of St. Andrews, 22nd of October, and was 
Buried in S. Salvator s Church. He was a man of much 
moderation, especially since he was laid aside in 1669." He 
left a piece of land in the neighbourhood of St. Andrews for the 
benefit of the Poor of the Guildry for ever, which still goes 
under the name of "Bishop Burnet s Acre." It yields an 
annual Rent of . 5 Ws. Martine of Claremont (the Author of 
Ecliquice Dii-i Sti Andrea , from which others besides me have 
borrowed information nowhere else to be had) dedicates his 
" Tract," such as it is, to Archbishop Burnet, in August, 1683. 
This small, modest " Tract" is only 256 pages quarto ! Martine 
alludes in his "Dedication" to the Primate s "exemplar and 
unflexible vertues, pietie, and honour (as much above flatterie as 
your Grace does generously despise it), that have justlie raised 
your Lordship to so eminent a statione in the Church, and put 
your Grace beyond the reach of their malice, under whose 
tongues lie the poison of asps. . . . And when your Grace 
hath for many years most successfullie served the great Bishope 
of our souls in your generation, that you may peaceablie ex 
change your Mitre for a Crowne, and your Rotchet for a Robe 
of Glorie." 

LIII. ARTHUR Ross. A.D. 1684-1688. 

Arthur Ross, son of Alexander Ross, Parson of Birse, in the 
Shire of Aberdeen, had his education at the University of St. 
Andrews, and was Minister first at Kinerny, next at Old Deer, 
both in the Shire of Aberdeen. He was then made Parson of 
Glasgow in 1665, in which station he continued till the year 
1676. He was, upon the Death of Bishop Scrogie of Argyle, 



100 



ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 



promoted to that Sec, and from thence was Translated to the 
See of Glasgow in 1070, and again from Glasgow to St. Andrews, 
by the King s Letters Patent, 31st October, 1084, where he 
continued until the Revolution in 1088 Deprived him and the 
rest of his Brethren. He Died 13th June, 1704. [Kcitli. 

Arthur Boss was the last of the illustrious line of Archbishops 
in this Sec who bore the Title, among whom were the sons 

of Kings and Nobles. 
So says Thomas Ste 
phen in his " History 
of the Church of Scot 
land. But they were 
sons of Kings and 
Nobles begot " on the 
wrong side of the 
blanket." Archbishop 
Boss was the son of 
Alexander Boss or 
Bose of Easter Clune, 
in the Parish of Birse, 
Aberdeenshirc, Par 
son of that Parish, 
and Chancellor of the 
Diocese of Aberdeen. 
This Alexander, the 
father of the Arch 
bishop, was a stout 
Anti-Covenanter. His 

Field filled by a figure of a Bishop Mitred and Robed, Bufferings are given 
holding before him a S, Andrew s Cross, the right hand in a Petition (ill 
raised in Blessing; over the figure a canopy. On Hie ,1-1 i 11-1 

sides the Legend, Sit < hristo suncis wlor. In the lower 

part of the Seal, a Shield bearing a chevron cheque John), presented by 
between three water-bougets ; in middle chief, a rose, his graildsOHS, John 
Above the Shield a Mitre and Mantling. The whole p c i\r- / f 

encircled by the Legend. [J/,//y/.r formerly >K Trinity llOS& 1V1] 
Collt i/e, (ncnnlnionil, time in the Anti<iii>irin)i Jfuwttiit, Foverail, aild Alex- 




ander Boss, Parson 
of Perth, afterwards Bishop Bose of Edinburgh. Bishop Keith 



AKTHUE ROSS. 101 

does not seem to have been aware of the relationship between 
Archbishop Ross and Bishop Eose ; but Grub alludes to it in 
his History (vol. hi., p. 278, Note), and refers to the " Genea 
logical Deduction of the Family of Rose of Kilravock," 525, 
Spalding Chtl. 

" (4.) Mr. John Rose of Insh, Minister of that Parish. This 
gentleman had two sons, viz., Mr. Alexander and Mr. Arthur. 
This last, viz., Mr. Arthur Rose, was, in 1075, Consecrated 
Bishop of Argyle. His elder brother (5), Mr. Alexander Rose, 
was Parson of Monimusk, and was father of two Clergymen, 
viz., Mr. John and Mr. Alexander. This Mr. Alexander was 
for some years one of the Ministers of Perth ; from whence he 
was Translated to Glasgow, and was made Professor of Divinity 
in that University. In 1080 he was Consecrated Bishop of 
Moray, from whence he was Translated to Edinburgh, in 1088. 
His elder brother (0), Mr. John, of Insh, was Parson of 
Foveran." Tin Family of Hose of Kilravock, Spalding Club, p. 
525.| 

The Honourable George Rose, of the Treasury, was of the 
same Family. His grandfather was Donald Rose of Wester 
Clune, in Birse. Alexander Ross, Author of " Helenore, or the 
Fortunate Shepherdess, a Poem in the broad Scotch dialect, 
was also one of the Birse Rosses. 

During the time the Archbishop was Minister of Kinerny, at 
the period of the Restoration, he Signed the Declaration of the 
Synod in favour of the re-establishment of the ancient Ecclesi 
astical Polity. He was made Parson of Glasgow in 1005, in 
which station he continued till 1075, when he was promoted to the 
See of Argyll, upon the Death of Bishop William Scrogie. He 
was Consecrated at Edinburgh in May 1075. along with Bishop 
Paterson for Galloway, by Archbishop Leighton of Glasgow, 
Bishop Young of Edinburgh, and by another Bishop whose name 
is not mentioned. I Lair s Memorialh, 4/o, 1818, p. 77.] He 
owned his appointment as "Parson of Glasgow" to his Prede 
cessor in the See. The Rev. C. J. Lyon, in his History of St. 
Andrews, vol. ii., p. 105, says "I have now before me a Copy 
of a Letter addressed to him when Minister of Old Deer, in the 



10-2 ARCHBISHOrS OF Till: SFF OF ST. ANDREWS. 

year l(H>i, by ilu 1 Into Primate .Burnet, then Archbishop of Glas 
gow, offering him a situation in that City of i 1 200 Scots per 
annum : for which ho was to Preach only once* every Lord s-day, 
and once on a week day, unless it be at Communions, or some 
siu h extraordinary occasions. The Archbishop furtluT evinces 
liis good opinion of him hy requesting him to - engage some 
deserving persons to come this way. for supplying our Vacancies, 
and at Meeting, and 1 shall study to provide for them as you 
think their parts and experience do deserve. 1 have also a 
Copy of a Peed hy the Provost and IVan of (iuild of Glasgow, 
conferring the Freedom of their City upon him when he was 
Bishop of Argyll, in ](>7~>." 

According to ISurnot, his namesake Pied in Scotland, (hru 
Tim* *, re/. //., / . ()*2(). " And Uoss, a pi>or. ignorant, worthless 
man. hut in whom ohedieneo and fury WCMV so emiiKMit that tlu^se 
suppliiul all other defects, was raised to he Primate of that 
Church ; which was. indeed, a sad omen, as well as a step to its 
fall and ruin." It required no strong light from (iilhert s Lamp 
of Prophecy to foretell ///, when he knew well what was going 
on behind scenes. 

It is not known where Archbishop l\oss resided during his 
latter years, after he was outed from his high position. .Pro 
bably he lived and Pied in Edinburgh in 1701, and was Pmried 
in the Churchyard ot .Hestalrig. In the Canongate Churchyard, 
near the north-west corner of the Church, is a Stone with this 
Inscription on the one side " To the Memorv of (Joorgo 
Stuart .Forbes, Fsq., Representative of the ancient Family of 
Brux, and his spouse, Margaret Stewart, only daughter of Capt. 
John Stewart, I\.X.. a Cadet of the honourable Family of l>al- 
lechin." On the other side of this Tombstone is " The proper 
Buryiug-placo of this Family is in Hestalrig, in the Tomb of his 
Grace Arthur l\oss, last Archbishop and Primate in Scotland, 
whose great-grandson, George Stuart Forbes, here interred was; 
but he, having Hied suddenly in Edinburgh, was privately interred 
here, formerly the Hurying-place of the Fglinton family." 

Archbishop l\oss daughter Anne Married, in 1087, John, 
fourth Lord Balmerino, and was the mother of Arthur, sixth 



AKT11UK i;u>S. 103 

Lord. beheaded on Tower-Hill. London, in 1740. with the Earl 
of Kilmaniook. 

A talo about a Bishop is always read. Here is one about 
our Archbishop : - 

"About two miles further on. I pass d the ruins of the old 
Church of Kinernie : the Parish was some years ago united to 
Midmar. In the Reign of Charles II.. Ross, afterward Archbishop 
of St. Andrews, was Minister here : but. being somewhat of the 
nature of Pharaoh s butler when exalted, he did not remember 
his brethren. It was. however, very natural to suppose that one 
who had felt the inconvenience of a small Stipend himself, would 
be ready to lend every reasonable aid to have his successors 
bettered : and upon this rational presumption the Minister of 
Kinernie reckoned upon the interest of his Metropolitan, in his 
intended application tor an augmentation of his Living. 

" He waited upon the Primate, and laid the case before him. 
You Country Clergymen. said the Bishop, should learn to 
moderate your desires. I know what it is to live in the Country. 
When I was Minister of your Parish. I could afford a bottle of 
good malt liquor, and a roasted fowl for my Sunday s dinner ; 
and I see not to what further you are entitled. The rural Priest 
made his bow, and retired with this parting compliment It 
would have been no great loss to the Church of Scotland, though 
your Grace had been yet eating roasted hens at Kinernie." 
/ ;<///( /.< l>< >u<il<tx Description of (he Ea*t Const of Scotland i l\iis- 
/</. 1782, 2 .-):]. 



]t (in A}>i iu-iti>i irltich ir,!* .<//< </ M hare b<\-n xf,-n in the ILm.-ie ft Arch- 
p /i ox.N-, il<-*< ri/ <- l in it Letter (-I the U,r. Jnhn \\~iinlen, and b>j him 
U d M the Her. H^l ei t 11 "tlroir. 



l\ev. Sir. I mind some time ago I hail the occasion to converse with 
you anont sunie thing which fell out in that house in St. Andrews where 
Bishop Ross lodged, which is as followeth : 

Andrew Uerrage. my wife s brother, principell servant at that time to 
the Bishop, a young man who was verie apt to crush anie surmise of aperi- 
tions before that time. Andrew Berrage told me and his sister that there 
is a chamber in that lodging possest then by the Bishop; that neither family 
nor stranger lay in that rooine. by reason of aue ould suspitioii of aperitions 
that frequented that roome. It fell out there comes so many strangers one 
day, that all the other roonies was taken up with the strangers except that 



104 ARCHBISHOPS OF THE SEE OF ST. ANDREWS. 

suspected roomc. My brother-in-law, indcvoring to banish such a Himcra 
(as he called it) out of the family, prevails with the paigc, a young lad, that 
both should ly together in that roomc ; and accordingly set on a good fire 
in the chamber, the bed being ncere to the middle of the roomc. My 
brother-in-law lies down with his face towards the (lore, the paige with his 
back to his, which obliged the one to loke to one end of the chamber, and 
the other to the other end of the chamber. 

About the middle of the night [comes! ane aperition of the coatclmian 
at the cntric of the chamber where my brother s face was pointing ; at the 
same time, the postilinc appears at the other end of the chamber. My 
brother and the paigc being both awake, the coatchman advances towards 
my brother in the foreside of the bed. My brother fals a scowldiiig of the 
coatchman, calling him drunken rascall, questioning him why he was not in 
bed ere this time. The aperition still advances towards him till it comes 
closs to the bed, and the other aperition in the back side of the bed advances 
towards the paige ; the paigc all the time smyling at my brother taking, as 
he thought all the time, the coatchman for the postilinc that advanced 
towards him. My brother-in-law riscth on his elbow, and swears he would 
ding the devill out of the coatchman, and thrusts at him with a full stroake, 
till he secth his arme through the aperition, and his hand on the other side 
of him. After the thrust at the aperition, the coachman and postilinc each 
of them went back to each end of the roomc and disappeared like smoak. 
Then, he said, instead of cursing he fell a praying ; then touches the paige, 
asking him if he was waking, who answered, " Yes." " Saw you the coatch 
man ?" said he ; who answered, " I saw the postilinc." 

After some conference betwixt them, they fand that their backs being 
towards other in the bed, and accordingly their faces looking to each end of 
the chamber, declaim! to each other what they saw as above. They 
instantly arose and sat at the fire till the morning, taking wan another 
ingaged not to devilge what they saw, for frightning the rest of the servants. 

However, the secret breaks out, and comes to Bishop Eoss his cars, who 
industeruslie laboured to desuad his servants, and for proof thereof he would 
ly in that chamber alon. His servant saves to him, in a jocking manner, 
" My Lord, alow me to be in the chamber below your Lordship." The fire 
is put on, candcls placed on the table, and in a little time his Lordship goes 
to bed. My brother and paige sets up in the roome below him. About the 
middle of the night, the Bishop comes down stairs with all sped possible, 
and thought it convenient to bring no thing with him but his shirt, bare 
footed, calling for his servants ; but what he saw he would reveal it to non. 

Sir, this is the rcall Account my wife and I had from her brother s 
mouth ; and next to seeing it myself, I could confirme it no better. 

My dewtiful service to you, your wife, and family. Your ain, 

THO. HARLAW.* 
Alloa, 14th January, 1718. 



:: "Private Letters" addressed to Mr. Wodrow, p. 18, Advocate s Library, 
Printed but not Published. 



THE REVOLUTION. 105 



THE REVOLUTION. 

(From a MS. by Bishop Rattray, Transcribed by Bishop Jolly from a Copy in the 
handicritiny of Bishop Alexander of AUoa.j 

AFTER Episcopacy was abolished, as to its legal Establishment, at the 
Revolution, the Bishops, it seems, found it impracticable to supply the 
Churches or Dioceses with new Bishops, as they fell vacant by the Death of 
any of their own number ; but the Inspection of these Dioceses, at least 
within the Provinces of St. Andrews, fell to the charge of the Archbishop 
thereof during his lifetime (if any were then vacant), and after his Decease, 
w ch happened June 13th, 1704, to the Bishop of Edinburgh, as Vicar of that 
Metropolitical Sec. 

Thus things continued till the year 1705, that all the Bishops being 
now dead except Paterson, Archbishop of Glasgow ; Rose, Bishop of Edin 
burgh ; Haliburton, Bishop of Aberdeen ; and Douglas, Bishop of Dumblane 
it was thought necessary to take care of the Succession, and not to suffer 
the Order of Bishops to be extinguished among us, that we might not be put 
to the necessity and hazard of having recourse to the Bishops of other 
Churches for new Consecrations, and of depending upon their good will 
whether and on what terms we should have a Church preserved to us. With 
this only view, therefore, the Rev. Mr. John Sage and Mr. John Fullarton 
were then Consecrated Bishops at Ed r , on S. Paul s Day, Janry. 25, 1705, by 
the Archbishop of Glasgow and the Bishops of Ed r and Dumblane. And 
after the Death of the Archbishop, w ch happened Deer. 9th, 1708, that they 
might not run too near to the number required by the Canons of the Church 
for Consecration, in case any accident should happen by the Sickness or 
Death of two of them together, especially being, as themselves express it, 
in the Diplomat a or Instruments of Consecration given by them, almost 
quite worn out with manifold cares, diseases, and old age (multiplicibus 
curis, morbis, atque ingravescente senis tantum non confectes) for this 
reason, I say, they Consecrated two more, viz., Mr. John Falconer and Mr. 
Henry Chrystie. This was done at Dundee on the 28th day of April, in the 



100 



PRESERVATION OF EPISCOPAL SUCCESSION. 



year 1709, by the Bishop of Ed r , assisted by the Bishop of Dunblane and 

Bishop Sage. 

And here it is to be remarked, that in the Consecration of these two, as 
well as of the two former Bishops, Haliburton of Ab<Mhu still alive, was no 
ways concurring ; nor indeed was he consulted, or so much as made privy 
to them. This, if their Consecration had been designed to give them any 
immediate Jurisdiction in this National Church, or to entitle them to 
decisive Votes in its Councils or Synods, would have been a step altogether 
unjustifiable, and repugnant to the Niccne and other ancient Canons of the 
Church. But as their design was only to preserve the Order (as I have said 
above), they thought that a valid Consecration by any three Catholic Bishops 
was sufficient for this purpose ; and intending, on prudential considerations, 
to keep their new Consecrations as much a secret as possible, they knew the 
weakness that attended that Bishop, at least in his old age, too well to 
intrust it with him. This I have been oftener than once told by one of the 
Bishops themselves, then Consecrated (Bishop Falconer), and indeed the 
thing sufficiently proves itself; for, had it not been on this account, what 
reason can be given why they should not have preferred the Bishop of Aber 
deen to be one of the Consccrators, who was a Diocesan Bishop of this 
Church, legally established in his See before the Revolution, to Mr. Sage, 
who had been but lately Consecrated a Bishop, only at large himself, and 
that, without any Designation to any Diocese, in the most private manner. 
That this Preservation of the Order, and not any Jurisdiction over this 
Church, which could never have been given to Bishops at large, consistently 
with the Canons and Discipline of the Church Catholick, was all that was 
intended by them in these Consecrations, is evident likewise from the very 
tenor of their Instruments of Consecration, in one of w ch now lying before 
me, and written with Mr. Sage s. own hand, immediately after the words 
above cited, follows: Qua propter, ex eo quod Deo, Supremo Servatori 
nostro, Sacrosanctie ejus Ecclesia?, et Posteris debemus, in Animum induxi- 
mus, Officium, Characterem, et Facultatem Episcopalem aliis probis, 
fidelibus, ad docendum et regendum idoneis Hominibus committere. Here 
you see that the very reason w ch moved them to make these new Consecra 
tions was, that the most part of their Colleagues being dead (plerosque 
Fratrum nostrorum carissimorum et in Collegio Episcopali Collegarum in 
Domino obdormiisse) and the few of them that were remaining (per 
paucos qui Divina Misericordia superstites sumus) almost quite worn out 
w 1 manifold cares, diseases, and old age, they thought that their duty to 
God obliged them to provide for his Church and for Posterity, by Consecrat- 



BISHOPS OF NO SPECIAL DIOCESES. 107 

ing persons to the Episcopal character, who might keep up a Succession of 
Bishops among us ; that they should be, <l docctulntn ct reyeiulinu hlonci, was no 
more than what the dignity of that character committed to them necessarily 
required ; besides that it made them the most likely Candidates for being 
chosen to be Bishops of particular Dioceses or Districts, by a regular or Cano 
nical Election, when the circumstances of the Church should make it proper 
or necessary ; and thereby of having the Government and Jurisdiction of these 
Districts, and in consequence ail interest also in that of the National or 
Provincial Church to which they belong, committed to them ; and therefore, 
whenever this might happen, it was necessary they should be qualified for it. 
In a Letter of the Bishop of Edinburgh to Mr. Falconar, before his Conse 
cration, he says " I doubt not but that you, w 1 many others, have been 
laying the afflicted state of our desolate Church to heart, and yet likely to 
fall under a farther desolation by the failure of our Order, if some speedy 
course be not taken to prevent the same ; " and then, having intimated their 
design of Consecrating him, and having barred all excuses from modesty or 
otherwise, he adds " So, I beseech you not to interpose delays, which are 
not sufferable in our present case ; but that you yield a ready compliance in 
what is both necessary and indispensable." Thus it is plain from the whole 
circumstances of these Consecrations that all that was intended by them 
was to preserve a Succession, and not to entitle them to any Jurisdiction in 
the Church, w ch they could not possibly imagine would be conferred by Con 
secration alone. But this will still farther appear from what is to be said 
afterwards. Having now six Bishops in all (for they did not reckon on the 
Bishop of Aberdeen, whom they could not trust w l the secret), they had no 
farther thoughts of adding any more to their number, till the Death of some 
of them should make it necessary. 

On the 7th of June, 1711, the R 1 11 (l and Learned Bishop Sage departed 
this life, and soon after his Death the Honourable Mr. Campbell came down 
from London. I find by a Letter of the Bishop of Ed r , dated July 2d, 1711, 
that he expected him at Ed r in 20 days after, according to a Letter he had 
received from him the Post before, and he says in this Letter, Mr. Campbel 
was to be altogether incognito ; and he was Consecrated at Dundee, August 
25th, in the same year 1711, by the Bishop of Ed r , the Bishop of Dunblane, 
and Bishop Falconer Bishop Haliburton of Ab d being still alive, and not 
so much as acquainted w 1 it. This was done upon the recommendation 
and at the earnest desire of the E 4 E d Bishop Hickes, whose design therein, 
no doubt, was that he might be assistant to them at London, whether he 
returned after his Consecration, and hath remained there ever since. But 



108 BISHOPS CH11YSTIE AND FALCONAE. 

Bishop Campbell s Consecration was not alone sufficient for their purpose 
in England, and therefore the Bishop of Ed r was prevailed on by their 
sollicitation to send up Bishop Falconer to London, in the end of the year 
1711, in order to Consecrate the 11 d Mr. James Gadderar, who was well 
known to and much csteem d by him; and accordingly he was Consecrated 
there on the 21th day of February, 1711-12, by Bishop Falconar, Bishop 
Campbell, and Bishop Hickes. 

In the month of May, 1718, Bishop Chrystie Died at Kinross ; and the 
Bishop of Ed r , considering that there were now only two Bishops within the 
Kingdom besides himself, viz., Bishop Fullartoun and Bishop Falconar (for 
the Bishop of Dunblane and the Bishop of Aberdeen were both dead before 
this time, and the two in England were by their circumstances confined to 
live at London, and could not easily undertake so long and expensive a 
journey as to come down to Scotland on any sudden emergency that might 
require it), did judge it necessary to Consecrate other two Bishops, that, in 
case of his own Death, there might be four Bishops within the Kingdom, 
w ch he thought as small a number as he could safely trust to, for the preser 
vation of the Succession; and accordingly on the 22d of October, 1718, he 
Consecrated Mr. William Irvine and Mr. Arthur Millar at Ed 1 , being assisted 
by the forementioned Bishops Fullarton and Falconar. 

Thus I have laid before the Reader a plain and simple Account of all 
the Consecrations made in the Church, from the Eevolution till the Death of 
the Bishop of Ed 1 . Now, till about the year 1712, these new Consecrated 
Bishops kept their character very secret, so as that few or none, except of their 
most intimate friends, knew any thing of it. At length Bishop Falcouar, 
observing the great neglect of the sacred Ordinance of Confirmation in the 
Country places, occasioned chiefly by their not having a Bishop at hand to 
apply to, thought it hard, and what he could not well answer to God for, 
not to afford them that assistance herein w ch his station enabled him to do, 
and therefore began to act a little more openly in this matter, that probably 
others of his Brethren might herein follow his example. But they never 
attempted to Ordain any Clergyman, or perform any Act w ch implied Juris 
diction, but by the Bishop of Edinburgh s special desire or permission. 
Thus, when the people of St. Andrews w r ere in want of a Presbyter to 
officiate among them, and were desirous that one Mr. James Morrice should 
be put in Orders for that purpose, Bishop Falconar, tho living within four 
miles of the place, would not meddle in it till he wrote to the Bishop of 
Edr, and had a Letter from him desiring him to do it, which Letter is still 
extant, as are likewise some others from the same Bishop to him, of the like 



THE BISHOP OF EDINBURGH YJLCAlt GENERAL. 109 

nature ; particularly one, wherein, understanding that he was going to the 
North to visit his friends there, he desires him to put a person, Mr. Patrick 
Maitlaud, recommended to him from that Country, into Deacon s Orders, 
and says he hopes to be able to put him into Priest s Orders himself, when 
that shall be necessary ; and he earnestly intreats him to employ himself in 
all the necessary offices respecting the Churche s good, and belonging to his 
character, in that Country, where, says he, there is much need of such an 
one as you. Nay, even the Bishop of Dunblane, when he lived at Dundee, 
would not Ordain any person out of his own Diocese, but as desired to do it 
by the Bishop of Ed r . "\Vc have an instance of this in the case of Mr. 
Robert White, who, upon a Vacancy at Essie, was chosen by those concerned 
there to that Charge. But this good Bishop did not meddle w* his Ordina 
tion, tin) he lived in the same Town w l him, till he had the Bishop of Ed r s 
Letter recommending it to him. Bishop Falconar happening at that time 
to come to Dundee, he shewed him the Letter, and intreated him to take a 
part in it, by Ordaining him Deacon, after which he himself should put him 
into Priest s Orders ; but he refused this, saying he had no Title to act in it, 
and that the Order not being directed to him, he could not regularly do it. 
And tho he yielded at length to his importunity, yet it was only on his 
promising to write an Account of it to the Bishop of Ed 1 , and to take all the 
blame of that irregularity upon himself. But that the Bishop of Ed r , after 
the Death of the other local Bishops (to which icni the several instances 
above mentioned are to be referred), kept the sole power of governing the 
National Church in his own hands, and that the Clergy and people through 
out the whole Kingdom still applied to him as to their Ordinary, is a thing 
too well known, and too recent in everybody s memory, for any person to 
pretend to call it in question. 

Let us now, before we proceed farther, look back to the state of this 
Church w 1 respect to Publick Worship, preceding this period of the Bishop 
of Ed r s Death, which, indeed, at the Revolution, and for a long time after, 
was very lamentable, and such as scarcely deserved that name ; for we 
had no such thing as any Offices or Liturgie used among us. The method 
in our ordinary Assemblies on the Lord s-day was almost the same with 
that of the Presbyterians, beginning w* singing a stanza or two of the Metre 
Psalms, after w cb followed an extemporary Prayer, during which, as well as 
at singing of the Psalms, most of the Congregation sat irreverently on their 
breech, only they were uncovered. Then came a long Sermon, the text of 
which was no sooner read but most of the people put on their hats and 
bonnets. After the Sermon followed another extemporary Prayer, at the 



110 DISMAL STATE OF PUBLIC WORSHIP. 

conclusion of w dl they said the Lord s Prayer, then another stanza or two 
of the Metre Psalms, w ch they concluded w* a Doxology ; but the people sat 
likewise during all the time of this last Prayer and Psalms, in the same 
manner as in those before Sermon, only they rose up at the Doxology, tho 
some thought even that too superstitious ; whether they generally stood up 
at the Lord s Prayer I am not so certain. After the Doxology, the Congrega 
tion was dismissed with the Blessing ; but indeed most of them did not wait 
for it, for all the time it was a pronouncing they were running out of Church 
like so many sheep breaking out of a fold, in the greatest hurry and confusion. 
Nay, from the time the Sermon was ended, the people, in many places at 
least, began gradually to drop out ; for, in truth, the hearing of it was the 
only design they had in coming to Church, and that wherein they placed all 
Publick Worship ; tho, properly speaking, it be not so much as a part 
thereof, being intended only for instructing the people in their duty, or 
exhorting them to the performance of it, to whom therefore it is directed, 
whereas all Worship must be directed to (loci only. And even for their 
instruction it is plain in itself, and experience too sadly confirms it, that 
Sermons can be of little use to such as have not been before duly catechised 
in the fundamental principles of our Holy Religion ; and for this we gen 
erally made use of no other Catechism but that of the Westminster 
Assembly, the unfitness of -\v ch to this end is so well known to all men of 
sound principles, that I need not insist on it. 

The Holy Eucharist was not Celebrated in most places at least above 
once a year, if so often, and their method of doing it differed also very little 
from that of the Presbyterians ; for they had their Preparation Sermon (as 
they call it) the day before, their Action Sermon on the clay itself, besides 
their Discourses at the Serving of the Tables; for they had long tables 
placed in the Church, on each side of w ch the people sat as if it had been at 
a common meal, and handed about the Elements from one to another, 
whilst the attending Elders shoved the plate w l the Consecrated Bread along 
the table for their greater conveniency, during w cb time a Presbyter was still 
discoursing to them ; only after each table was served, while they who had 
Communicated were removing and others planting themselves again about 
it, a stanza of a Psalm was sung; and on the day after they had their 
Thanksgiving Sermon. All this work of Preparation, Action, and Thanks 
giving Sermons and Discourses at Serving the Tables, for these Avere the 
phrases used by them, as well as by the Presbyterians, obliged them like 
wise to take the assistance of two or three Presbyters from the neighbouring 
Parishes, only they did not call so many as the Presbyterians do, who have 



EPISCOPAL EXTEMPORE PRAYEES. Ill 

two or three Sermons going on together, one in the Church, and others in 
the Church yard, or open fields, where the Sermons continue from morning 
till night, the Preachers still succeeding one another ; nor did the Presby 
ters who came to assist bring the people of their Parishes along with them, 
far less did people convene from far distant places as it were to a Fair or 
Mercat, not to Communicate but to be hearers of the Sermons only, as is 
now done among the Presbyterians on these Occasions, as they call them. As 
for the Consecration, that was performed by an extemporary Prayer, which, 
how defective it must frequently have been may be easily judged, consider 
ing that many of them had no notion of Its being the Sacrifice of the 
Christian Church ; only they repeated indeed the Words of the history of the 
Institution. And th<"> they might proportion the Bread at first to the number 
of Communicants before Consecration ; yet at least in many places they 
generally Consecrated but a small part of the Wine, and when it was 
exhausted, they had a little barrel or some other such vessel at hand, from 
w ch they filled more, and streiglit used it wknit any Consecration at all. 
And as for the Sacred Ordinance of Confirmation, which the Primitive and 
Catholick Church always looked on as so very necessary for conferring the 
Holy Spirit on such as had received the Baptism of Water, it was not at all 
used by us. This so great affinity betwixt us and the Presbyterians as to 
what respected Publick Worship, if I may call what is ordinarily transacted 
in our Lord s-days Assemblies by that name ; for, in truth, the proper 
Worship of the Christian Church, the Worship of the faithful, is, as it was 
always believed to be in the primitive ages, the Sacrifice of the Holy 
Eucharist, which therefore was then never omitted in their Publick As 
semblies, every Lord s-day at least. This so great affinity to them, I say, 
was without doubt the reason why our people so generally joined w* the 
Presbyterians in the beginning of the Revolution, or, as they expressed it, 
went to the Kirk to hear them ; as perceiving no other difference from what 
they had been formerly used to, save only in the omission of the Lord s 
Prayer and the Doxology, at the times I have formerly mentioned ; which, 
had the Presbyterians been so wise as to have continued, their harvests had 
probably been still greater ; for the Divine right of Episcopacy, and the 
necessity of an Ordination by Bishops for conferring the Sacerdotal Powers, 
was then very little known among our Laity, perhaps not by several of our 
Clergy themselves. Tho all this which I have now described, notwithstand 
ing we had all along some men of good learning among us, who had studied 
the Ancients and payed a just deference to the judgment and testimony of 
the Primitive Church ; but as this was a study too much neglected, most of 



112 THE REV. MR. NOME S NOTIONS. 

them taking up only with the Systematical Divinity, all that these could do 
was to regrate what they had not sufficient power to help. 

In this deplorable state we continued till about the year 1707 or 1708, 
only the English Common Prayer Book had been used in some private 
families before, almost from the beginning of the Revolution ; but about 
that time it began to be introduced into our more Publick Assemblies ; and 
as the Gentry and people of better fashion were generally zealous in promot- 
in" it, so it came to take very soon with our commons also; only some few 
of our older Clergy shewed some backwardness to it, as looking upon every 
alteration from what they had been accustomed to, how much soever to the 
better, as a culpable innovation. Of this there was a remarkable instance 
at Dundee, where the most of the considerable Citizens of our Communion, 
together w f scverals of the Gentry who then lived in Town, were very keen 
to have it brought in ; yet Mr. Norie, the first Presbyter of that place, and 
whom we shall have occasion to mention afterwards, opposed it all he could, 
and, as I am credibly informed, even Preached against it. However, they 
persisted stedfastly in their resolution, and after several Meetings and Con 
ferences w l him about it to no purpose, they at length plainly told him that 
if he would not agree to their design, w ch his reasonings seemed to imply he 
was not at freedom to do, they would call a third Clergyman to read Prayers 
for them ; but that to prevent any division, and that they might not inter 
fere wt one another in that case, the Prayers should be begun so early on 
the Lord s day as to be over before his usual hour of meeting, which all of 
them should likewise attend. And so they left it to be considered of by him 
and his Collegue, who joined with him in this refusal, not out of principle or 
inclination, for he had been among the first in this Kingdom who had 
used them in a family where he was Chaplain, but through a slavish 
obsequiousness to Mr. Norie, and for fear of offending him. This proposal 
of a third Clergyman, w ch they had good ground to believe the Bishop of 
Ed r would have granted them, if it should have been found necessary, for 
they had acted all along by Mr. Sage s advice, with whom one of their 
number kept a Correspondence, and he being then at Ed r , by him under 
stood that Bishop s sentiments ; this proposal, I say, at first stunn d Mr. 
Norie and his Collegue ; but when they came to reflect on it, they reckoned 
they might make a handle of it for inducing several people to stand by them 
in opposing the introduction of the Common Prayers ; and accordingly they 
run about representing it as a design formed against their interest, and for 
breaking and dividing their Congregation, and earnestly obtested such as 
they thought they could have any influence on, to appear against it at the 



HIS CHANGE OF MIND. 113 

next meeting, as they had any regard for them or for the preservation of 
peace and unity a pretext which they who set themselves in opposition to 
any wise and good designs, for rectifying what may be amiss or defective, 
never fail to make use of when they .find themselves at a loss as to the 
merits of the cause. Bur. neither by this, nor by all their other practices, 
could they ever prevail w t any to declare against the Common Prayers : only 
they got two to promise that they should, at the ensuing meeting, stand up 
against introducing them at that time and in the manner proposed, and 
accordingly they did so ; but before the meeting broke up, they found them 
selves, to their great surprise, deserted both by Mr. Norie and his Colleague, 
which bad treatment of them, as they supposed, they very much resented 
for a long time after. 

This sudden change was thus brought about. The Managers and others 
concerned in this matter being, as T have said, very well informed by Mr. 
Sage of the Bishop of Edinburgh s inclinations to favour their design, had 
before urged Mr. Norie to write to him for his advice and directions about 
it, which, tho at their importunity he had once condescended to do, yet he 
still delayed, and at last flatly refused. Whereupon they wrote again to Mr. 
Sage, and by his means procured a Letter from the Bishop of Ed r to Mr. 
Norie. This Letter was put into his hands when he was at this meeting; 
what were the contents of it we are only left to guess : but after reading it 
by himself, and communicating it to his Colleague, his warmth sensibly 
abated. He began to speak softly of the Common Prayers, and after having 
faintly expressed a fear thai it would occasion some to fall ofT from them, 
he at length condescended to the introducing of them, only he desired that 
another might be employed to begin them ; which was agreed to, and Bishop 
Chrystie was pitched on for this, who came upon their desire, and having 
read Prayers for them, first on a Litany day, and then on the Lord s-day 
after, left them to continue it. This Letter of the Bishop of Ed r Mr. Norie 
afterwards termed an Order, and used to value himself that he was the only 
person who had such an Oder from his Bishop for that purpose. And 
indeed, if it was a peremptory Order, J. believe he was so far in the right; 
for that worthy Prelate, tho he encouraged the bringing in of the Prayers 
all he could, yet did not think proper to impose them, especially in. our 
present circumstances. But there was something so very singular in this 
case, where Mr. Norie had so long and so stiffly opposed the general bent of 
his Congregation, that it was no wonder if he stepped a little beyond his 
ordinary method. But tho Mr. Norie was thus prevailed on to comply so 
far as to read the ordinary Prayers on Sundays and Litany days, yet at 

TOL. II. P 



114 PRAYER BOOKS SENT FROM ENGLAND. 

Easter following lie continued to Celebrate the Holy Eucharist after his 
former manner, such as I have described above, and designed to have done 
so next year also, at the return of that solemn Festival ; but finding the 
Gentry, many of whom were then in Town, determined to leave it on that 
account, and to go to such places in the Country where they might have the 
opportunity of having it Celebrated in a manner agreeable to their senti 
ments, he ever yielded to them in this also, tho not without shewing some 
rcluctancy. The pretext he made use of against it was the same he had so 
much insisted on against the Common Prayers in general, viz., that he 
would thereby lose many of the Commons ; but how very groundless this 
pretext was, soon appeared, for none of them absented or took any the least 
objection at it ; nay, his Congregation, w cb was indeed one of the most con 
siderable iu the Kingdom, rather increased upon it than diminished. There 
were some few others of the old Clergie, one or two at Fd r itself, who did 
not use the Common Prayers during all Bishop Rose s lifetime. But into 
most of our Congregations throughout the whole Nation they were very 
quickly introduced, without the least opposition that I know of any where, 
even from the meanest of our Commons. The prudent and gentle methods 
used by the Bishop of Ed r , w ch can never be sufficiently commended, 
contributed not a little to the success of this whole affair ; for he contented 
himself w 1 doing what he could to promote it by his encouragement, but 
without attempting in the least to impose it by way of authority, a method 
Av ch I am perswaded would be the most effectual in many cases, where any 
tiling might be judged tit to be reformed. "\Vc were also very much assisted 
by the charity of the good people in England, who sent down from time to 
time great parcels of Common Prayer Books, w ch were distributed gratis 
among the common people, to their great encouragement. This is what we 
ought ever to retain a very grateful sense of, as well as of their other 
charities to us, and to pray that they may be rewarded by the Blessing of 
God on them and their posterity. 

Some people among us could have wished that instead of the English 
Prayer Book, that w h was formerly composed for the use of our own Church 
in K. Ch. Ist s time, had been now introduced; but that could not have been 
so easily done, as for other reasons perhaps, so especially through want of 
Books, whereof so great a number as was requisite to be distributed among 
the Commons could not have been so soon provided. Besides, the differences 
betwixt them are not very material, save only in the Communion Office. 
Here, indeed, ours is allowed to have the preference, even by the judgement 
of the learnedest Writers of the Church of England themselves, and accord- 



ENGLISH NONJUBOKS COXTTtOYEP.SY. 115 

ingly it was used by scverals of our most intelligent Clcrgie, w l the Bishop 
of Ed r - s knowledge and allowance ; and even some who did not use it, did 
yet interject a Prayer of Invocation for the descent of the Holy Ghost to 
bless and sanctify the Elements, and to make them the Sacramental Body 
and Blood of Christ, and read the first Prayer in the Post-Communion 
immediately after the words of Institution, for a Prayer of Oblation as it 
was originally designed. It may not be improper also to remark, that even 
before we had the Common Prayers it was the custom in many places to 
mix a little pure and clean water with the Sacramental "Wine, not indeed at 
the Altar, but in preparing the Elements before. This custom was almost 
universal throughout the North, perhaps from the very time of the Beforma- 
tion ; and after this time we arc now speaking of, it came to spread still 
somewhat more, several of our younger Clergie, especially, beginning to 
acquaint themselves w 1 the Principles and Practices of the Primitive Church, 
and to pay a great regard to them. 

In the year 1717, there arose a Controversie among the Xonjurors in 
England, concerning the restoring of some primitive usages that had been 
retained in the first Liturgic of Edw 1 Gth, which, as Mr. AVhcatly observes 
[Hat. Illitfitr., }>/t : /. 20] , had this just encomium from King and Parliament, 
li that it was set forth by the aid of the Holy Ghost," but were dropt in the 
second, not from any worthy cause, but rather from curiosity, as was 
declared even by the Parliament w ch confirmed that review ; that is, indeed, 
to gratify such as were tinctured w* the leaven of Calvinism, and particularly 
these two forreign Divines, Buccr and Martyr, whom Cranmer had invited 
over, and but too much consulted in this affair. These, perhaps, did not 
obtain to have all the alterations made in the English Reformation vv ch 
probably they might have desired, but that they prevailed so far as to 
procure "the laying aside several very primitive and venerable usages" 
[Wheathj s Hat. Jllitxti:, p. IT , is not to be denied. 

It is not necessary to my present design to give any particular Account 
of this Controversie, W h may be much better understood by consulting the 
learned Writings that were Published on both sides, and are very well worthy 
to be carefully read and compared together by all such as would frame a 
right judgement of it. Only it may be proper to be observed here, that they 
who were against the proposed alterations did not pretend to condemn these 
usages as any way sinful or culpable ; nor did they deny that they were 
attested by the Fathers who wrote even before the first Council of Nice, as 
received and practised by the Church in the 2d Century at least, that is, in 
the age \v ch immediately succeeded the Death of the Apostles ; for the testi- 



110 PARTICULARS OF DISPUTATION. 

monies of Justin Martyr, Ircncus, Clemens Alexanclvinus, Tertnllian, St. 
Cyprian, and Arnobius, do plainly evince this beyond all eontroversie. Xor 
farther is it disputed, that after that Council, from the 4th Century down 
wards till the very times of die Reformation, they were universally ased by 
the whole Catholick Church, this being also unquestionably evident from the 
Writings of the subsequent Fathers, as well as from the Councils and Publick 
Liturgies of all Churches ; nay, some of them at least freely owned them to 
be desideranda, and thai they should be hcartih glad to have them restored 
in a regular way. All that they pleaded was 1st, that they were not of 
absolute necessity, and that because, as they alleged, they were not contained 
in the Scriptures : and 21y, thai nothing short of their being thus .necessary 
could make it allowable for them to use them, as being strictly bound to the 
observance of their present Liturgy, til] it should be altered by an authority 
every way equal to that w ch had established it. On the contrary, their 
adversaries asserted that they wci c ncccssarv parts of Christian Worship, 
that they were to be found in the Scriptures, if explained according to the 
notions and phraseology of the age in w cli they were wrote, which is neces 
sary for understanding the sense of all ancient Writings : and that thn it had 
been otherwise, yet their necessity might have been sufficiently proved from 
Apostolical Tradition, as St. Basil observes [Ad Amplrilocliium, <lc Xj>. Smicto 
c. 27., Yid<> el <ij>ud Jjcceri;/. I and. C un., Tuiti. 2, ]>. 370], " tho the Apostles 
did indeed commit the yjr^vy para , or Doctrines of Christianity, to writing in 
the Scriptures, yet not the tibypara, or Mysteries of the Christian Worship. 
These, thu equally tiscful and necessary to Christian piety, and what cannot 
be rejected without doing the greatest injury to the Gospel, yet the Church 
receives as delivered to them only by xVpostolical Tradition, in such a manner 
as is proper to the nature of mysteries : i.e., so as not to be distinctly known, 
and understood by the uninitiated, and w ch consequently could not be plainly 
delivered in Writing. Obscurity is also a way of keeping things secret, as he 
farther observes, and this the Scripture uses in speaking of any of these 
doypara. All which, says he, is designed for the benefit of the uninitiated 
reader, that the Publication of them may not render these venerable 
Mysteries cheap and contemptible in the eyes of such as are not duly 
prepared to receive them." They urged also the testimony of St. Augustine, 
St. Jerome, Tertullian, &c., as also several passages from the Scriptures 
themselves, to prove the obligation of observing unwritten Traditions when 
the conveyance is unexceptionable. So that the Controversie turned, not 
on their lawfulness or expedience, or on their being desiderauda things 
wanted to compleat the English Eeformation, the restoration of w ch in a 



THE BISHOP OU EDINBURGH. 117 

regular way were to bo wished for but on their being necessary or essential, 
as some were pleased to express it. This 1 remark not with any design to 
pass a judgment in this matter, but only for the sake of some among us, 
who, either through their own ignorance or to serve their private ends, by 
imposing, after a most unjustifiable manner, on the ignorance of others, 
endeavour to raise clamours against these usages, as unlawful, Popish, and 
superstitious ; by w ch they unawares do the greatest service imaginable to 
Popery, by confounding it with pure, primitive Christianity ; and are so 
very daring as to condemn the judgment and practice of the Catholick 
Church, even in the earliest and purest ages, those ages wherein the noble 
army of Martyrs sealed their testimony for the truth of Christianity with 
their blood, and wherein Miracles and other extraordinary gifts of the Spirit 
were still continued with the Church in a plentiful manner. Whereas the 
Church of England herself proposed these very ages as the standard of hers, 
as they ought unquestionably to be of all reformation. And, if this were a 
proper place for it, it were easy to prove by a large collection of testimonies 
that the learnedest ^^ T riters of that Church have ever mentioned all these 
Usages with approbation, both before and since this Controvcrsie began ; and 
seem to rcgrate that she should have been prevailed on by the forementioned 
influence so far to depart from her own rule as to lay them aside. Xay, it 
is objected to her by some of the Dissenters themselves, when they are urged 
w l the arguments from Antiquity. But to go on w l our Narrative. No 
sooner was this Coutrovcrsic started in England but both parties applied to 
the Bishop of Ed r , each of them endeavouring to engage him to their interest. 
But this wise and prudent Prelate rightly judged that it was his business 
only to act the part of a mediator betwixt them if possible, which yet he 
found himself very much difliculted how to do, considering that as the one 
asserted these Usages to be so absolutely necessary that they could by no 
means Communicate without them ; so the other, who denied this, pleaded 
their obligation to adhere to the established Liturgy of their Church ; but 
he would by no means declare himself of either side. This plainly appears 
by Letters still extant under his hand, in one of which, Dated May 22d, 
1718, he says " In my humble opinion, seeing that matters are come to an 
open rupture, and that coiitroversie, new among Protestants, stands not so 
much upon the foot of expediency or inexpediency, lawfulness or unlawful 
ness, primitiveriess or not (for all primitive Usages are not necessary), but is 
stated in the terms of necessity or no necessity, we wave any interposing in 
this matter, untill we see, if not the issue and end of this debate, yet at least 
something farther into it ; for till one party find itself at a loss in point of 



118 SCOTCH COMMUNION OFFICE. 

argument and reason, I sec no hopes of succeeding in any enterprise of ac 
commodation." And a few lines after, lie adds "As for my own part, 
seeing so much stress is laid upon them, I am very desirous of farther 
information ; heing, God willing, resolved, if I find these Usages strictly 
necessary, to embrace them together, w l all the disadvantages that may 
attend them ; if only lawful, some way useful or desireahle, prudence in this 
case, and in such cases only, ought to ho consulted." And in another, 
Dated September 18th, in that same year "Mr. Peck continues still here, 
notwithstanding that 8 or 10 days ago he asked my commands for London. 
I told him that I would write w l him, and repeated to him what I had told 
him long ago, which was, that I believed we would not explain ourselves in 
the matter of the controverted Prints until we saw the issue of the Contro- 
versic." And in another Letter of his, February 18ih, 1720, but a very 
short time before his Death, after giving his approbation of some proposals 
of Accommodation that had been drawn up by a gentleman at his desire, ho 
adds "But as I find himself something distrustful of the success of his 
proposal and expedient, as matters stand stated at present witli our Brethren 
abroad, so I am afraid likewise that untill the present ferment that is among 
them be something abated, they shall not be easily wrought upon to hearken 
to terms of Unity or Concord ; thu I am hopeful that time may bring them to 
more tractablcness and temper." And that indeed this good Bishop was no 
enemy to ancient Usages, but wished that they might be established among 
us, tht ) lie was afraid to have them urged and imposed in so rigid a manner 
as not at all to admit of any prudential allowances, at least without the 
most indispensible necessity, may be clearly seen from what he writes on 
occasion of some Administrations that he judged to be defective, in a Letter 
of his, Dated the 30th of July, 1713, long before this Controvcrsie began, 
wherein he says " that he hopes, through the Divine indulgence, from the 
Churches in w ch they live, their acceptation of them, and the insuperable 
difficulties the far greater part of people arc under to know otherwise, they 
shall sustain no prejudice in that case ; but that for such, who upon 
maturity of judgement, after diligent enquiry, scruple them, he thinks it 
hard to reject them when they conic to have these defects supplied." Only 
as to the manner of doing it, he advises that great caution be used, and 
then concludes with this excellent Prayer " God Almighty, give us all 
fuller and clearer light, and establish all things among us upon the true 
ancient foundations." Besides, I have already observed that he allowed the 
use of the Scotish Liturgie or Communion Office ; no doubt as reckoning it 
on this account preferable to the English ; and was very well aware that the 



EXCELLENT EEGIMEN OF BISHOP EOSE. 119 

mixture was also used by many, and particularly by Bishop Falconar (for 
whom ho always expressed the greatest friendship and regard), several years 
before the English Controversic began, as well as afterwards. Nay, farther, 
he allowed that gentleman, from whom he had the proposals of Accommo 
dation mentioned above, the use even of the Communion Office, then lately 
composed in England, in his own private family, being sufficiently convinced 
of his due regard to the Peace and Unity of the Church, and deference to 
the authority of his Superiours. 

On the 20th day of March, 1720, it pleased God to remove this excellent 
person from us, after he had sate so long at the helm in very cloudy and 
stormy weather, and governed this Church (the whole burthen of w ch lay on 
his shoulders) w* the greatest prudence and caution, and Av 1 a very even and 
steady hand. His death was somewhat sudden, so that he left no directions 
how matters were to be managed after him ; but his own example, had it 
been followed by his Successors, might have served instead of all directions 
he could have possibly given. 

Upon his demise (says the Author of the " Review of the Elections of 
Bishops in the Primitive Church," whose words I shall here set down, 
because he not only knew the fact perfectly well himself, but hath also, as 
he tells us, extracted his Account from the Minutes thereof), all the Clergic 
in and about Edinburgh, " whether properly belonging to that Diocese or 
not, did, by common consent," &c. (the words of the Book, which sec, are 
quoted at length from p. 230 to these words, p. 210, "this is clear from the 
preceding remarks.") Thus far this learned gentleman, to whose remarks I 
shall add other three, no less obvious 1st, It is, I think, from hence mani 
fest beyond dispute, that, as I said above, after the Death of the other Ante- 
Eevolution Bishops, Bishop Eosc, during all his lifetime, had kept the 
Government of this whole National Church in his own hand, and never 
admitted those new Consecrated Bishops at large to a partnership with him 
in the Jurisdiction thereof, as a College Avherein things were to be carried 
by a majority of votes ; otherwise how could their characters have been so 
little known to all these Presbyters as that they could say, " They had only 
heard it whispered about that they had been received into the Order of 
Bishops, but that it was still but hearsay"? 21y, That Avhat Bishop Fal 
conar here declared, in the name and presence of the rest of his Brethren, 
did not drop from him rashly and unadvisedly, but was agreeable to his 
settled judgment, this appears from a Letter of his to that gentleman who 
drew up the above-mentioned Proposals, and sent them together with the 
Letter w ch he wrote along with them to Bishop Eose, to be revised by him, 



120 LETTEES OF BISHOP FALCONAE. 

and either forwarded or not, as lie should approve of them. This gentleman, 
writing to this Bishop, had said, that " That Government was new and 
unprecedented, if it could properly Le called a Government at all, where 
there were only Bishops at large who, tho they may perform Episcopal acts 
in a vacant Diocese, yet cannot claim any Title to a particular Jurisdiction, 
or challenge the obedience of the subjects of any particular Diocese, ante 
cedently to a Canonical Election;" adding these words, "This is a very 
great inconveniency, which f. could heartily wish were timeously thought of 
w l respect to ourselves ; where, if it be not prevented, there are some events, 
not very unlikely to happen, w ch may make it of very bad consequence." 
This Bishop Falconar, in his forcsaid Letter to him, Dated December 14th, 
1719, takes particular notice of. What you suspect," says he, " concerning 
Bishops at large, is as seasonable so 1 chink most providential." This he 
said, because he hoped it would have put the Bishop in mind to take proper 
measures in time with respect to the Government of this Church, so as that 
it might be settled on a regular footing, as far as circumstances would 
permit, in case of the event of his own Death. But ;das the many and 
uneasy avocations he every day met with, and the bad state of his health, 
both which he complains of in his Letter of February 18th, 1720, which I 
have mentioned above, and his being so soon after snatched away from us, 
disappointed these hopes. But there is another Letter of Bishop Falconar s 
still extant likewise, which was wrote immediately after Bishop Eosc s 
Death, and before Bishop Fullarton s coming to Town, which shews that 
not only he, but the Presbyters also themselves, were aware of this. " Our 
Presbyters here are divided, says bo, " and some of them moved the sight 
of our Syngrapha, pleading that they were not, in matters of that conse 
quence, to go on presumption, but on evidence. To this we frankly went 
in ; but then the same persons, though they own all honour to be due to our 
character, and that we are vested with full Faculty to Ordain and Confirm, 
now that all the Sees of the Nation were vacant, yet deny us any power or 
jurisdiction, through defect of Election. You know that I was apprized of 
this, insomuch that I never exerted any act of authority, and had nothing 
more at heart than to have some reasonable expedient condescended on 
how valid Titles to appropriated Districts should be constituted." And 31y, 
It is also plain from the above Account that it was the design of the Electors 
that the person to be chosen by them should be, in the proper sense, Bishop 
of Edinburgh, w l the same Ecclesiastical Privileges that his Predecessors in 
that See had enjoyed. For this was the very reason, and indeed they could 
not possibly have any other, why they admitted all the Presbyters, even of 



THE COLLEGE SYSTEM. 121 

other Dioceses or Districts, who happened to be then in Town, to join with 
them in the Election, on account of the extcnsiveness of his influence as 
Vicar of St. Andrews, and the concern they might have therein, during the 
Vacancy of that Metropolitical See. Not that this gave these other Presby 
ters a proper Title to claim any votes in this matter, but that the Presbyters 
of that Diocese to whom it properly belonged thought it reasonable to allow 
them a share in it, especially in the then present circumstances, when, all 
the other Dioceses being vacant, they also must be under his immediate 
inspection, so long as their Vacancy continued, which, with respect to 
severals of them at least, might probably be for some considerable time. 
But no sooner was Bishop Fullarton Elected, than some of the other Bishops 
framed to themselves the scheme of governing this whole National Church 
in common, under the name of the " College of Bishops," a name indeed 
very well known, as used by the Ancients to signify all the Bishops of the 
Catholick Church, as being all of one and the same Order, distinct from and 
superiour to Presbyters, and each of them the single principle of unity to 
his particular Church; but perfectly new and unheard of as applied by them 
to a sett of Bishops at large acting in common, which made this Church no 
better than a monster with a multitude of heads. And in order to effectuate 
this their newly projected scheme, they insisted that he should not be Bishop 
of the Diocese of Edr according to the intention of his electors, but only " of 
the District in and about Edinburgh," as they were pleased to name it, and 
that he should be only their Primus, with a power of convocating them, and 
presiding in their Meetings ; which, he being a good-natured man, through 
the over-easiness of his temper, did then comply with. It may be thought 
strange that Bishop Falconar, who, from what has been above related, 
appears to have been very well aware of the no-authority of Bishops at large, 
should yet have yielded to this project of a College, which he not only knew 
to be without precedent, but to be utterly inconsistent with the primitive 
plan of Ecclesiastical Government, and that fundamental principle of Units 
Dens, units CIiriNtus, tnnts Kjiixcnjms, In uiui Kfdcxia One God, one Christ, one 
Bishop, in one Church, upon which the Unity of the Church was established. 
But as he knew the stiffness of those he had to deal with, he judged it might 
be of dangerous consequence if they should, upon any account, split among 
themselves at so critical a juncture. Besides, it had been suggested to him 
that the Clergie in Angus and Mearns, who had a great esteem of him, would, 
if it were thought proper, cheerfully concur in Electing him for their Bishop, 
and that others probably would follow their example, so that by this method 
the Nation might by common consent be divided into large contiguous 

Q 



122 BISHOP FALCONAR S JURISDICTION. 

Districts, instead of the ancient Dioceses, and the whole be very well 
governed by five, or at most six Bishops, so long as the Church continued 
in her present situation. This project he thought to be so very plausible as 
that it could hardly fail to take effect, and that the College Scheme would 
be thereby extinguished of itself, without any noise or opposition. lie 
therefore acquainted his Brethren with the design these Presbyters had of 
Electing him, and that he thought it would be a good precedent for the 
Presbyters in other places to chusc the rest of them for their respective 
Bishops after the same manner, and this they seemed at that time to be 
very well pleased with. 

Upon Bishop Falconar s return from Ed r , the forcsaid Presbyters in 
Angus, Mearns, and part of Perthshire, did accordingly set about this their 
designed Election, and by a Deed, Subscribed by almost all of them, did 
address him " to take upon him the Spiritual Government and Inspection 
of them, and the people committed to their charge;" adding, "and we do 
hereby promise to acknowledge you as our proper Bishop, and to pay all due 
and Canonical obedience to you as such." The supposed Author of the late 
" View of the Elections of Bishops," &c., is one of the Subscribers to this 
Deed. 

About the same time, the Presbyters within the Presbytery of St. 
Andrews, considering that he had his residence among them, and that they 
were too few to have a distinct Bishop of their own (being but three in 
number), did, by a Deed of the same nature, put themselves likewise under 
his Inspection as their proper Bishop. And he ever after continued to act 
as the proper Bishop of both these Districts, and was owned and acknow 
ledged as such by all ranks both of Clergy and People, his Title thereto not 
being opposed, or so much as called in question, by any person whatsoever. 

But to return to Bishop Fullarton. It was thought proper to lay before 
some persons of distinction the Account of his Election, and of the present 
posture of the Churche s affairs, that they might have their judgment con 
cerning them, to w ch they all professed to pay the greatest deference. And 
they, upon this application made to them, gave it for Bishop Fullarton, that 
he should be proper Bishop of the Diocese of Ed r , according to the intention 
of his Electors, and should enjoy the same Ecclesiastical Privileges Avhich 
his Predecessors in that See had done. This being notified to his Brethren, 
none of them made the least objection against it, but on the contrary seemed 
readily to acquiesce in it, insomuch that w 1 their consent and allowance he 
immediately thereupon altered his Subscription. 



DISTRICT OF FIFE JOHN FALCON All. 123 



LIV. JOHN FALCONAR. A.D. 1720-23. (Consecrated 1709.) 

John Falconar was well born, being a descendant of the Lord 
Halkerton s Family. In 1088 he was ejected from being Rector 
of Carnbee, a rural Parish Church (Stipend . 238 17-s 8<l, Glebe 
30), near the foot of Kellie Law (810 feet above sea-level) and 
Castle, three miles north from Pittcnweem, in Fife. Kellie 
Castle was formerly the seat of the Earl of Kellie, where the 
Bishop was often a visitor. It is now a ruin, with fine trees 
about it, looking down upon Balcaskie and the Firth of Forth. 
Yet there are good Paintings on some of the Panellings. While 
Minister of this Parish, our Bishop Married a daughter of the 
Lord Dunkeld, by whom he had two sons. 

Xtuubcr 18 in JJix/iop Forbes Catalogue. Letters of Orders, (C c., in the Episcopal 

( (tl/inet, Glenalmond. 

7. (Copy) Letters of Orders of Mr. John Falconar into the Presbyterate, 
by the Bishop (Paterson) of Ed r (in S. Giles ), May 19, 1G83, wherein these 
words Ju.vtn mores et ritits I lcclexitf Scot tea na , " according to the Eites and 
Ceremonies of the Scottish Church." 

10. (Original) Act of Ordination into the Episcopate, Mr. John Fal 
conar, by Bishops of Ed r (Rose), and Dunblane (Douglas), and Bishop Sage; 
Dundee, Aprile 28, 1701). 

The Piev. Win. Bright, who has done so well to the memory 
of this good Bishop, has these observations in TJie Scottish 
Ecclesiastical Journal, vol. //., p. 244 -(Nov., 1852) : 

We may easily realise the scene at Dundee : The aged Bishop of Dun 
blane receiving Falconar and Christie, and waiting a day, as it seems, for 
Rose and Sage ; for it was on the 28th of April that they proceeded to 
Celebrate, with a mournful privacy, the most august solemnity of the 
Catholic Church. Their Rites were shorn of the old Cathedral splendour; 
their Veni Creator nrust be murmured like a voice out of the dust. But they 
had with them the Eternal Pontiff, and the unfailing powers of His King 
dom. They were speaking His words and doing His work ; rather, He was 
working by them. And it was, doubtless, in full assurance of having Him 
for their Unseen Comforter, that Falconar and Christie knelt before those 
worn old men, to receive the Holy Ghost for the office and work of Bishops 
in the Church of God. 



121 D1SI1UCT OF FIFE. 

The Consecrating Prelates, in the following Document, quoted 
by several Historians from MS. Memoir* o/ (lie Episcopal Church 
of Scotland, evidence how straitened the Church then was to 
preserve the Apostolic Succession, and also, that no Diocesan 
Titles were assumed. Cited in Stephen .^ Hixtonj, vol. ic.,p. 39. j 

To promote the harmony, peace, unity, and order of this most afflicted 
Church of Scotland, which (iod hath committed to our care, whenever, and 
as far as lies in our power, in its so great affliction, "We, &c., .... 
Commend to our beloved Brethren in Christ, Mr. John Falconar, Priest and 
Pastor of Carnhee, in Fife, and Mr. Henry Christie, Priest and Pastor of 
Kinross, whom we have this day admitted as Associates in our Episcopal 
College, by the Divine liite of Consecration, to that portion of the before- 
mentioned Scottish Church, which has its warfare in God, with the Province 
or Jurisdiction of ; and we entrust it to their Episcopal care, 

until Clod, in His great mercy, see iit to deal with His, alas! now afflicted 
Church, the Bride of His dear Son, in this corner of the earth. Adding this, 
also, our most ardent wish, that, relying upon the Lord; and undeterred by 
the storm of persecution, our before-mentioned Brethren will watch with 
anxious solicitude that the high and most Sacred Order of Bishops, con 
tinued by the Succession of lawful Ordination, may never fail nor cease. 

Bishop Falconar continued after the Revolution to reside at 
Carnhee, and undertook the oversight of the Clergy and Con 
gregations in the Counties of Angus, Mearns, and Fife ; and so 
virtually, if not nominally, he was Bishop of St. Andrews and 
Brechin. He was at London on the 24th February (S. Matthias 
Day), 1712, as one of the Consecrators of Bishop Cradderar; and 
again, the year after, at the Hon. Bishop Archibald Campbell s 
Marriage. 

LETTERS COPIED BY BISHOP JOLLY I-HOM THE ORIGINALS. 

1- -f Letter from the JJisIi(>i> of Edinburgh ( Hose > to J/V. Falconar, relating to 
the great necessity for his Consecration, J-Jdinburi/li, December 2d, 1708. 

lleverend Brother, I doubt not but y 1 you, w l many others, have been 
laying the afflicted state of our desolate Church to heart, and yet like to fall 
under a further desolation by the failure of our Order, if some speedy course 
be not taken to prevent the same ; wherefore, as it is incumbent upon us all 
to see to some remedy to this threatening evil, so my L. Glasgow and I, 
w l the consent and approbation of others, has cast our eyes upon you to take 
a part w 1 us in our Ministry, and to be associated w* us in the Sacred 



JOHN FALCONAR. 125 

Colledge ; and I do not only intreat but obtest you, that you would put 
yourself in readiness, upon the first Advertisement from me, to come over 
hither in order to receive Imposition of Hands for y* effect, and so soon as I 
am informed when a third of our number can be brought hither, I will not 
fail to advertise you. I pray you to keep this affair entirely to yourself, and 
let nobody know of it. I know what excuses from modesty and other AY ays 
you may be ready to make ; but as our present circumstances, Avliich you 
shall know at meeting, can permit no such to be taken off your hands, so I 
beseech you not to interpose delays, Avhich are not sufferable in our present 
case, but y 1 you yield a ready compliance in Avhat is both necessary and 
indispensible. I expect a satisfactory answer by the A T ery first occasion ; 
for, till I receive yours, I cannot send for a third to be present AY I us, and I 
am much afraid that my L. GlasgOAV shall not last till y l affair be over. 
Wherefore, I shall labour under great pain untill I shall receive a satisfac 
tory return of this, which is in haste from, Sir, 

Your affectionate Bro>"r and Servant, 

(Signed) ALEX. EDINBUKGEN. 

Sir, Send your ansAver to me under under your son s cover, that it 
may come the more safely to my hands. To Mr. John Falconar, at Carnbee. 

II. Another itjion tlte same subject. 

Reverend Brother, You, I doubt not, Avill be surprised that you haA*e 
not heard from me this long time, and especially in a certain matter of 
importance as to us both, Avhereof I AATote formerly to you ; but the matter 
is, that our friend at Dundee has been very ill, and not fit for business this 
while bygone. I myself likeAvise have been these G or 7 Aveeks bygone much 
disordered by a violent sickness in my stomach, but I hope to be in condition 
to wait upon you at Dundee ag* the 20 or 27 of this month, and I hope you 
shall be there ag 1 y* time, in order to Avhat you knoAV of. If my health serve 
me not, I ll signify as much to you next Avcek ; but if you hear nothing from 
me, be sure to keep tryst on the 20, Avhen I hope to be at Dundee. I have 
wrote this AY* no small uneasiness, by reason of a pain in my right arm, 
which obleidges me to say no more, save y 1 1 am, Reverend Brother, 
Your most affectionate and humble Servant, 

ALEXR. EDINBUBGEN. 

Ed r , Aprile 15, 1701). Pray let me hear Avhe> r you have got this, and 
Avheyr you may be at Dundee. To the Reverend Mr. John Falconar, at 
Carnbee. 

III. Another on the name subject. 

Reverend Brother, Th6 scarce anything else could have prevailed 
Avt me to travel in my present condition than what I am so anxious to have 
finished, so I hope God shall afford me strength to make y* journey, and am 
fully purposed, God willing, to be at Dundee ag* the 26 instant. If bad 



12(5 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

weather or violent storms keep mo one day longer, I know you will excuse 
it ; but I hope you shall be there agt the day appointed. I could wish 
yt our business were done w*out ye knowledge or suspicion of any whi>"r we 
go to ; and as you can easily have a pretence to colour your being there at 
that time, so, if you can so contrive it, I wish it may be pretty late before 
you come to Town, that our work may be done next morning before any 
of our B r n there know y l you are in Town. I shall say no more till meeting, 
save y 4 I am, &c., nt x>i]ir. 
Ed r , Aprilc 21, 170U. 

X.B. It was not till Aprilc 28 y* he, toge>r w* Mr. Chrystie at Kinross, 
were Consecrated Bishops at Dundee by Bishops Hose of Ed r , Douglas of 
Dunblane, and John Sage. 

IV. A Letter fmiii the ]>i*}it>p j Ldinlunjh In ]}ixliop FtiJronar, Dated from 

Edinbiiryh, .//// 2, 1711. 

Reverend Brother, I had a Letter from London last Post, acquainting 
me y* about 20 days hence I might expect here y l gentleman. I spoke of to 
you at our last meeting. lie purposes to be here altoge^ r incogito, and not 
to sec or be seen by his friends, or any else, save those w 1 whom he has 
business ; for his time straitens him, and is resolved after the dispatch of 
that immediately to return. "Wherefore, I give you this Advertisement, that 
you may so dispose of yourself as not to be out of the way about y* time, in 
case he desire to see you, or that you may be useful for the dispatch of his 
affair. This is all, Sir, at the time from 

Your very affectionate and humble Servant, 

(Signed) A. E. 

To the Reverend Mr. J. F., at Carnbce, to the care of the Post of Creile. 

X.B. The gentleman referred to in ye above Letter was the Honour 
able Mr. Archibald Campbell, who was Consecrated a Bishop at Dundee, 
August 25th, thereafter, by Bishop Eose of Ed r , Bishop Douglas of Dun 
blane, and Bishop Falconar. 

In 17 1G, the Usage Controversy broke out in England 
between two parties of the Nonjurors, headed respectively by 
Collier and Spinckes. Meetings were held with no satisfactory 
result. Collier and his supporters looked to Falconar for sym 
pathy. In the autumn of 1717, Falconar wrote from Craighall, 
in Perthshire (Bishop Eattray s house and estate), to Bishop 
Campbell, advising the Usagers to drop their Kitual restorations 
if they were likely to drive away adherents, or to cause division 
in the body. In his Reply, Dated October 31, 1717, Campbell 



JOHN FALCONAE. 127 

insists that his friends considered it essential to Celebrate the 
Eucharist according to the Four Usages, and could not, for 
instance, conscientiously receive the Unmixed Cup. 

Early in 1718 (the year of the New Communion Office), a 
Mr. Peck was sent by the English Usagers to Edinburgh, to 
procure some Synodical Resolution from the Scottish Prelates. 
He did not, however, so far as Bishop Hose could learn, attend 
even the ordinary Church Service, wherein "there is nothing to 
scrouple him," says the Prelate, " save bidding to pray for 
Christ s Church Militant. Neither did he scrouple to own to me 
that the Church of England, as formerly constituted, was no 
Church, as wanting these things insisted on to be restored." 

V. A Letter from Mr. I cdc to ]>isliop l "ttlcon<tr, Ihtted J^iUnlioyh, Ait/juxt 

13, 1718. 

P. 1 Fui Sir, I have here sent yon four Books, which, with those yon 
received before, are all y 1 have yet appeared on either side of the Contro- 
versie. And notwithstanding the promise we have of a 2d Part of the Xo 
Snjiicicnt HcaxoiiH for Ui xtorimj, &c., we may conclude from what we have 
already that the Common Place Books of both partys are pretty well ex 
hausted, so that we may begin to judge which scale preponderates. I 
therefore beg the favour of you, Sir, so soon as you have perused these 
Papers, to send me your thoughts of them, and whether the Book just men 
tioned has more depretiated, or the Answer raised the credit of Tradition 
higher than the just regard we ought to have for it. And likewise, whether 
the Author who pleads Xo Xccrsxiti/, &c., or his antagonist pleading a 
Xeci sxiti/for an Altcrrttinn, has best supported his opinion w l testimonys and 
arguments. If the odds be considerable on either side, it will be no longer 
difficult to determine on which side they are. But the favour you did me of 
communicating your thoughts to me concerning the matters in dispute, 
when I did myself the honour to wait on you in Angus, convinces me that I 
need not trouble myself or you wt entering into the merits of the cause ; for 
you was then of opinion (and I think you will find nothing in these Papers 
to make you alter that opinion), that the things contended for ought to be 
restored ; and you likewise gave me assurances of your readiness to use your 
best endeavours for their restoration, but y t you was for bringing it about by 
the gentlest and most inoffensive methods. Give me leave, Sir, to join 
w t you in those pious endeavours, and to propose a method to your con 
sideration. 

The Liturgy of the Cli. of Engl (1 , which at present obtains amongst 
you, lias not an Ecclesiastical, or so much as a Civil, sanction to recommend 



128 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

the use of it in this Kingdom ; whereas your own, compiled in the Reign of 
K. Charles, has both, as appears by his Proclamation prefixed to it, when it 
is said \Ve have divers times recommended to ye Archbishops and 
Bishops here, the Publishing of a Puhlick Form of Service in the Worship 
ping of God, which we would have uniformly observed therein. And the 
same being now condescended upon," fee. And then he goes on and enjoins 
the use of it. Here we find it condescended upon, and Published by the 
Prelates, and then Confirmed by the Regal Authority ; and I believe you 
will not deny but y 1 the Publication of it by the Bishops, to be uniformly 
observed, is as much a command on their part, for an uniform observation 
of it, as the Proclamation is on the part of the King. So then this is 
properly the Liturgy of ye Ch. of Scotl 1 , and the other prevails only by the 
connivance of the present Governours. And the only reason y 1 1 ever heard 
why the English Service Book was received here, was because the Copies of 
your own were scarce, and not sufiieient for the number of Communicants, 
a great many of whose circumstances were such as would not allow them to 
purchase Books, and consequently a new impression could not be had. In this 
your distress, some Prelates in England (with whom, by-thc-by, you would 
not have join d in ye use of them) sent you a considerable number of English 
Books, to be distributed among your people gratis, and from yt time the use 
of them has been continued here. But, if I am not misinformed, they never 
so obtained but y l most of, if not all the Bishops, and a great number of the 
inferiour Clergy, used them partially and w l reserve, supplying some defects 
in the Consecration of ye Eucharist, viz., the Invocation of the II. Sp 1 upon 
the Sacrifice, and the Oblation of it to God ye Fa> r, from their own Form, 
which is a certain argum 1 that in the judgem 1 of these persons their own 
Communion Office is more perfect, and consequently preferable ; so that the 
only reason why ye other is made use of, is because, as I observed before, 
they have the Books for nothing. Now, the only things to be considered 
are, how they, and their poor hearers, shall come at the Scots Service as 
cheap ; and 21y, how some few alterations (to render it still more perfect 
and primitive) may be made. As for the first, I propose this method, 
viz., that the Communion Office (entitled the Com. Office according to the 
Liturgy of ye Ch. of Scotl 1 ), should be Printed by itself, and the whole, not 
consisting of above a sheet and half of paper, might be done for a very small 
charge, and 10.000 Copys cost but a trifling sum of money, which sum might 
easily be collected from gentlemen, who would not refuse to contribute to so 
pious a design. And 21y, for the alterations, I shall mention only two. 
The first is in the Rubrick, where the Presbyter is ordered "to offer up and 
place the Bread and Wine prepared for ye Sacramt upon ye Lord s Table." 
After ye word Wine, and by way of parenthesis (" that is mixed with a little 
pure water"), this will look rather like explaining an old Law than imposing 
a new one ; and the more so, because the Office from whence yours was 
chiefly taken, I mean the 1st Liturgy of Edw. YL, in that same Rubrick, 



JOHN FALCONAB, 129 

orders a little pure water to be mixed w 1 the Sacramental Wine. The 2d 
alteration is the omitting the whole, or at least the later part of the Title of 
the Prayer "for the whole state of Christ s Church," which is likewise 
omitted in the Form before mentioned. This, too, will look rather like an 
omission than an innovation, and at the same time take off an objection 
which is made by some of our friends, that you exclude the faithful departed 
from your most solemn act of Worship, and by that means virtually refuse 
Communion w l them. These Books, so Printed by money collected for that 
use, may be distributed ///<///* thro ye whole Kingdom, and the use of them 
recommended, if not positively enjoined, by the Bishops. And I doubt not 
but in a little time, thro the regard which the more learned of ye Clergy 
will have to the alterations themselves, and the weaker judgments to the 
authority of their former Bishops and Prince enjoining the use of the Scots 
Form, it will be universally received. Nor do I think the alterations I have 
mentioned any reason why it may not properly be called " The Communion 
Office according to the Liturgy of the Ch. of Scotl (1 ;" for under that Title I 
believe it will go best down w t ye people. I say I do not think them any 
reason, because the 1st of them is only an explanation of a Kubrick, and the 
later is only the Title of a Prayer, which affects the Worship no otherwise 
than, as it now stands, it too much restricts the sense of the Prayer, and the 
whole Service following. 

Thus, Sir, I have shewed you what I think a gentle and inoffensive way 
of returning to a liule which your forcfa> rs laid down for you to walk by a 
way to restore uniformity at home and to preserve an amicable Correspon 
dence wt your Brethren in Engl d ; and not only w* them, but w* all ye 
Saints, Martyrs, and Confessors who have gone before us ; and lastly, a way 
to honour Christ in his own Institution, and advantage ourselves by that 
most solemn and prevailing address to Heaven. These, Sir, arc most desir 
able ends, and the means of attaining them worth enquiring after, tho some 
little worldly inconvenience should threaten us in our pursuit after them. 

If you think this a proper method, I desire you propose it to the Lord 
Bishop of Fdr, for it may be more regarded when offered by you than me ; 
and if you will do me the favour of a line, pray direct for me to the care of 
Mr. Cockburn, the Minister in this place. Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Servant, F. PECK. 

If this finds you at Craighall, pray give my service to the Laird and 
family. 

Bishop Falconar declined the proposal of a S} 7 nodical Resolu 
tion, and at the same time wrote to Bishop Rose, expressing his 
hope that the Usages were not urged as " necessary, if not 
essential;" and his opinion that they were indeed Apostolical, 
and their restoration most desirable. 

VOL. II. R 



130 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

A few days previously, Bishop Campbell had written to Bishop 
Rose, desiring that at least the ^Fixture, the Invocation rightly 
placed, and tic omission of Militant, &:?., might be established 
by the Scottish Church as a basis of Unity. Without this, he 
would not Communicate with her. On May 20th, he wrote to 
Bishop Falconar to the same effect. 



Sir, I had yours hy Mr. Crighton, whereby I understand that you 
wisely declined Mr. Peck s overture of a Synodical Decision, which in o in- 
present circumstances is scarce practicable to any good purpose, and might 
readily enough involve us in divisions and confusions. We have before our 
eyes into what a tragical state our neighbour Church is brought by these 
controverted and, I think, rashly decided points; wherefore, I suppose we 
shall find ourselves concerned to go on by leisurely and well-advised steps. 
I should be very willing to write to our Brethren on both sides in the terms 
you advise, if the state of their affair could allow it, that is, if your charit 
able supposition that these matters arc not considered as necessary, if not 
essential, were really so; but, in my humble opinion, when you take a 
review of the Answer to the X Ibwon*, you will find it otherwise, and 
particularly as to the xga^a, of which it is expressly said that it is instituted, 
commanded, and necessary, a necessary part of the matter of that Sacra 
ment, if not essential, and as much necessary as Wine itself, being both of 
them in the Institution. I shall say nothing of the other points, which, to 
my thought, arc screwed up as high as that which I have mentioned ; and, 
in consequence to this, Mr. Peck, who I presume is fully instructed by his 
constituents, so far as I can learn, has not been at any Meeting-house in 
this City since his coining to it, where in the ordinary Service there is 
nothing to scruple him, save bidding to pray for Christ s Church militant, 
&c. Neither did he scruple to own to me that the Ch. of Engl d , as formerly 
constituted, was no Church, as wanting these things insisted on to be 
restored ; and besides this, I have seen doleful Letters from ladies and other 
Lay persons of the old Communion, from London, bemoaning that there is 
nothing more openly and industriously handed about by the restoring party, 
than yt the other is no Church, and have no Sacraments. Now, in this 
woful circumstance, I know not by what topicks to press a mutual forbear 
ance or re-union : it is not practicable 011 the side of those who think these 
primitive Usages essential and necessary, unless they abate something of 
that rigour, and qualify what they are generally supposed to have said and 
writ concerning them; nay, they have openly declared that they cannot 
Communicate wt the other side unless that, in practice at least, they fall in 



JOHN FALCONAK. 131 

w l these Usages. The other side plead that they arc provided w l a sufficient 
Liturgy, tho not so completely perfect but that it may be Lettered, yet a 
Liturgy the Lest now in the world, approveii and in long use by their Church ; 
that it is cast off wWt a sufficient authority ; y 1 by falling in w* practices 
not enjoined by it, and strongly pleaded for as necessary even to the very 
being of a Church, they cannot avoid the being construed to go into that 
rigid opinion, and thereby throw an indelible reproach upon the Church, 
give the greatest advantage imaginable to Atheists, Deists, Dissenters, 
Papists, and enemies of all sorts, and open a door likewise for pressing upon 
them as necessary other Usages, pretended to be primitive, till Clod knows 
where it shall end. "Wherefore, in my humble opinion, seeing that matters 
are come to an open rupture, and that Controversy, new among Protestants, 
stands not so much upon the foot of expedience or inexpedieuce, lawfulness 
or unlawfulness, primitiveness or not (for all primitive Usages are not 
necessary), but are stated in the terms of Necessity or No-Necessity, we 
wave any interposing in this matter untill we see, if not the issue and end of 
this debate, yet at least something farther into it (new pieces are preparing 
to come abroad Jiiiir i/nl,-) ; for till one party iinds itself at a loss in point of 
argum 1 and reason, I see no hope of succeeding in any enterprise of Accom 
modation, and by y 1 time we shall perchance be better able 1 , and upon solid 
groiinds, to determine ourselves, and give our opinion, which may readily have 
the greater weight, as being upon due deliberation, and that probably it may 
find the contending parties in a better disposition toward peace and agree 
ment than they seem to be at present. As for my own part, seeing so much 
stress is laid upon them, I am very desirous of farther information, being 
resolved, God willing, if I find these Usages strictly necessary, to embrace 
them, together w 1 all the disadvantages that may attend them ; if only 
lawful, some way useful and desirable, prudence in this case, and in such 
cases only, ought to be consulted. 

These, w l respect to what you advise me, are my present thoughts. 
Perchance they may change ; for the truth is, thro my long indisposition, I 
am so faint, and my spirits so low, that I cannot, w l any due attention or 
fixedness, think upon any thing. I have sent you a Pamphlet ; perchance 
you have not seen it. You need not so hastily return it, for I may have tho 
use of another Copy if I need it. I am perfectly wearied out w 1 writing this, 
wherefore I shall say no more, save y 1 

I am, Sir, 
Your most affectionate Brother and most humble Sen 4 , 

(Signed) A. E. 

I had almost forgot to condole the late loss of our worthy and dear 
brother (meaning Bishop Chrystie at Kinross). I judge it may be necessary, 
upon sev 1 accounts, to provide another in his stead, and I intrcat } 4 you 
would have your thoughts concerning one for y* effect, that when we shall 
have occasion to meet together, that work may be done, among others which 



132 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

may occasion our meeting. What would you think oi our friend at Calen 
dar ? [Meaning Mr. (afterward Bishop) Irvine] . 

Directed to the llcvcrcud Mr. John Falconar, at Carnbec. 



Si r> The very next Post after I received your last, I wrote to Mr. 

Fullarton to he here about the end of this month if possible, having ac 
quainted him of your intended journey; I told him likewise you was to go 
off about the beginning of the next month ; and if my Letter should be slow 
iu coming to him, or his occasions could not permit his coming lii> r by the 
end of this month, I believed y l I should prevail with you to put off your 
journey till the 10 or 12 of the next, which, if need be, I intreat and hope 
you will agree. I desired him, so soon as he got my Letter, to give me a 
Return, signifying his Dyct, y l I may have occasion to advertise you of it, 
w dl , God willing, I shall not fail to do. Mr. Peck continues still here, 
notwithstanding that 8 or 10 days agone he asked my commands for Lon 
don. I told him y l I would write w l him, and repeated to him what I had 
told him long agone, w ch was y l I believed we would not explain ourselves 
in the matter of the controverted points, untill we saw the issue of the 
Controvcrsie. I have not seen him here since, which makes me think that 
he is still here. I am afraid this may miss the Post, therefore shall say no 
more, save that I am, Sir, 

Your affectionate Brother and humble Servant, 

(Signed) A. E. 

To the Reverend Mr. John Falcouar. 

YIII. Another Letter from the Jlixlmp of Edinlninjli to llishop Falconar, Dated 
from Edinluryh, October 2. 

Reverend Brother, I am sorry to see your last to me written w* ano r 
hand than your own, and much more for the occasion of it. I pray God to 
give you a speedy deliverance from this trouble, w cb , thu I principally wish for 
your own sake, yet I am not unconcerned at the disappointm 1 it might occa 
sion if it continue any time w* you ; for this afternoon I had a Letter from 
Mr. Fullarton, promising y 1 he" shall, God willing, be here against the 8 or 
9 instant, and bidding me tryst you here ag l that time. There is now no 
time for stopping his journey, o>rwise I would do it. Wherefore, as it is 
necessary to put our affairs in some tolerable order, whatever may happen 
to e>-r of us, so if you should happen to continue disabled, let me know if 
you think it advisable that I and the o>r persons concerned should come to 
you, for I had ra^r risque my health than y* work should not be done, for 
God knows when we may meet again. Pray let me hear from you as soon 
as possible. I can say no more lest this may miss the Post. I ana, Sir, 
Your very affectionate humble Servant, A. E. 



JOHN FALCONAE. 133 

I had your Letter and Mr. Fullarton s this day almost w in an hour of 
one ano y r. To the H d Mr. J. F., at Carnbee. 

N.B. In pursuance of the above Concert on October 22 thereafter, Mr. 
"William Irvine and Mr. Arthur Millar were Consecrated Bishops at Ed 1 by 
Bishop Hose of Ed 1 , Bishop Eullarton, and Bishop Ealcouar. 

On the 22d October, 1718, Bishop Falconar, after a severe 
attack of gout, was able to journey from Carnbee to Edinburgh, 
to join Bishops Hose and Fullarton in Consecrating Millar and 
William Irvine. The latter was a decided Anti-Usagcr. To the 
former, a great friend, Bishop Falconar wrote a month after 
wards : " Tho I have nothing worth your while to read, yet it is 
comfortable to converse with one whom I value, by the way w dl , 
for ought I know, God hath established to supply the defect of 
the presence of friends." Alluding to "the desolations of this 
afflicted Church," he adds, "there is no shipwreck of that kind 
w ch is more at heart with me than that of St. Andrewes, w ch I 
reckon a distinguisht place, by marks of regard more than one. 
I purpose, by God s assistance, to attempt Confirming of the 
well-disposed Students, and to perform Worship and administer 
the Sacraments to the good people in that place, who are under 
a great destitution ; but this with outmost sccrcsy and caution, 
insomuch that I purpose to try if something may be done this 
way on such week dayes as are less opposed to observation." 
In writing to Bishop Millar on the 3d March, 1719, he mentions 
that he had withheld "the Great Benefit" from two women at 
St. Andrews, the relict and daughter of a Clergyman (Mr. 
Andrew Fleukar), for being at strife with the daughter s husband. 

IX. A Letter from Bishop Spiiickcs to ]}ixhop Flcon<ir, D<ited April 2, 1720. 

I! 4 Reverend Sir, Though I have never yet attempted to give you the 
trouble of a Letter since I had the honour of your conversation here, I 
cannot forbear at present most heartily to condole with you upon the unex 
pected loss of that truly great and excellent Prelate, the L (l Bishop of Ed r , 
who has so worthily presided over your Ch. for so long a time. It was a 
singular blessing that God was graciously pleased to spare him till now, for 
the benefit and advantage of those under his inspection, in such distracted 
times as we have had. And it is a heavy stroke to others, tho an unspeak 
able gain to himself, that he is now removed into another world, where we 



131 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

may, however, comfort ourselves w l an assurance y* lie rests from his labours, 
and his good works follow him. 

And now, Sir, that you come to succeed in his room, and to have the 
care, for which he was so eminently conspicuous, derived upon you, I 
humbly beseech Almighty Clod to endow you w 1 such a portion of his Sp 1 as 
that you may always proceed w* the same vigour and courage, w 1 the same 
care and prudence and circumspection, the same religion and piety, that he 
did, and the same success for God s honour and the peace and welfare of His 
Church, which has so happily dwelt in unity, and not fallen into divisions, 
as to the grief of my soul, I must confess, we have done here. It is a very 
ticklish time wheivin you are now called to exert yourself; but your 
abilities for so high a station are so well known, that I promise myself you 
will not fail to supply his place to the full satisfaction of all you arc con 
cerned for. And as I had the honour of a frequent Correspondence w* my 
good Lord, now w* Clod, I beg to have the like freedom w l yourself, whereby 
you may understand the state of our affairs upon all occasions, and we of 
yours. And if there be any service I can be capable of doing either yourself 
or any of our friends w l you, you shall at all times find me most ready to do 
the best I can. One thing I have at present to communicate, that a very 
worthy friend of mine, Mr. lligdeu, very lately returned some money to my 
good L a of Fd r , which he is not sure arrived at y 1 place before his Lordship s 
Death, tho possibly it might. If I mistake not, it was 50 pounds ; and I 
here take notice of it, y* if it did not come before, you may please to make 
what inquiry you can after it, for I have not yet heard by whom it was sent. 
I expect, also, y 1 he will have some more in no long time. Twenty pounds 
I have heard of in one County, and ten in another, y* fell not into Dr. 
Sharp s hands ; but I do not find y* cither of these sums are returned hither. 
If you will please to send me word by any one y 1 comes to this place (to my 
house in White Fryars, London), what way you desire to have this, or any 
thing else, y l may be got conveyed to you, I will be sure to give direction 
accordingly. I am, w* great sincerity and respect, R l Reverend Sir, 
Your most humble and most obedient Servant, 

NATHANIEL SPINCKES. 
This for ye Reverend Mr. Falconar, at Ed 1 ". 

X. .1 Letter from Hisltnp Collier to J>i*hap Falconar, London, May 20, 1720. 

Sir, I understand by your last to Mr. C bell, y* you have seen a 

Letter from our old friends at London, in which they charge us w* having 
been the occasion of carrying numbers to ye Ch. of Rome, into the Revolu 
tion, and, which is still much worse, into Atheism itself. First, supposing 
the matter of fact true, and if some of our people had deserted all these 
ways, which way are we to blame for their running into Heterodoxy ? Our 
Principles and "Worship, I m sure, as you justly observe, have not the least 
tendency to misguide them ; on the contrary, they are better preservatives 



JOHN FALCONAB. 135 

against Popery, as has been proved, than those of our old Brethren. And 
why should the ignorance, inconstancy, or other undue motives, be charged 
upon us ? But, besides, they misreport the matter. I know but of 4 or 5 
yt have gone from us to the Church of Pi., one of which is Dr. Sharp, who 
perverted another, who, to speak softly, has a very unhappy character. 
Another is one Minors, a Clergyman, who went off upon his exception 
ag l the validity of the Ch. of Engl d s Orders at the Reformation, which 
objection would have carried him from our old friends no less than from us. 
But then, as we have lost some, we have stopped and recovered as many ; 
and, which is farther to be observed, our old friends have lost some to ye 
Ch. of Biomc, and scv 1 to ye Publick Congregations. And as to ye charge of 
Schism, it is no better than arraigning the Primitive Church, w 1 whom our 
Worship agrees, in all the 4 points we differ from them. Besides, their 
calling us Schismaticks comes w t a very ill grace from them, who admit 
those whom they know Members of the complying Church to their Com 
munion. Two of their chiefs defend this latitude, and the 3d joins wt them : 
this is uncontestible matter of fact. 

Sir, I hope the revival of the 4 primitive things gains ground in your 
Country. I pray God preserve you in health and happiness, and 

I am, Sir, 
Your affectionate Brother and most humble Servant, 

J. COLLIER. 
To the Pieverend Mr. Falconar. 



XI. Another from llidmp Sjiiiicliex to Jiin/ioji Falconttr, Dated 3I(ii/ 23. 

E t Pieverend and Kind Sir, Several intervening businesses made me 
later than I ought to have been in acknowledging your goodness and favour, 
in not only pardoning the freedom of my late application to you, but, more 
over, vouchsafing me a most obliging answer, w 1 an Ace* of the posture of 
affairs at the time, and a promise to oblige me yet farther w* a Kelation of 
what should be determined at your intended Meeting, the news whereof will 
be highly acceptable amongst us. And ye rather because I promise myself 
y l will give us a full assurance of what I am already told, y t you have a 
singular unanimity amongst all Orders ; at which not only I, but others also, 
exceedingly rejoice, and pray for a long continuance of it. And, indeed, we 
cannot but be the more nearly affected w t your enjoying so valuable a 
blessing, by reason of our own unhappy want of it. Blessed be God, we 
were for a long time at unity, and in perfect harmony wt one another, and 
whatever trouble any of us at any time met with from other adversaries, we 
lived like Brethren in peace and love, and wtout fear or apprehension of any 
breach amongst ourselves. But since it has pleased God to suffer disscn- 
tions to arise, and a new unthought-of sect to set up in opposition to the 
Ch. of Engl d , to the grievance of our souls and the joy of our Piomish and 
other enemies, we cannot but most heartily congratulate your greater advan- 



130 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

tagc in Laving so comfortable an agreem 1 preserved amongst you all. And 
tliO Almighty God lias in His infinite wisdom thought lit to remove your 
most useful and excellent head from any longer presiding over your poor 
oppressed Church, his place appears to he so admirably tilled w 1 yourself, 
and those other wise and judicious, as well as pious and learned, Prelates, 
who stand up in his stead, and have the whole care now devolved upon you, 
yt your great loss will hereby be made casie to those committed to your 
charge. And may the Divine blessing and the Holy Sp 1 be w l you all, to 
assist and strengthen you, and carry you successfully thro all the trials you 
may have to conflict w 1 in the weighty service whereto, in His good Provid 
ence, Clod has been pleased to call you all ! 

I am heartily glad my good friend Mr. Invin is one of you, as well 
knowing how well fitted he is for such a station, and how truly usefull you 
will find him upon all occasions. When you shall either sec or write to 
him, be pleased to give him my very hearty service, and wishes of all happi 
ness to him. And y* you will be pleased likewise to accept the same yourself, 
is the unfeigned request of, R l Reverend Sir, 

Your much obliged and most humble Servant, 

]S T . SPIXCKES. 

This for the Reverend Mr. Falconar, at Ed r . 

XII. ,1 Letter from ]jit>Jip Sj, inches to Didm/i FoJcnucn; at KeJ/ie fin tin 

direct inn ), Ait/fitst 19. 

Rt Reverend Sir, The favour of your kind Letter of July 7th, I have 
now before me, and am obliged to beg your acceptance of my unfeigned 
hearty thanks for the same, and in particular for your undeserved courtesie 
and civilities whcrcw 1 you have been pleased to treat me in it. I am truly 
sorry yt you have occasion to complain of the gout ; tho perhaps it may be a 
troublesome sort of physick to you, and as it often proves, and I hope it will 
w l you, a means of prolonging life. I must agree wt you y 1 writing by the 
Post will scarce be at all convenient. But if we can have convenience of 
conveyance by a private hand, I am apt to think there may be no danger in 
that, and shall therefore be very thankful if you will be so kind as to favour 
me w l some information yt way, as you shall have opportunity. For 1 
cannot but be desirous of understanding the state of your Ch. ; as also, on 
the other hand, I conclude you will think it proper to understand the state 
of ours. The motion you mention, y t only ye old Presbyters should have 
the privilege of voting, seems to have been too hard upon their other 
Brethren ; and it is happy you found them so disposed as to recede from it, 
as in all reason they ought to do. And I beseech Almighty God y t you may 
meet wt no more disputes of that nature. 

Though it were to be wished in clever Church the method of adminis 
tering Holy Offices were ye same, yet the case wt you is very different from 
yours in y* respect. You have no settled Liturgy since the Reformation ; 



JOHN FALCON AR. 17 

and so, tlio yon have been so liappy as to introduce the use of a Liturgy in 
your "Worship since the Revolution, yet are you not so tied to any one Form 
as we are. Besides, it is a great happiness to you that you have no scandal, 
breach of Communion, animosities, or disputes, among t you, whereas we 
labour under them all. Had our Brethren taken some liberty in breaking 
thro our Rubrick. for the sake of things not necessary. th<"> we should have 
blamed them, and have been sorry for so unwarrantable a practice, yet we 
should have been very loth to have broken oil Communion w l them, in hope 
yt they might in time have considered better, and returned to their former 
practice. And it is a deep affliction to us that they have proceeded to depart 
from us, and set up an opposite Communion. And what ye sad consequents 
of y { are I need not tell you. It is very kind in you to study a method of 
accommodation between us. And. as to what you mention of not writing 
any more, I make no doubt it will readily be agreed to on our side, provided 
the others will agree to the same. There is a Book now in the Press, from 
what Author I know not, which yet I will heartily endeavour to get stopt, 
and I believe I shall be able to do it upon an assurance y l they will likewise 
stop all on their side. If they will not agree to this, I see not what reason 
there can be for our being silent more than they. And if there be anything 
else you shall think proper to propose to us, y* is consistent w 1 ye obligation 
to observe the Orders and Injunctions of ye Ch. whereof we arc Members, I 
dare answer for my Brethren, as well as myself, y* it shall be very thank 
fully received, and be attended to w l all ye respect and consideration due to 
qt comes from persons of your singular worth and learning. And we shall, 
moreover, think ourselves highly obliged to you for so desirable an inter 
posal, in so mclancholick a case as ours is. In ye meantime, I promise 
myself, yt as we pray for your deliverance from the severe trials and hard 
ships you arc forced to conflict w ( , so likewise, on ye other hand, we shall 
not want your intercessions, for the repairing our breaches, and restoring 
unity and concord amongst us. I am, w* great sincerity and respect, 
Your m. all , and m. lumib. Servant and Brother, 

X. SPINCKES. 

XIII. Another Letter /rout Jllnhop Sjiinclrs to BinJn>j> Folconar, I\[<ii/ I 21, 1721. 

R. R. Sir, I hope you received a Letter y 1 Mr. Strachan did me the 
kindness to send for me the last summer in answer to yours, wherein you 
was so very kind as mention the thought of making some proposals for an 
accommodation between our separating Brethren and ourselves, which I 
begged to see, and promised yt I should for my part, and I did not doubt but 
my Brethren too, would be very glad of, and ready to comply w l any thing 
y* might be consistent w t our obedience to the Rubrick, and our obligations 
to the Ch. we arc of. And I cannot think that more than this can in reason 
and conscience be expected from us. I waited for some considerable time 
in hope you would have done me the honour of acquainting me w 1 your 
VOL. n. 



I;->R DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

thoughts hereupon ; and should have Riven you ye trouble of another Letter 
upon* the same subject, had it not pleased Almighty (loci to visit me w l a 
series of sicknesses for the greatest part of the last winter, and from which 
I am very laldy recovered; and, blessed be God that I am so, and hope I 
may continue so. Th<>, if it should prove otherwise, His will be done; 
for l alwise desire to be rather at His disposal than my own, and to have 
Him chuse for me than myself. 

I hope. Sir. you have had your health, and may you long enjoy that 
singular blessing, both for your own sake and of those under your care, to 
whom it will bo a blessing as well as to yourself. \Ve hear great slaughter 
has been made amongst the gentlemen of your Country, by our wicked as 
well as unhappy South Sea. l>ut 1 perswade myself you have escaped that 
wreck, the (lovernm 1 having long -ince taken care of the Jacobites, y l if any 
of them had been inclined to have run in amongst the rest, they would not 
be exposed to the temptation, for want of money to venture w l them, and so 
are easy in themselves, whilst many others, who have lived long upon the 
plunder of the Nation, are now become as poor as we. Abundance of our 
people, both great and small, are in a miserable condition; and, after all ye 
care our Senators have taken, are greatly afraid y* the mountain will at last 
brimc f<>i - th a mouse. 1 have not the honour to be known to the 11. It. Mr. 
Fullartoun; but I have begged of Mr. Irwyn, and heg also of you, Sir, that 
when you shall see him next, you will do me the favour to give him my very 
humble service and hearty congratulation upon his being advanced to the 
station he now so justly and so worthily possesses. 1 hope you may all 
escape w<out great danger, or damage, or trouble, during the time of the 
General Assembly, now met. You have the same gracious Protector you 
have had formerly ; and y l He will condescend to protect you ag l all ye 
attempts of your most outragious adversarys, is the sincere prayer of, 

It. It. Sir, 
Your most humble and most obedient Servant, 

NATHANIEL SriN CKics. 

This for the Reverend Mr. Falconar. 

On January 10, 1721, Falconar wrote a long Letter to Bishop 
Campbell, in which he says " My charge is excceclinglic en 
larged, and the regard I have to the great and good Master to 
Whom I am responsible, will not allow me to do His work 
negligentlie ; and in the discharge of this great trust, w ch is very 
disproportioned to my power, there occur, and that frequentlie, 
verie many difficulties, w ch necessarilic require the help of others 
more knowing and more prudent than myself. There arc many 
of our Brethren, within that District assigned to me, who use the 



JOHN FALCOXA1L 180 

Scotch Liturgie, omit militant, and use the Mixture, being 
induc d to that good old way as by what they have read ; so //// 
;;/// example, and three short Discourses given them in wreating 
one about Confirmation, another about the Eucharist, and a 
third about Preparedness for it. I have also recommended to the 
Clergy the use of some Books, w ch treat some subjects, the 
knowledge of w ch is necessary at all times, but more especiallie 
with respect to the present situation of our afilicted Church ; and 
I reckon that this way of doing will graduaUle diiil tji iillii lead 
them into an acquaintance and love of what is Primitive. I much 
incline to transmit to you all these things, together with a Form 
of Prayer for deliverance to this distressed Church, w ch I think is 
used universallie in the above District. This was done by me in 
the end of October last, throughout the Presbyterie of St. 
Andrewes, the whole Shire of Angus, and that part of Perthshire 
w ch is allotted to me. As for the more distant counties of Mearn 
and Aberdeen, it was not practicable to visit them, because 
winter was approaching. . . I must necessarilie throw up the 
inspection of that hn<je Slu re. of Aberdeen, it being so remote, . . 
and this is the chief reason why I incline to the promotion fo 
D. Garden, and the other." 

The Piev. John Skinner says ;7-,VrA .s. 7//.s7or//, vol. //., />. 007 ,: 
" Mr. Falconar was an intimate acquaintance and great favourite 
of good Bishop Hose, who pressed him most warmly, for the good 
of the Church, to take the burthen of the Episcopate upon him 
in these times of trial and difficulty. And indeed no man could 
have been litter for it in any condition of the Church, as, from 
the many Letters that remain of him, he appears to have been 
not only a man of great piety and prudence, but likewise a con 
summate Divine, and deeply versed in the Doctrines and Pates of 
the Primitive Church, which, both by example and argument, he 
studied to revive and bring again into practice, in the softest and 
most inoffensive way possible." 

Bishop Poissell adds, in his Edition of Bishop Keith s Cata 
logue, p. 522: "As a proof that this eulogy is not altogether 
unfounded, we are informed that he was likewise very highly 
esteemed by the eminently learned Henry Dodwell, with whom 



HO J)ISTU1CT OF ill E. 

he Corresponded relative to a Book which he had intended to 
Publish against Deists, and other such enemies of Christianity. 
Dodwell s opinion of Bishop Falconer may he farther collected 
from a wish which he expressed that the latter would execute a 
Work, projected by himself, on the Lair* of Nature <ai<l Nation*. 
I know not, however, that the Bishop did actually become an 
Author. There is preserved in Manuscript a little Tract written 
by him for the Viscountess of Kingston." 

This MS. is now before me the Original, and also a Copy in 
Bishop Jolly s own handwriting. On the former is this Note by 
Bishop Low: "Written by Bishop Falconar, for the use of the 
Viscountess of Kingston, daughter of Colin, Earl of Balcarras, 
and first Married to the Karl of Kellie. The Author was a 
Bishop of the Episcopal Church in Scotland, early in Eighteenth 
Century, resided at Carnbee, in the County of Fife, and was 
reckoned one of the best Divines of his age. He Married a 
daughter of Galloway, the Lord Dunkeld." 

This Treatise, as an exponent of Bishop Falconar s "views," 
is now Printed at the end of this Life, for the first time. 

"The Life of Mr. Henry Dodwell ; with an Account of his 
Works, and an Abridgement of them that are Published, and of 
several of his Manuscripts ; by Francis Brokesby, B.D.; London, 
1715," is now scarce. I have the use of the Copy (2 vols., E. 
8. 0, stout bound) in the Scotlixli /<>>/.sr^m/ Library, wherein is 
written" Alexander Jolly, Turriff, 1778. Both volumes gifted 
by the llev. Mr. John limes, Deacon." I Transcribe from vol. 
iL, p. 501: "His (intended) Dissertation concerning the Laws 
of Nature and Nations, and other Writings left imperfect. . . 
No antecedent reason could have obliged God to punish com 
munities for the crimes of private persons, had He not settled 
societies. These thoughts Mr. Dodwell has given us some stric 
tures of in some of his Writings, and particularly in his Discourse 
against Mavria<je in (life rent Communions, and in that against 
Occasional Communion; but more fully in his Letter to the 
Reverend Mr. John Falconer, a North Britan, who requested 
his assistance in his designed Work against Deists and the like 
adversaries of Christianity. In answer to which, he began that 



JOHN FALCON All. Ml 

Discourse of the Laws of Nations, which he broke off, because it 
kindred him in the prosecution of his Discourse on Dr. \Vood- 
n-ard s Shield, in which he had then made some progress; and at 
that time sent Mr. Falconer a shorter Letter." Page GOO : 
" Mr. Dodwell s hypothesis of the Immortality of the Soul. . . 
The tire prepared for Evangelical Criminals shall be eternal. 
. . The Atheists themselves <{uickly gave over their eagerness in 
buying my Book, as my bookseller himself informed me, when 
they found, upon actual perusal of it, how little it answered their 
expectations. The person who occasioned it, as soon as I knew 
his name (which Mr. Gadderar conccal d from me), and could 
write to him, and send the copy to him, own d himself satisfy d 
with what I had there said. Since that he hath seen my just 
defence, and I have lately rcceiv d another Letter from him, 
wishing that my adversaries were satisfy d also. He (Bishop 
John Falconar on the margin in Bishop Jolly s handwriting) is 
your Countryman, and of great repute among the Episcopals 
there." 

In the Scottish Ecclesiastical Journal, 1852-53, there is given 
a pretty full Digest of our Bishop s Letters and Papers deposited 
in the Episcopal Chest, by the liev. AYm. Bright, while Professor 
of Ecclesiastical History at Trinity College, Glenalmond, titled 
"Bishop John Falconar and his Friends." These illustrate 
minutely what an able Correspondent, Counsellor, and Divine he 
was. The Letters addressed to him from Bishops Rattray and 
Campbell will be found under their Memoirs. 



lieverend Brethren, The necessitys of our suffering Brethren, as they 
do daily grow greater, and at present press them very hard, so our sense of 
this and sympathy w 1 them obliges us to the most effectual measures for 
their relief ; and because it is reasonably to be presumed that none will act 
more vigorously for their interest than their Brethren, and who are likewise 
fellow- sufferers w 4 them, we have therefore thought fit to nominate two 
discreet Churchmen in each Presbytery, to Collect in y 1 District, for their 
behoof, what the pious bounty of Noblemen, Gentlemen, and others, shall 
incline them to bestow. And because we doubt not but that upon this our 



M-2 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

earnest desire, you will undertake the managing of that affair w in the 
bounds of ye Presbytery of St. Andrews; we do, therefore, hereby very 
earnestly recommend it to you to be carried on w 1 all the dispatch conveni 
ently you may, in doing whereof you will perform a service most acceptable 
to God, much needed and desired by your afflicted Brethren, very becoming 
vour character, and most obliging to us who are. Beverend Brethren, 
Your affectionate Brethren and Servants, 

(Signed) Jo. GT,.\SOO\V. 

AI.KX. EDIXBURGEX. 

Kd 1 , 1 Janry., 1707. For the lleverend Mr. John Falconar, Minister 
at Carnbce, and Mr. Andrew Bruce, Minister at Pittcnwcem, and Mr. John 
Keir, Minister at Cults. 

X.l>. There are o>T 2 Commissions in ye same words from ye Bishop 

of Kd 1 alone to Mr. George ILonyman, Minister at Fivistoun, and Mr. John 
Falconar, &c., the one ]>ated Kd 1 , 2 June, 170 J, the o>r Kd r , 2i August, 
1713, Signed both Alex. Kdinburgen. 

A special object with Bishop Falconar was to restore the use 
of Confirmation, which had been quite neglected for many years, 
owing to the Persecutions which the Church had been sub 
jected to. 



. Ftilronar s l- onn of Consecrating the Ointment, and of Confirmation, chiefly 



tin Aliriil /einent from the (ireek EitchoJof/i/, which Gadderar hail Copied J<>r 




God, yo Fa>"r of Lights, from Whom cometh every good and perfect 
gift, send forth Thy most Holy Spirit on this Oyl. Make it the Oyl of 
Gladness to the Sanctifying of the Soul and Body, the Garment of Incor- 
ruption, and a perfecting Seal, imprinting the holy name of Thy only 
begotten Son on this Thy servant, now hallowed by the Water of Baptism, 
that he being thus Sanctified in Soul and Body, and freed from the dominion 
of all sin and wickedness, may be safe from the temptations and iiifestmcnts 
of all evil and impure spirits, and being numbered among Thy sons and 
adopted into Thy family, he may be owned by Thee before Thy Saints, 
Angels, and Archangels ; and in and by this pure and sacred Mystery of the 
Holy Ghost, the Sp 1 of J. Christ may enter into him, and ever dwell w^in 
him, as in an holy temple, thro the same our Lord J. *fr C., to Whom, 
w l Thee, Father, and Thee, H. Ghost, be all honour and glory, now 
and evermore. Amen. 

Almighty and Everlasting God, Who hast vouchsafed to Sanctify this 
Thy servant by the Laver of Baptism, and hast given unto him the forgive 
ness of all his sins, strengthen him, we beseech Thee, Lord, w l Thy 



JOHN FALCONAE. 143 

II. G. the Comforter, and daily increase in him Thy manifold gifts of Grace, 
the Sp t of AYisdom and Understanding, the Sp 1 of Counsel and Ghostly 
Strength, the Spt of Knowledge and true Godliness, and fulfill him, Lord, 
w 1 the Spt of Thy Holy Fear. Sign and mark him to he Thine for ever, by 
the virtue of Thy Holy Cross and Passion. Confirm and strengthen him 
w l the inward Unction of Thy II. Spirit unto life everlasting. Amen. 

I Sign thce w l the Sign of the >J< Cross, and Confirm thee w l the 
Chrism of Salvation, and lay mine hands upon thce, in ye name of ye F. 
and of ye S. and of ye II. G. Amen. [And continuing hi.s hands on his 
lieatr Defend, () Lord, this Thy Srrvant, &e. 

Recijx} i/iccnfor the t /iri^iii. Use Oil of Olives, Oil of Xutmegs, Cloves, 
w rt a Mixture of the Balsamum Anti-apoplecticum, with some Myrrh, Storax, 
and other Ingredients thickened to an Ointment. 

< hri*nt arm ri/iii / to N. < //fir/nn Mixture of Oil and Balsam. 



. . . This disease continues w l me, and tin") the swelling he much 
abated, yet it hath so settled in the joint that it is like to stick long there, 
and consequently to disable me from travelling, at least to any great 
distance. 

The case of the person who hath the important matter in hand is 
much at heart wt me, chiefly because of the fear I have that I shall not be in 
a condition to be concurring in it. And, indeed, I sec not any absolute 
necessity of my assistance in y l work, now y 1 M. AYh. is vested with full 
powers for that and ye like ministrations. His Deeds will have the same 
ratification in Heaven ; and that consent and approbation w oh I had, is by 
me fairly derived on him, or shall be done, if reckoned needful, by a formal 
Deed. Besides, his performance will have- this advantage, yt it may escape, 
by an ordinary prudent management, all observation, and it is scarcely 
possible to avoid it if done by me or any o> r. And when I lay together his 
Ordination and my disease meeting in such a critical nick, I am apt to think 
yt Providence intimates it should be done by him. I don t think there is 
any great need of Witnesses. For as these are necessary only for the satis 
faction of the Church, so the Church desires no satisfaction on y* subject, 
considering the present situation of her circumstances. And then, to ratify 
the fact, on supposition the notoriety of it be judged necessary afterwards, 
this may and shall be done by authcntick written Deeds. And then, I would 
not have the person concerned to consider himself only as a Catechumen, 
or as one who, in a formal sense, is an alien. Neither of these are true, 
but as one in a state of misfortune, rather than of sin, and who by y 1 deed 
means no more than to please God, to satisfie his own conscience, and secure 



144 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

his Title. His preparations should then lye, in my weak opinion, in a sure 
perswasion of his Orthodoxy, in humiliation for his former sins, in a full 
trust of a Plenary Pardon of all yt is bypast, and in an entire and voluntary 
resignation to Jesus, to live agrecablie to the terms of the Holy Covenant. 



Reverend Brother, The desire of ye person you wrote of seems to me 
to have great reason on its side, and I wish that case had been taken under 
consideration, and decided e- v r by your own or any o> r rightly constituted 
Protestant Church. "Which, so far as I know, lias not as yet been done ; 
nay, y C practice and sense of our neighbour Church looks to be ag 1 it, upon 
what warrantable principle, or how agreeably to some other both of their 
principles and practices, I am yet to learn; but as for the thing itself, it 
wants not perplexing dii iiculties on both sides ; and the, I have often thought 
upon it, yet I must own that I am scarce able to resolve myself clearly as 
to what may be lit to be done in cases of yt nature. I am loth to annul all 
such Baptisms, and to impeach both our own Church and others that seem to 
allow them, in so far y l they allow those persons who have no other, all Chris 
tian Privileges. On the other hand, I know not how to allow the validity of 
(^ is done w f out a Commission ; for my own part. I make a difference betwixt 
those who are satisfied or have no scruple about their Baptism and those 
who have. As to the first, I reckon their Baptisms, the, invalid in matter 
of right, yet not so in matter of fact, and that thro the Divine indulgence, 
from the Churches in W 1 they live, their admission and acceptance of them, 
and ye insuperable difficulties ye greatest part of people are under to know 
otherways ; for the Churches admitting of such Baptisms, the, no far> r than 
not to pass a censure upon them, seems to me to put these persons //( loiut 
fide to rely upon such Baptisms, and I hope y* they shall sustain no prejudice 
in yt case. But how the Govcrnours of the Church shall account for afford 
ing y l ground of confidence, I do not know; but for the o>"rs, who upon 
maturity of judgem 1 , after ripe enquiry, and weighty considerations, scruple 
the validity of their Baptism, their case seems to be very different from y l of 
the others, and I think it hard to reject them when they crave to have the 
defects of their former supposed Baptism supplycd ; but this I think fit to 
be done in ye way and manner you wrote of, and y l upon many obvious and 
weighty considerations. God Almighty direct you, give us all fuller and 
clearer light, and establish all things among us upon ye true ancient foun 
dations. 

I am, Sir, 
Your affectionate humble Servant, A. E. 

Ed r , July 80, 1713. To the Reverend Mr. John Falconar, to ye care 
of Mr. Alex. Eose, lodging at Mr. Kaughtie s house, in Ed r . 



JOHN FALCOXAH. 145 

XVIII. Fm)ii Mr. G adder ar to Mr. Falconar, on the same subject. 

R. R. S., I was glad to find by yours of the 14th of last July that ye 
Letters sent you from hence are come to your hand, as all yours, w ch are 
most acceptable, have been received by your friends here. You have greatly 
rejoiced me by the most agreeable [report] you give v* our dear friends, wt 
you, ye true sons of the Church, do strive to adorn their profession w* suitable 
conversations, w dl will bring great comfort to those that are over them in 
the Lord, and admonish them, and the richest blessings to themselves. I 
pray God yt they may be filled w l ye fruits of righteousness, w ch are by 
Jesus Christ to the praise and glory of God. Our most worthy friend, whose 
opinion you desired, has had a severe fit of his old distemper, and was so 
weak and low in his spirits, yt I delayed the giving him your Letter for some 
time, w ch made me delay my answers so long. At last he had your Letter, 
and we had some discourse on the points contained therein. His resolutions 
are as follow : To the first, such preparation and dispositions as are neces 
sary, as are proper and required to the worthy receiving of the Lord s 
Supper. To the 2d, he is of the Candidate s opinion as to immersion ; but 
seeing we have no ]}a)>tixti ria fit for the immersion of adult persons, he 
thinks the immersion of ye head thrice, being the principal part of the body, 
sufficient, seeing ye Church dispenses w 1 immersion altogether in some cases , 
but if the gentleman chuses ra^ r immersion of ye whole body, in y 1 case 
Fanonili i liiitc will be necessary, and a meet vessel, in a convenient apart 
ment, fit for ye Celebration. 0> r circumstances must be left to ye prudence 
of the administrator. To ye 3d, Confirmation cannot come too soon after Bap 
tism, and he is satisfied yt Unction is very ancient, and was used in Confirma 
tion in ye Primitive Church. And since you tell me ye have none of ye ancient 
Liturgies, I have consulted those both of Greek and Latino Churches, par 
ticularly as to Chrism ; how ancient they are, I leave to such as are conver 
sant in them to determine. They swelled to a huge bulk many ages ago, 
and the Rites and Services introduced appear to me in their whole extent 
impracticable. The very knowledge of y m is too much for one man. Ars 
lo)i<i<i, ritti bred*. The luxuriancy of ye Greeks, particularly in their Litnrt/ia 
Onliuuin, is surprising. 

I have Transcribed the inclosed Sheet, in which you have what concerns 
Chrism, w l my authority s, and likewise what Habcrtus writes as to the 
institution of it. I own I am of his opinion in y 1 point. In the Preface to 
the Liturgie of ye Cli. of E., there is a short Discourse of Ceremonies, why 
some are abolished and some retained, w ch tis like, you may think worth 
your reading. But this is not to disswade you from gratifying your friend, 
who is known to be a gentleman of singular worth, and who knows these 
matters better than I do. Yet I must own my jealousie of introducing 
Rites and Ceremonies which are not expressly of Divine or Apostolical 
institution ; and even some of these are abolished, and others gone into 
desuetude. The Exteriour of Religion is undoubtedly necessary, for we are 

VOL. II. T 



HO DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

indispensibly obliged to glorify God in our bodies, and when the Church is 
pleased to appoint what is for Decency, Order, and Edification, I am not to 
dispute, but to obey. But the disproportionate increase of the Extcriour 
had for many ages lost, I am afraid, the very Soul, if I may so speak, of our 
most Holy Religion. The Cli. of Rome s altering the Apostolical Rite of 
Imposition of Hands in Confirmation into that of Crossing the Forehead 
with the Thumb, dipt in the Chrism, is what I cannot approve of. But I 
shall always be ready to submit to better judgem ts and better information. 

I acquainted Mr. Spinks w* this matter, and I reckon he will write to 
you. Your few friends here truly love and respect you, and as I know your 
sincere affection towards them, and that you seem afraid of the imputa 
tion of flattery while you express your genuine sentiments of them, the way 
to avoid it is to think soberly of them, as you certainly do of yourself ; to 
abstain from admiration, and not to write their good qualities or perfections 
to themselves, for good men will be afraid to hear themselves praised, being 
cautioned as to that, John v. 1-1, and Job xxxii. 21, 22. I think it hardly 
worth while to trouble yourself w 1 Dr. Clark; his design seems to be to lessen 
our B. Saviour as to his Divinity from the Scriptures w cb belong to his office 
of Mediatour, w ch is nothing but fallacy and imposing. Winston is sunk 
into such contempt w 1 all men of sense and learning, that he is not capable 
of doing much harm here, J>e </nttitix. 

Your Bro> r is very well ; his friend is still alive. We would be glad to 
see your friend here, and wish you could perswade him to add to his good 
learning a more extended conversation and knowledge of the world, an 
advantage to a candidate e> r for Ecclesiastical or Secular employment. Our 
friend is very thankful for your getting off some copies of the " Thesaurus." 
I have put up the in a box, and scut them aboard a ship bound for Leith, 
to the care of my friend Mr. Ch. Littlejohn. They are 3 a copy in sheets. 
I have advanced the 3d part of the price, which is 0. The box, porterage, 
and other small charges amount to (5*. You desire your Letters to be 
directed to my L d of Ed 1 , and I take it for granted y* you will not be dis 
pleased that I have left them open to be perused by his Lordship, to whose 
judgcm 1 we owe great deference, upon the ace 1 of his solidity, as well as yt of 
his station and experience. "We are much obliged to your good and honour 
able friend the La Lyon, who is sincere and hearty to promote the interest 
of the Church, and is very civil and obliging to me in particular. I shall 
add no more to this tedious Letter, but y t I ever am heartily and with 
respect yours, (Signed) J. G. 

London, Aug. 11, 1713. 

Upon the foot was wrote as follows : 

Sir, I hope you had my Letter by the Post, by w ch you will know what 
has hindered this so long, which has made me very uneasy. The Dean has 
not recovered his health so as to be able to apply to study, so y 4 we have but 



JOHN FALCOXAR. 147 

small hopes of receiving much farther benefit by his excellent pen. Your 
son s noble patron is now made the greatest man among you. I pray God 
make him a happy instrument of good things to the Church, and to his 
Country. The Elections go on apace here, and are very strong on the 
Church s side. Our friends abroad are very well, God be praised. My most 
humble service to my Lord Lion. I pray God for an increase and continu 
ance of your health, that you may see peace upon Israel, and a righteous 
tho oppressed cause flourish. Adieu ! 

Sept. 14, 1713. For the Reverend Mr. John Falconar, at Carnbec. 

XIX. A Letter from 3/r. Sjiinckcv to Jiixhop Falconar on tJie tame subject, Dated 

Awjust 17, 1713. 

Honored Sir, I have had the happiness to hear sometimes of your 
welfare by Mr. Campbell and Mr. Gadderar, at which I much rejoice, and 
beseech Almighty God to grant you a long continuance of it, for His Church 
and Religion s sake, as well as for your own. As to your case proposed, I 
cannot think my judgm 1 to be of any importance after that Mr. Gadderar 
has given you my worthy neighbour s and his own. However, to shew you 
how ready I am to take an opportunity of serving you to the best of my 
ability, I shall deliver my sense of it in few words. Our Church, it is plain, 
recommends Immersion in Baptism, where it may be w l safety ; and I could 
wish it oftener practised than it is, in conformity to primitive Usage, and 
the tenor and design of S Paul s Gth chap, to the Romans. Tho I much 
question whether this course was taken in the Baptism of Cornelius and his 
Company (Acts x. 47) ; and tho I do not see a necessity of trine either 
Immersion or Aspersion, I cannot apprehend any hurt in it, and therefore 
see not why it should be refused. It is certain Chrysm after Baptism was 
a very ancient usage, but not instituted in Scripture ; for which reason, I 
take Confirmation by laying on the hand and Benediction, to be as complete 
as by Unction. And since our Church directs to that method, I should not 
think it proper to use Unction, because it is a variation from my Rule, to 
which I think I ought 110 more to add than. to detract from it. But you in 
Scotland, being not under the same obligation, are more at liberty to act as 
you shall think most proper. Nor do I think, if you use Unction, you need 
concern yourself about the Composition for it, since we have no certainty 
how it was made anciently, nor can have ; but any sweet oil seems to me 
sufficient. By this you will see my opinion is not only that you may safely 
gratify the gentleman in his request, but that you may do it in what method 
you like best. And now, I take it for granted, I need not advise you to 
secresy in it, whereby to prevent the clamours that might otherwise be raised 
by cither the ignorant or malicious, being loth to be farther troublesome 
to you ; and therefore I add no more, but that I am, w 1 great sincerity, Sir, 
Your very humble and faithful Servant, 

(Signed) N. SPINCKKS. 



US DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

If you shall see or have occasion to send to my good Lord Bishop of 
Ed r , be pleased to give him my humble service and duty ; and I hope it will 
not be long ere you hear again from me by his Lordship. 

Directed on the back This for the R. K. Mr. Falconar. 



XX. Another Letter from J/r. Spiiickes to J3i*}iop Falconar, Dated 
December 2, 1713. 

Reverend and Honored Sir, -I am very sensible of the favour of your 
kind Letter, which I received by good Mr. Campbell, and beg your accep 
tance of my unfeigned thanks for it. The great respect and reverence I 
justly have for you, makes me ivjoice at the sight of your hand ; and your 
friendly acceptance of my poor opinion in the case proposed, is still a farther 
instance of the obligation I owe to you. I was sensible that I was out of 
my sphere in pretending to give my advice to one who was so much better 
able to advise himself, but would not decline offering it plainly and freely, 
tho hastily and on the sudden, that you might see how ready I am to do you 
any service in my power, upon whatever occasion. The good Dean has had 
more freedom from the severity of his distemper, for diverse months past, 
than could well be expected. He has now got a cold, which oftentimes has 
been the beginning of a fit, but we do not find that effect of it yet ; and I 
pray God we may not, in which I know you will heartily join w 1 me. I hope 
you have received before this Ten Pounds of the remainder of the good Lady 
Coventry s Legacy, which I know my good Lord Bishop of Ed r would do me 
the honour to remit to you, if it be come to his hands, as I promise myself 
it is before this. I wish I could have made it a much larger sum, but the 
account would not allow it, by reason of the number we had here to partake 
of y* money. As I do not forget to pray for you, so I heartily thank you for 
the share I have in your prayers, and do beg the continuance of them for, 

Worthy Sir, 
Your most humble and most faithful Servant, 

(Signed) N. SPINCKES. 

XX. 3/V. H<iy of Dalgetie s C/iarctctcr of Jlishop Falconai , Transcribed from 
the "Postboy," Dated Edinburgh, July 25, 1723. 

On Saturday, the Oth instant, Died John Falconar, D.D., very much 
lamented. He was a gentleman well born, being a descendant of Lord 
Halkerton s family. He apply d himself from his youth to the study of 
Divinity. He was made Hector of Carnbee, in Fife, and there Married a 
daughter of Lord Dunkeld, by whom he had two sons. He was afterwards 
most deservedly promoted to a higher station in the Church, and then he 
was obliged to exert his capacity, which he did with much wisdom and 
pradence, and which, from his innate modesty, he had till then endeavoured 
to conceal, except when his duty or character made it necessary. He was a 



JOHN FALCONAE. li J 

gentleman endowed w 1 great meekness, moderation, and charity, w 4 exem 
plary piety and great humility. He was a man of good natural parts, and 
great learning. He always apply ed himself more particularly and closely to 
the study of the Holy Scriptures and the Writings of the^early Fathers, in 
hoth which he was a great proficient. From these he formed his principles, 
and his life and practice were as primitively Catholick as was his doctrine ; 
and 110 outward difficulties did ever move him out of this road. He was 
calm, serene, and uniform under the many pressures of very narrow circum 
stances, having no fortune to sustain him for many years before his demise, 
but what Divine Providence kindly afforded him from day to day ; and, 
indeed, he needed the less, because he only desired and was content with a 
little. He much lamented the disputes in Religion and the divisions of 
Christendom, both at home and abroad; and the great decay of Primitive 
Doctrine, Worship, Discipline, Government, and Practice, and he laid the 
melancholy situation of the Church of Scotland very much to heart. In 
short, he was a man of a truly Catholick spirit, much beloved and respected 
by all who knew and had a relish of his virtue and piety. 

Number 4 in JJixlmp .Forks Catalogue in the l^piscopal Cnllnct. 

2. (Holograph) Bishop Falconar to Bishops Campbell and Gaddcrar, 
May 3, 1720, informing them about what had pass d in Edin 1 after the Death 
of Bishop Hose, viz., fixing a Bishop in Edin 1 , and Bishops in other places, 
not pretending to fill Dioceses, but appropriating some to Districts, and 
these in the way of comendam ; that the Aiite-Ke volution Presbyters had 
contended for excluding the Post-Revolution ones from any faculty of caus 
ing Bishops, but it was carried against them; and y l Mr. Fullarton had been 
fixed in Edin r ; only they did not think it prudent he should succeed the late 
Bishop of Edin 1 in his Vicarious Metropolitical powers, but that lie should 
Convocate and Preside. 

3. (Holograph) Bishop Collier to Bishop Falconar, May 30th, 1720, 
obviating a clamour raised by old friends ag 1 the Usagcrs of having been the 
occasion of carrying numbers to the Church of Rome, into ye Revolution, 
and to Atheism itself, and of their being Schismaticks ; which last comes 
w 1 a very ill grace from those who admitt some whom they know to be 
Members of the complying Church, and that two of their chiefs defend this 
latitude. 

4. (Holograph) Bishop Spinckes to Bishop Falcouar, Augt. ID, 1720, 
wherein of the motion that only old Presbyters (i.e., Ante-Revolution ones) 
should have the priviledge of Voting, &c., and y l Scotland is not tied down 
to any settled Form of Liturgy since the Reformation. 

5. (Holograph) Bishop Falconar to Bishops Campbell and Gadderar, 
Febry. 3, 1721-2, wherein that he himself [B. F.] had Administrated with 
ye Mixture and by the Scotch Prayer Book many years backward, long ere 
any dispute commenced at London ; that he had apprised the late Bishop of 



150 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

Edin r of his Avay of doing, against which no remonstrance was made ; that 
ye other Bishops of Scotland approved and used the Invocation according to 
ye example of the late Bishop Hose, and that was an Innovation w 1 respect 
to ve English Liturgy ; that there were different Liturgies of old, and before 
the* Reformation, and all this without any injury to Unity ; that some in 
Scotland were ohlidged to be tolerated without any Liturgy, &c. ; and why, 
then, all the noise about an exact uniformity ? being a thing hardly prac 
ticable, &c. 

6. (Original) Geo. Putullo to Bishop Falconar, Riga, Octor. 20, 1722, 
concerning the Administration of the Holy Eucharist by the Lutherans and 
the Prussians. 

7. (Holograph) Bishop Falconar to Mr. Robert Keith, December 2G, 
1722, importing occasionally to Communicate with those that did not use 
the Mixture, which and the other Usages he had practised, " and that (says 
he) some years before the commencement of the dispute in England;" and 
for this his practice he assigns a weighty reason. 

8. (Holograph) Bishop Falconar, March G, 1723. The address lost, 
but it would appear to have been to Mr. Robert Keith, wherein the Doctrine 
and Practice of the Universal Primitive Church must be had recourse to, as 
subsidiary to the Scriptures, to determine all the Essentials of Religion ; 
that the opposites do ill in grounding their opposition to the Usages on then- 
being obsolete and a>itii/iit<<il, seeing this will stand in bar to all reformation 
of Principles and Practices, &c. ; that Episcopacy in Scotland before the 
Revolution was founded on no other foot than that of the King s Supremacy, 
&c. ; with a most hearty wish that the Primitive Penitentiary Discipline were 
revived, &c. 

9. (Holograph) Bishop Falconar, Aprile 9, 1723 ; the address lost, but 
it would appear to have been to Bishop Collier. Herein y l Usagers and 
Non-Usagers should impose nothing as to these disputed points upon Clergy 
and Laies by authority, but y* the one side should Communicate with the 
other occasionally, &c. " These English Bishops (says he) who innovated 
on the first Reformed Liturgy, brought not their people to the Truth, but 
went over to the people and the Prince, and so is come of it." He also gives 
a plan of Discipline which he intended. 

14. (Holograph, Original) Bishop Gadderar to Bishop Falconar, Augt. 
14, 1713, concerning Immersion in Baptism and Chrism in Confirmation, 
with Bishop Collier s opinion of them. A gentleman mentioned to be grati 
fied in his request ; that Mr. Spinckes was to write to Bishop Falconar upon 
this matter. A sheet of Arguments for the Chrism, out of the Eucliologium 
Gnecorum, and Habertus s opinion ; as also placed in the same Letter, a 
Consecration Prayer for the Chrism, in the handwriting of Bishop Falconar, 
and a Form of Prayer, in said handwriting, at the Laying on of Hands, 
Anointing, and Crossing in Confirmation. N.B. This same Letter and the 
Sheet of Arguments came open and under cover to my Lord of Edin r , for 
his Lordship s perusal and judgment. 



JOHN FALCONAR. 151 

Number 5 in the tnunc Cataloyue. 

9. (Holograph) Bishop Falconar to Bishop Miller, Decemr. 28, 1714, 
wherein "that the Governours of the Church, with the Counsel of the Pres 
byters, have a Faculty to fix the Publick Worship." 

10. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Augt. 10, 1720, wherein y* any Form of 
receiving Penitents from the Established Church of England, should, in 
point of prudence, be in very general terms. 

11. (Original) Do. to Do., June 20, 1721, complaining of those Preachers 
who set the Observance of Christian Institutions over against Holiness of 
Life, whereas they arc like the twins in ye Story, who live and die together, 
&c. ; and that the Church, when under a destitution of secular protection 
and encouragemt, whether voluntary or involuntary, should betake herself 
to her own intrinsic power. 



BISHOP FALCONAR S VIEW OF RELIGION. 

/ Jii-J crrcii to In jiinjc 40. j 

RELIGION is that duty which man oweth to God, and it is expressed by Faith, 
"Worship, and Obedience. To the right discharge of this duty He hath pro 
mised rewards, and threatned punishment against such as either neglect it 
or do it amiss imperfectly. The reward He hath promised is man s true 
happieness ; and therefor He is graciously pleased to call that His service 
which is man s felicity, and never forbids us the pursuit of a re all but of a 
false and mistaken happieness. 

That this duty of Religion is oweing to God, will be readily owned by 
all, save those who are formaly Atheists, or who are such upon the matter. 
These are the men who, in favour of their vices, debauch their reason so 
much as to state it advocat against Religion, it and their indulged appetites 
and bents being quite inconsistent. 

But such who own Religion, must also own that He hath an indis 
putable right to prescribe and fix Religion to men. Was it left to man s 
caprice or reason to form to himself that by which he should procure, not 
only a temporal life and happiness, but an eternall ? This would prove his 
independencie upon God, both as to his being and weill-being, than which 
there is nothing more absurd and blasphemous. 

This being granted, that God hath an unquestionable right to determine 
Religion, it will follow that, as He in greatest equity may prescribe to an 
innocent the measures and conditions of his happiness, under the threat- 
nings of punishments and promise of rewards, so much more may He doe so 
to an offending creature. It will also follow that no Religion, save what He 
Himself enjoyns and condescends on, can be acceptable to Him, can plead 
any title to His promises of reward, or exemption from punishment. 

This being granted, the next enquiry must be, where God hath made 
this discovery of His will, which so tenderly affected to His honour and the 



152 REASON, ENTHUSIASM, AND DIVINE REVELATION. 

creature s happiness ; and there are three things which compeat for it, 
Reason, Enthusiasm, and the Revelation contained in the Scriptures. 

it cannot be founded on Reason, as it stands single and unasisted by 
Divine Revelation. Because Reason, however, the Candle of the Lord (as 
the wise man terms it), gives us but a very obscure idea both of God and of 
our own nature, of happiness and misery, of our present state and future 
life as is evident from the Wryteings of the ancient Philosophers. The best 
of them Pythagoras and Plato, founded on the Revelations made to Moses, 
and expressly declare that God cannot be Worshipped and Served 
acceptably, unless lie should declare Himself on the subject. It s plain that 
Reason is a vci-y limittcd thing, in so much that it is forced to subnutt 
itselfe to the very secrets of nature; yea, and finds inextricable difficulties 
even in Mathematicks, that Science in which it thinks to find the most 
certainty. Moreover, it is quite debauched with respect to the generalihc in 
favour of earthly and carnall passions, so that it docs violence to its own 
clearest convictions. Thus the Sccpticks, yea and Mr. Hobs, impugnc the 
certainty even of Geomctricall demonstrations. But th<"> we suppose 
Reason a sure guide for innocent man, yet it cannot be such for offending 
man. To know how to attone an offended God, and recover His favour, is 
utterly impossible, unless He declare Himself upon the subject. All that 
Reason can possibly suggest on the head, is Repentance; and how is it 
possible to know if this will be accepted? Repentance revokes the affront, 
but cannot recall the act; and at utmost it is optionall to God, the Supreme 
Governour, to accept it or not ; so that the guilty party is still left at a 
doubtfull uncertaintie, and so without any solid ground of hope or comfort. 
Moreover, if Repentance were enough, even the terms of it behoved to be 
specified by God himselfe, otherwise it is not possible to know if the com 
mitted MI i lt shall be actually pardoned by the Supreme, and the delinquent 
restored to favour and the bcncfitc of the Law. From all which it is plain, 
that offending man cannot know by mcir Reason, unassisted by Divine 
Revelation, what that Religion is which is acceptable to God, and which 
gives a title to His rewards; in which rewards the true felicity of man doth 
consist. 

God, in revealing truths to men, which are necessary, important, and 
uscfull, yet which he could not have known without His own interposition, 
graciously condescends to attest them by such supernatural acts, as not only 
surpass our power, but indeed that of all created agents. These, His super- 
naturall acts, arc of two kinds. First, Trespasses (may I he allowed so to 
term it) on the method He hath established in acting on His creatures, as 
stopping the course of the sun, or preternaturall eclipse, dividing the sea, 
multiplying parts of matter, or rather creating new matter, as in the case of 
the Widow s cruise of oylc, the feeding thousands with a little bread and a 
few fishes, especially raiseing from the dead, and our Lord s raiseing of 
Himselfe. When all these things are done in the face of the sun, before 
multitudes, confessed by enemies, devils, and adversarie men, for pious and 
vertuoiis ends, to the benefite spirituall and temporall of mankind, and 
leave a permanent effect ; when again, in all competitions of preternaturall 
actings between God and evill spirits, the superiority falls to those who are 
commissioned by God, and the emissaries of the Devil are vanquished, as in 
the case of Moses and the Egyptian Magicians, Jannes and Jambres, 
Elijah and the Priests of Baal, St. Peter and Simon Magus, St. Paul and 
Elvmas the Sorcerer, our Lord in ejecting confessed Devils, and the 



VARIOUS GLOSSES PUT ON SCRIPTURE. 153 

primitive Christians in their Exorcism, silencing the Heathen Oracles, and 
in their contests with the deluding spirits of Hereticks and Heathens. 

The other part of supernatural acts is the knowledge of future contin 
gent events, which depend on the various determination of the free will of 
man, which cannot possibly be knowen by any creature, save by those to 
whom God is pleased to reveal them. And when these Prophecies are 
publicly declared, when submitted to the judgement of these who had the 
gift of discerning spirits, when these are attested by supernatural signs at 
the time when the Prophecie is uttered, confirmed by the accomplishment 
of the events, and when the Prophets are at unity amongst themselves, when 
any one or more truths come thus attested then it hath the seal of Heaven 
stamped on it ; and to deny or reject it, because it transcends the compre 
hension of our reason, which is baftled by a great many things in nature, is 
the sin ag* the Holy Ghost, which is difficultly pardoned. 

From all this, these propositions are evident : 1. That the Religion which 
is acceptable to God, and rewarded by Him, must be revealed by Himselfe. 
2. That the Divine truths contained in the Scriptures, evidently bearing the 
Divine attestation, the Religion prescribed in it must be the true one. Yet 
here another most material difficulty remains, and that is, ancnt the sense 
and meaning of many propositions in the Scriptures, and these, too, of 
chiefest importance. * Whoever shall impartially consider the deplorable 
debates which now are 011 foot in Christendom, and the divisions and sub 
divisions that are among those who glory in the name of Jesus Christ, will 
find that some men erect new schemes, and force the Scriptures to favour 
their inventions. On the other hand, the Church of Pome either clap glosses 
on the Scripture, to fortific their innovations and inforcc them with their 
pretended infallibility, or they indeed pretend new Revelations, and charge 
them on the belief of men by pretended miracles. For my own part, the 
variety of glosses delivered by the various litigant parties hath raised in me 
great perturbation of mind ; and this it must needs occasion to any one who 
desires to please God. and to perswadc others so to doe. That I may be 
directed aright in this important matter, I have considered that there are- 
First, some" Divine verities so plain that they must be believed unless we 
will doe violence to our own minds, such as these : that there is a First 
Cause from which all other things derive their existence, and by whose 
influence they are preserved and governed ; that this First Cause is infinitely 
perfeit, that He can never deceive or be deceived. These theological verities 
may be decerned by attentive and unprejudiced minds, antecedently to 
Revelation ; and indeed Revelation suppos cth them, altho they are illus 
trated, and more strongly operate on the mind in order to practice when 
Revelation seconds Reason. A common artisan, without the help of mathe- 
maticks, does his work ; but when instructed in the rules and principles of 
mechanism, sees more perfectly into his act, and does his work more 
accurately and exactly. Tims Reason may lead into the knowledge of the 
existence of God, to the knowledge of Hi s infinitly perfeit attributes ; biit 
then he discerns these and the like theologicall verities more clearly, and is 
more strongly impressed by them, in order to faith and practice, when God 
is pleased to back this discovery which Reason makes by His authoritative 
Revelation. This is manifest from the far more bright notices of God which 
these men in all ages have had whose Reason hath bein assisted by Revela 
tion, than those men who in this kind of knowledge have been destitute of 
this great assistance. Thus, then, to understand the Scriptures, the great 



VOL. II. 



154 SCRIPTURAL MATTERS OF FACT. 

theological verities to which the mind must necessarly assent (unless it will 
do violence to itselfc by wilfull stilling its own convictions), must be settled 
on as so many lirst principles, but so as they are delivered in the Holy 
Scripture. The Reason of a young child soon convinccth him of that first 
principle, that he ought to obey his parents ; but when this is set in a full 
light, and authoritatively enjoyiied by the parents, it becomes more strongly 
binding on his belief and practice. 

^ The next tiling considerable in the Holy Scriptures are matters of 
fact, such as the Creation, the Fall of our first parents, the universal Deluge, 
&c. Now, Reason may fairly induce us to conclude that all these facts are 
infallibly true, if it be considered that men in these dayes lived long, and so 
were near tbese facts; that they were exceeding carcfull, through the 
strongest obligation of interest, to transmitt them to postcritie, before the 
invention of letters; that God in those early ages made very frequently 
extraordinary communications of His will to man, and by these communica 
tions charged the heads of families, under the highest pains, to traduce these 
important" truths to posteritie. Thus Moses could not, after an ordinary 
way, but kno\v perfectly these great facts delivered in the Book of Genesis. 
But, then, that God Who cloathed him with his commission and attested it 
by a miracle, and by a faculty in the name of (rod to work miracles, did 
certainly direct him so in wryteing that History, upon which the whole stress 
of his commission depended, that as he durst not falsific so he could not 
possibly lie deceived. The knowledge of these facts was of absolute neces 
sity to that peculiar people to whom he was sent, in order to the purposes 
wliich God designed on them; yea, to all other men, who from thcncefore- 
ward were so to serve God as to be accepted and rewarded by Him. Where - 
for, to understand the very great importance of these facts, before and long 
after the times of Moses, and Avhich are left on record by subsequent inspired 
penmen, it is of vast use to know the received notions and confessed prin 
ciples of these times in which the facts were acted ; and I doubt nothing 
but ignorance of this notion hath led many interpreters of Scripture into 
gross mistakes and errors. 

Nothing more common in the early ages of the world than God s 
extraordinary communications of His will to men ; His immediat, His 
visible, and remarkable punishments of particular offences; His as remark 
able, immediat, and visible rewards and deliverances of the Righteous. 
This with respect to particular persons, but chiefly societies. The most 
ancient profane Histories arc full of these; yea, the Mythology, i.e., the 
fictitious Histories of the Ancients (which, by the way, are founded on true 
facts, thu abused by Poetick licentiousness), is full of these also. Immediate 
Divine designations to dominion, or to the execution of Divine sentences 
past against persons or societies, was ordinary in these times ; and the 
ignorance of this thing hath led many into error, yea and pernicious prac 
tices. The presidencie of angels (in Scripture called gods) was believed in 
these early times ; that of the Supreme Being, after an immediate and direct 
manner, was reckoned the highest privilege ; consulting the oracles of the 
true God, and of false gods, was very ordinary and received answers from 
them, especially in arduous cases. These and some other acknowledged 
notions and practices are to be knowen, in order to a just view of facts 
recorded in the Old Testament ; and interpreters, by not attending to such 
principles, or ignorance of them, run upon mistakes. 

3. In the Scriptures there are Morall Precepts by which I understand 



THE WAY TO KNOW THE MEANING OF HOLY WRIT. 155 

all these duties pcrformablo by free agents (such as augells and men) to God, 
to other men, and themselves. Now, Reason, instructed in the common 
principles of the knowledge of God, and in those of prime equity and pru 
dence, may and doth discover many of these duties ; but the interior motives 
to these duties, and the extent of them, is purely owing to Revelation, as 
shall be showcn hereafter in its proper place. 

4. In the Scriptures there are the Secrets of Heaven, which Reason 
possibly could not have discovered without God s interposition by Revelation ; 
such as the apostacic of our first parents, the miserable state of man whyle 
in this state of enmitie with God, and chiefly the Redemption through Jesus 
Christ, with all the other mysterious verities which appertain to that super- 
naturall Dispensation. To this we must add the Ordinances and Sacraments 
which God hath instituted as necessary appendages to this Dispensation. 
To understand which aright is the principall concern of a Christian, and in 
order to this two things are necessary. 

1st. To know the Maxims that then were generally received among the 
Jewcs ; such Jewes as lived in the Land of Canaan, and such of the Natives 
and Proselytes as were dispersed among the other nations of the 1 Ionian 
Empire, and which in the New Testament are called Greeks and Hellenists; 
for on due attention it will be found that the Spirit of God alludes to these 
their principles, and useth their terms of art ; it is very reasonable to think 
so, seeing the Holy Ghost was to deliver Himselfe to them in a way which 
they were to understand, and these great Mysteries could not, after an ordi 
nary way, been otherwise understood by them. 

2. The other way to come at the meaning of the Holy Spirit in the 
Revelations of the New Testament, is to know that sense in which the first 
Christians understood them, and this of all others is the surest way of 
understanding the mind of God revealed in the Gospel ; for it is plain that 
the good Spirit of God delivered Himself to them so as that they should 
understand Him. To think otherwise is manifest blasphemie. The 
miraculous gifts bestowed on these primitive Christians, and which con 
tinued with the Church for 800 years, is a plain proof that what they 
believed, professed, and practised Avas really the Truth revealed by the Holy 
Ghost, it being impossible Ho would attest error or confirm lies by supcr- 
naturall acts. They were quit disinterested, and sought nothing else than 
to approve themselves to God. They despised the pleasures of sense, and 
the pomp and riches of this world, and aspired after nothing but Heaven. 
They exposed themselves to all these evils the malice of devils or bad men 
could invent or inflict, ere they would forgoc one jot or title of that Divine 
Revelation. These heavenly verities were intrusted by God to them, to be 
handed down as ane inestimable inheritance to their successors. They knew 
the danger of being false to their trust, and the great reward of their faith- 
fullness. They knew that if they or ane Angel from Heaven should Preach 
any other Gospel than what was once delivered to the Saints, they were to 
be accursed. 

Thus, then, that sense of the Scriptures which the Primitive Church 
believed, professed, and practised universally, in all places and at all times, 
is indeed the mind of the Holy Ghost. This should be the judge of contro- 
versie, and the last resort of all debate, and is infinitely preferable to the 
conceits and glosses of men, how witty and ingenious soever, who live or 
have lived at a great distance from the fountain. Let Papist, Calviuist, 
Lutherian, Arminian, Socinian, Quaker, Anabaptist, &c., advance with what 



150 THE F1KST MAX. 

air of probabilitic or reasonableness whatever, any Doctrine that s contrary 
or disagreeable to this, it is none of the Divine Faith once delivered to the 
Saints, and therefore ought not to be regarded. 

Of the Firxt Man. 

I liilosophers who of old have discoursed on the Originall and Nature of 
Man, have disaggrccd and blundered oddly ancnt his nature and origination; 
and no wonder, since lieason without the help of lie-vela t ion can do nothing 
to purpose this way. Philosophers who have lived since the promulgation 
and reception of the Gospel, yet who trusted more to their own conceits than 
to Uevrlation, have in nothing been more unhappy than in their enquiries on 
this important subjuct. It is therefore just and necessary we should take 
in with what the Spirit of God in the Scripture hath told us on this weighty 
head. 

We are told, Gen. ii. 7, that God formed man out of the dust, and 
breathed into his nosefhirls the breath of life, and man became a living soul. 
And Gen. i. 27, so God created man in His own Image, in the Image of God 
created He him. On this subject we may observe 1st. That the animals 
were by God s order the product of the earth, Gen. i. 21 ; whereas, Gen. ii. 
7, God is said to have formed man out of the dust of the earth. Whence it 
follows that man hath a distinguishing excellency and sanctity stamped on 
his nature, as being the immediate production of God himself. 2dly. That 
man, which was funned by God out of the dust of the earth, was a compleat 
animal, and had, as such, no other life than that of brutes, which obleidged 
him to return to the dust whence he came, Gen. iii. 1 ,). Thus in the first 
instance, man is none other than a compleat animal, tho of a more exquisite 
composition than any other animals ; and this is what in the New Testament 
is so fivqiiently called the "natural man, and which indeed should have 
been termed by our Translators the " animal man," this last being more 
expressive of the Original, odly. God is said to breathe into him the breath 
of life. This is the rational soul. The Septuagint, or Greek Old Testament, 
which is followed by the New Testament, plainly calls him a man ere this 
breath is breathed into him, whence it is clear that this breath is a thing 
quite distinct from his animal life, a soul far superior to that animal soul 
which he had before this breathing. This rational soul is that which dis- 
tinguisheth him from and exalteth him above the beast. It qualifies him 
for immortality. " Who knoweth the spirit of man that goeth upward and 
the spirit of tlie beast that gocth downward" (Eccl. iii. 21). This rational 
soul, distinct and superior to the animal, is the candle of the Lord, as the 
wise man calls it (Prov. xx. 27). It is that whereby we arc capacitated for 
understanding moral and spirituall propositions ; that principle on which 
the Infinite Word or Wisdom shines, which lighteth every man that cometh 
into the world (Jo. i. 9). Ithly. Besydes this, the first man is said to have 
bein made after the Image of God ; that is, the Divine Spirit Avas communi 
cated to him. This is the Divine Nature which is restored to Christians by 
Jesus Christ (2 Peter i. 4) ; that spirit which is distinct from the soul and 
the body (1 Thcss. v. 23) ; the quickening spirit (1 Cor. xv. 45) ; and the 
second Adam (47). Thus the first man was, in the first instance, created a 
compleat living animal, on which God superinduced the rational soul or 
mind ; and then, on that higher principle, he further superinduced the 
Divine Spirit. 



OUR FIRST PARENTS WHILE INNOCENT. 157 

It is plain from what is said, that man was compounded of parts hetero 
geneous that is, of diverse or contrary kinds ; and hence, with inclinations 
to things of a material or earthly, and to things of a moral or spiritual 
nature ; whence we may come to have a right notion of the free will or 
liberty of man ; of that power, which by inward consciousness we feel, to 
chuse or refuse our animal part one way, the rational and spiritual another. 
The right choice constitutes virtue, the wrong vice. Besydes this, God 
implanted in iruui ane invincible inclination to happicncss, and anc equal 
aversion to miscrie. This rendered him a proper subject of the Divine 
government, seeing his happiencss or miscrie depended upon God, and 
without this he could not be capable of reward or punishment, and would 
have bcin indifferent as to vice or virtue, obedience or disobedience. 



The first man and woman being made, as is said, God joyncd them 
togithcr by Manage, and thus Sanctified their posteritie, and then com 
municated His will to them, after a direct and immediat manner. lie, as 
is said, haveing made them of heterogeneous parts, and made it optional to 
them to gratilie the one or the other to choose for their happieness what 
was pleaseing to their animal sense, or what was agreeable to their rational 
and spiritual part and it being His will and their true interest and happie 
ness that they should favour and cultivate the latter rather than the former, 
did prove them by a plain and obvious test, even that of the fruit of the 
forbidden tree. 

I doubt nothing but it had all about it that was apt to gratifie sense 
beautie to please the eye, fragrance to please the smell, flavour the taste, 
gentleness the touch, and in likelihood its juice was such as not only pleased 
but was also an incentive to carnall pleasure. To detcrr from this bad choice, 
even in placing their felicity in carnall gratifications, God dealt with them 
by threats of punishment and promisses of reward. The punishment He 
thrcatncd was Death, which in greatest probability was to be effected by the 
removal of his Divine Spirit or Image, and throwing out of Paradise, in 
which was the Tree of Life, and which Paradise was both an emblem and a 
pledge of the glorious immortality wherewith they were to be crowned, 011 
supposition of their preferring a rational and spiritual happicncss to. one that 
was animal and earthly. The rewards ha promised were Dominion over 
the creatures of the earth (which dominion is a branch of Divine prerogative), 
the pleasant Garden of Eden, in which was all that reasonably could preserve 
them in being and well being whyle in this lower world, and which, as is 
said, was a pledge and emblem of the nobler Paradise above, that afforded 
anc indefectable and endless felicity. 

The duty, then, of Adam, stood in the Love of God, and that signified 
by obedience to His Laws ; and then in placeing his felicity not in the 
enjoyment of a terrestrial happieness, tlio ample and of long continuance, but 
in the compleat fruition of God throughout all eternity. In order to these 
ends he was to temper his animal appetites, and guard his senses against all 
temptations that might excite in him any inordinate or immoderate desire, 
any violent bent after any forbidden object, or any excessive inclination 
toward that which he was allowed to love in a temperate degree. This 
could not but render him happy in this life, and give him a sure title to the 
supernaturall happieness in the highest Heavens. That happieness which is 



158 ADAM S SIN AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. 

the gift of God purely, is not the effect of piety ami virtue, or comes to the 
creature hy the natural efticiencic of these, but which is supernatural!, and 
not due either to our merit or to our nature. 



The generality looking on Adam s sin with a glance of the eye too 
superficially, have interpreted the punishment of it to be anc act of too great 
severity in Clod: yet it is far from being such if narrowly inspected and 
examined according to the rules of strict equity. They were not as yet 
under the power of any vicious habit ; but their will did hang in ane even 
ballance. They had reason, yea and the Holy Spirit, as also God s im- 
mediat communications, to give their choice a right determination, together 
with God s authoritative Commands, and that inforccd with the strongest 
sanctions of rewards and punishments, and these of the highest importance. 
Their sin, therefore, was that sin against the Holy Ghost, as that sin signifies 
anc iniquity committed in the presence of and wilfully against the dictate of 
that Glorious Person, ^Vho is supposed to have visibly manifested His 
presence hy the Shcchinah, which in Scripture is called the Glory of God, 
as was the appearance on Mount Sinai, the Cloud and the Pillar of Fire, the 
frequent appearances in the Tabernacle and Temple, at the Baptism of our 
Lord, and His Transfiguration on the Mount. The sin was committed at the 
importunity of ane offending Angell, and against the express Command of 
God, their Creator, their undoubted Soveraigne, and most bountifull Bene 
factor. This, by anc insinuation of falsehood in God, as if He had not 
proposed the most satisfyeing felicitie to them, but that that felicity which 
would follow on eating the forbidden fruit would far excell that proposed by 
Ciod (for this I take to be the importance of knowing good and evil); that the 
punishment of Death, which God had threatened, would not follow upon the 
act of eating the forbidden fruitt the believcing of which fallacious asser 
tion implyed a denyall of the Divync veracitie. All these aggravations 
considered and laid together, rendered the sin very hainous ; so that thcr 
was an exact proportion betwixt it and the punishment of Death which was 
thrcatncd and actually inflicted. 

The consequences of the sin was Death, and, first, the spiritual one ; for 
then the Holy Spirit, or the Divine Image or Likeness, departed, and signi- 
fyed His departure by the removall of His visible presence, or His glory, 
which so splendidly did shine about our first parents, that they did not know 
or sec their nakedness, which sight raised shame in them, which passion was 
a manifest proof of a disorder that then invaded their hitherto undisturbed 
nature. Moreover, the removall of the Holy Spirit did wholly incapacitate 
them for the everlasting fruition and vision of God in the highest Heavens, 
which is the supernatural reward and the pure gift of God. 

Secondly, their animal appetites now got loose reines, and their reason, 
or the Divine breathing, being destitute of the assistances of the Holy Spirit, 
was not match for the animal appetites, now become licentious. Besides, 
their reason itself was in a great degree debauched, by yielding assent so 
rashly to the false suggestions of the Serpent. 

Thirdly, the body, which might have been preserved from corruption, 
hy eating the fruit of the Tree of Life, now became corruptible, lyahle to 
diseases, and to dissolution by death. 

Fourthly, man by the Fall lost his dominion over the creatures of this 



THE EFFECT OF THE FALL ON POSTEEITY. 159 

lower world, which dominion was a vast privilege, indeed, anc eminent 
communication of God s soveraignty, some footsteps only now remaining, 
and which as yet are visible, if not abused by cowardice or weakness, unbe 
coming the dignity of humane nature. 

Fifthly, our first parents by their Fall fell under the dominion of the 
Devil, even as the conquered party comes under the yoke of the conqueror. 
The Holy Scriptures inform us of orders and classes of spiritual powers ; 
of Principalities, Powers, Dominions, and Thrones. The ancient Heathen 
were perswaded of this, and reason itselfe obleidgeth us to presume that ther 
are innumerable hosts of these invincible beings in these immense and vastly 
numerous regions which roul over our heads and surround us. Lucifer, 
with his subordinate Angels, soon left his first station (his ciKrjr^iov , i.e., the 
mansion in Heaven wher he had his first Principality), and was condemned 
for his breach of order, and trespassing on the station assigned by the Most 
High, unto these sublunary regions, wher, being envious of the excellent 
state which our first parents enjoyed, and of the far more excellent they had 
in reversion, by fraud seduced them into sin ; and thus they fell under his 
dominion. The Scripture hence calls him the Prince of the Power of the 
Air, and the god of this world, the Prince of Darkness, as this lower world 
is contradistinguished from the upper regions, which arc those of light. The 
effects of this his dominion are divers, as illusions suggested to the imagina 
tion under semblances of truth ; hence said to transform himself into an 
Angel of Light, to counterfitt these truths which the good Angels com 
municate by the Order of God. His presenting to the fancy sensual and 
earthly things, under the most amiable and desircablc forms ; all with his 
first intention, to make us despise the spiritual, rational, and celestial 
felicity, and to take in with the carnal, animal, and earthly one. His 
ingadgeing some persons and nations even to worship and serve him, and to 
goe by the dictate of their passions in opposition to the Commands of God. 
His inducing persons and societies to enter into covenant with him, and to 
transact these covenants by mysteries ; thus apcing the procedure of the 
true God in His actings with His peculiar people. His vexing and infesting 
these miserable men in the other world or separate state, who have been 
under his dominion in this. 

The Dad F.jf cct which the Sin of our First -Parent* hud on their Poxteritie. 

I shall not here enter into the dispute, managed with perhaps too much 
heat, between the Lutherians and Calvinists. The former maintain the soul 
to be traduced by ordinary generation from the parents to the posterity ; the 
latter will have the soul created and infused. I am as unwilling to plunge 
into Controversies as unskillfull in them. The first Christians favour the 
Lutherian syde ; and that of the Calvinists was not, for ought I know, heard 
of before the time of Augustine. The former, I think, explains and takes off 
the difficulties much better than the latter, and this makes it preferrable to 
the other, imless it can be show n that it involves some gross absurdity. 

However, it is plain that all the descendants of Adam have, in the first 
place, lost all the priviledges to which they had a title, on supposition of 
his perseverance in innocence. The priviledges which are set down in that 
head concerning his innocence, were the free gifts of God, acts of pure grace ; 
and God was not obleidged by His essential equity to continue them with 



100 MAN S RECOVERY. 

Adam otherwise than on his good behaviour, much less to derive them on 
his posterity. 

The posterity, therefore, of Adam have incurred all the cfiects_ and 
consequences of his forfeiture 1 ; they have lost the Spirit and the Divine 
Image, consequently the iniinortalitie of the body and the supernatural 
happieness in the highest Heavens. They have lost the absolute dominion 
over the creatures here on earth, and the great privilege of direct access to 
God. The animal appetites are now strong and lively. Reason unassisted 
by the Spirit is not of sufficient power to temper and keep them at rights. 
Reason itself is debauched by Satanical suggestions, and it which was 
designed for a ruler over them is become their patron and advocat. Hence 
the libertie is weakened, the will standing no more in anc equall ballancc, 
but hath a strong bent in favour of the animal appetites, pride and pleasure. 
The sons of Adam, as such, arc under the dominion of the ])evill, and 
condemn d to share in that punishment to which he is awarded. Hence in 
a state of hostility with God and the subordinate celestial Towers; hence 
desecrated and polluted, and unworthy to stand in the presence of God. 



Such is the exuberant goodness of God towards man, that He hath from 
the beginning proposed overtures of reconciliation with him ; and thus in 
consequence of a Covenant made between the Father, the Fountain of the 
Deity, and His Son the Eternal Word, by "Whom the worlds were made, and 
AYho so much interested Himsclfe in the formation of the first man, as first 
to endue him with reason, on which the Eternal Light shineth, and then 
with the Holy Spirit, the Image of the Eternal Son. This was so much 
considered by the more divine Philosophers at and after our Saviour s time, 
that they stile our Lord the Archetypal, i.e., the original and true man ; and 
all other men the Ideal, i.e., the types and images of Him, the true one. 
However, in order to this reconciliation, He makes a gracious promise of a 
Saviour (Gen. iii. 15), "Who should in the fullness of time conquer the Devil, 
and consequently reinstate man in terms of perfect reconciliation with God, 
and restore him to all his lost privilcdges. Adam being encouraged by this 
promise, God entered into Covenant with him. This may be gathered from 
Gen. v. 3, whcr Scth, the first Patriarch after Adam, with whom God 
renewed His Covenant, is said to have been begot in Adam s own likeness, 
which would not have been said if Adam had not bcin receiv d into favour 
with God. As God condescended to enter into terms of reconciliation with 
Adam, so in great probability with his first sons, Cain and Abel, who, in 
pursuance of this proposal made by God, offered up sacrifice. The sacrifice 
offered by Abel being a bloody one, was the most acceptable of the two ; for 
every expiatory sacrifice is a substitution of the thing sacrificed in the room 
and stead of the sacrificer, whose life is supposed to be forfeited to God for 
his sin ; and therefor the death of a living creature is a more proper and 
expressive commutation than that of fruits. Hence Abel s sacrifice was 
acceptable, and that of Cain rejected. Moreover, Abel s sacrifice was more 
typical of our Lord s great sacrifice on the Cross, and more agreeable to that 
great rule which seems to have obtained and bein generally received from 
the beginning by all men, that without blood ther is no remission of sin. 
Cain having murdered Abel, and for this being banished that part of the 



NONE SAVED BUT THOSE WHO ARE IN COVENANT. 1G1 

earth in which Adam and these others of his posteritie which were interested 
in this new Covenant dwelt, the Covenant was made with Scth, as the 
Patriarch next to these. [Xot<>. That Adam and Eve being created in full 
bodily perfection, they being also enjoyned to and blest with fruitfulness, as 
being also one hundred years old when Seth was born, could not but have had 
a very numerous issue besides Cain and Abel befor the birth of Scth.] That 
Seth was the first Patriarch after Adam, with whom Clod entered into 
Covenant, appears from Gen. iv. 20, "then began men to call on the name 
of the Lord." The Hebrew will also signific to be called by the name of the 
Lord. The Scptuagint is expressly in the passive, called by the name of 
the Lord ; which in the language of the Scripture still signifies a person or 
people peculiar unto God, and distinguished from all others. Thus Still 
and his descendants, the successive Patriarchs, which are recorded Gen. v., 
were the first people after the Fall with whom God, in His groat grace, 
condescended to enter into Covenant. This furder appears from Gen. vi. 2, 
&c., wher ther is a plain distinction made betAveen the Sons of God (a term 
appropriate to those in Covenant with Him) and the daughters of men, the 
descendants, viz., of Scth and those of Cain; and then, verse !-). God tells 
them His Spirit, which was given to these sons of God, should not alwaycs 
strive with man, for that he also is flesh ; therefor threatens the breach of 
this Covenant by the removal of His Spirit, Who was resisted and contended 
with by these unhallowed mariages with persons without the Covenant. 

Inference 1st. Thus, then, reconciliation with God, and consequently a 
title to the blessings He is pleased to promise, can be pleaded by none save 
such as arc in Covenant with Him. God cannot hence be thought severe or 
partial, seeing His promised blessings are acts of grace, and which He is not 
bound to bestow on any offending creature by any obligation of strict equity, 
seeing all have access to His Covenants who know them, and are willing to 
enter into them, seeing that in order to the attainment of these acts of grace 
promised in this Covenant, it is but reasonable that He should limitt and fix 
the conditions, and that they should not be left to the choice of the creature, 
tho his reasonings were never so specious. Perhaps the not attending to 
this is the cause of all these deplorable divisions and subdivisions that are 
among Christians. Some think it reasonable that God should deal with 
them on their performance of such conditions. The Deist, if he worship 
God and doe righteousness, reckons himselfe intitled to God s favour ; the 
Socinian, if he believes in the Man Christ, pbeycs his moral precepts and 
imitates his example ; .the Latitudinarian, if he lives holyly, righteously, 
and soberly in any or in no communion ; the Enthusiast, or he who pleads 
inspiration, if he love God, and be so resigned as that (as he conceits) in all 
things he follows the dictates of the spirit within Him. Thus the reason of 
these scandalous divisions is grounded on this mistake, that they fancie the 
blessings and priviledgcs which God hath promised arc not acts of pure grace, 
and arbitrary in God to give antecedently to His premisses; that ther is a 
proportion between the merit of the creature and these benefites and privi- 
ledges ; or that these benefites which God hath promissed are none other 
than the resultance of their performance, by way of natural efficiency. 
Here I own that the mortification of our animal bents, and the Love of God 
and goodness, are indeed necessary dispositions for the influences of the 
Divine Spirit in this life, and for the vision and enjoyment of God in the 
other ; yet I cannot think that either of these, especially the latter, doth 

VOL. II. X 



1G2 THE MEANING OF "THE ELECT." 

nccessarly result by way of natural casuality from the other. I am sure the 
Scripture proposes both, especially the latter, as a reward. The Scripture 
supposeth both as the gifts and acts of God s free grace. Those who goe on 
the principle of the reward being a natural result of our duty, have no more 
than a mere presumption for what they conclude ; and on this supposition 
Epictetus or Porphiry can bid as fair for the Kingdom of Heaven as S. Peter 
or S. Paul all which is contrary to the whole tenor of the Scriptures of 
both the Old and New Testament, and to the general bcliefe and practice of 
the first Christians. And if it be once granted that God is the donor of the 
Spirit in this life, and of Glory in the highest Heavens (which must be 
granted if He is considered as a free agent, acting alwayes by ane infinite 
perfeit reason), then His essential equity obleidges Him to act by proportion; 
and between our utmost mortification and these great rewards, ther is no 
proportion the very common blessings and favours wee enjoy being ade 
quate to all we can doe. After ye have done all these things, reckon your 
selves but unprofitable servants. 

Inference 2nd. Hence it is probable that the terms Elect and Reprobate, 
mentioned in Scripture, in their primary signification, import no more than 
those within and without the Covenant. It s plain ther is a pretension of 
some, and ane election of others. That Clod hath not so much as made 
knowen to many of the sons of Adam His intention to enter in Covenant 
with them, but that these who thus live in invincible ignorance are damned 
from all eternity to the fire unquenchable, is not reasonably reconcilable 
with the Divine Attributes, and doth not appear from lievelation. It is very 
true that these to whom the Gospel is sufficiently revealed, and yet reject it, 
are in the Scripture condemned to this dreadfull punishment. These also 
who, haveing imbraccd the Gospel and yet live in wilfull and habitual sin, 
are, as the former, supposed to preferr the service of the Devil to that of 
Jesus Christ, and consequently are deprived of the benefitts purchased by 
Him, and are condemned to share in the fate of that master whom they have 
chosen. 

But, then, [th<V ; these who never had the Gospel sufficiently revealed to 
them be not adjudged to the place of torment prepared for the Devil and his 
Angels, yet inasmuch as they are not called but are past by, therefor they 
are Reprobate ; as on the other hand, these within the Covenant are in 
Scripture called Elect. This not on the account of any decree from all 
eternity, but indeed on the account of that illustrious state into which they 
are exalted, as being in Covenant with God. These termcs Elect, Sons of 
God, given out of the world, being terms borrowed from the usage of these 
times, and appropriat to those who have the honor and happieness of being 
initiated in the Christian Covenant. In the meantime the Elect, in a strict 
and proper sense, doth indeed signifie those who sincerely live up to the 
terms of that Holy Covenant; as, on the other hand, these who renounce 
the Faith, haveing once embraced it, Hereticks, Schismaticks, and these who 
impenitently contiime in their sins, or who reject the Gospel after it hath 
been sufficiently declared to them, are also Eeprobate in the most true and 
proper sense. These are the goats on the left hand, the withered branches 
that are lopt off and condemned to the fire ; these are they who, according to 
S. Jude, are like to the Angels who left their first habitation, have forsaken 
that holy, happy, and honourable state into which they were exalted. 
Judas, in common with our Lord s Disciples, is said to be given out of the 



GOD S UXCOYEXAXTED MEliCIES. 108 

world, and tins is that very thing with Chosen or Eleet. All the Corinthians, 
indiscriminately, arc called Saints and Sanctified, tho many of them were 
guilty of hainous sins, and expressly they arc called carnal, on account of 
their divisions, their proplianations, and other immoralities ; so that all 
within the Covenant, in a large sense, are Elect, and these without are 
Reprobates. All who live up to the terms of the Covenant are Elect, in a 
strict sense, and those who wilfully refuse to enter into it, or, having entered, 
do break the same, either by totall Apostacy, by Heresie, Schism, or obstinacie 
in sin, are Reprobates. The ground of all the mistake in these disputes, 
is the not considering ane interest in the Christian Covenant as a sublime 
and distinguished state, far exalted above the very highest dignities here on 
earth. 

Inference od. But tin") none have a title to the promises of God save 
such as are in Covenant with Him ; tho all these who are thus in Covenant 
are Elect in a large sense, notwithstanding of unmortined evil habits ; thn 
these who, being in Covenant with God, and live up to the conditions of the 
Covenant, are Elect in a strict sense ; yet it doth not follow that such pious 
persons as are not within the Covenant are Damned. God forbid : nay, they 
arc saved on the head of God s uncovenanted goodness ; provided always 
that this defect be the effect of invincible ignorance, and not of negligence or 
willfull obstinacy against the truth when clearly proposed to them. And in 
case, also, of insuperable prejudice (as when one is terrified to change from 
what he is to that which is really and in itselfc better, tho worse in the 
conceit of the frighted person, through fear of sinning against God), Mercy 
is patent to such, and Charity should presume strongly in their favours, 
since invincible ignorance still excuseth. And then these labour under such 
prejudices as arise from a mistaken fear of God, are not free agents in this 
respect, and therefore their error is not voluntary. In the meantime, these 
cannot exculpate themselves who allow themselves in willfull negligence in 
opposition to the truth, through bitter zeal, love of party, or worldly interest ; 
or these who trust to this extraordinary uncovenanted goodness in God, 
when the ordinary way is at hand and in their oiler. A Monarch may confer 
these favours on a well-deserving forreigner, to which he hath no title in 
Law, but which arc peculiar to his native subjects ; but if this forreigner 
willfully coutemnc Naturalization when profer d, proudly insists on his merit, 
and is not under any mistaken terrors of the displeasure of the Monarch if 
he should change his state from that of a forreigner to that of a naturalized 
citizen, then neither he himself nor any other person should presume chari 
tably in his behalf. I thought ht to remark these things as to Divine 
Covenants in general, and which more specially concern the great and ever 
lasting Covenant through Jesus Christ. 

Of the Covenant irith Abrnhaw. 

When God had destroyed by the Deluge the whole old World, the 
descendants of Seth, His offending Church, as well as the wicked posteritie 
of Cain, and saved none alive except Noah and his family, we read not of any 
Covenant made between God and man till that with Abraham. It s true God 
assured Noah that He no more would destroy the earth by water ; and the 
unbeliefe of this promise being the reason of building the Tower of Babel, as 
a fence against any future Deluge, inferred the dispersion of the then 



IG-i GOD S COVENANT AlrTEll THE FLOOD. 

numerous posterity of Noah ; but then we hear not of any formal Covenant 
made with men as a body politick. It is also true that ther were heads of 
families who, with their subject descendants, worshiped the true and liveing 
(lod, without regard to the demons worshiped by other Patriarchs, and these 
who were descended of and subject to them. Such were Melchisedeck, 
Abiinelech (King of Gcrar), and, according to the judgment of the learned, 
Job and his friends. But then it is plain that God entered into Covenant with 
Abraham and his posterity by Sarah ; and because his seed was included in 
that Covenant, therefor the Sacrament of Circumcision, which was that of 
Initiation, was instituted. By vertue of this Covenant, God obleidged 
Himsclfe to confer ample blessings on him and his posterity, such as their 
being His peculiar people, that they should be under His immediate care and 
protection, that afterward He would Consecrate the whole Land of Canaan, 
and give it them for ane inheritance ; but chiefly, that the Mcssias, promised 
from the beginning, should descend of his seed as to His human nature. 
Abraham and his posteritie were, by virtue of this Covenant, taken obleidged 
to worship and serve the true and liveing God, and Him alone, exclusive of 
all other Deities ; and this Covenant was solemnly struck by Sacrifice. 

Here it will not be amiss to observe, that Demons, whether Lucifer and 
his subordinat Angels, or the Ghosts of the Antediluvian Patriarchs, did 
imitate the true (rod in entering into Covenant with the respective votaries 
by Sacrifice and other Mystical Symbols, which is evident both from Sacred 
and the most ancient profane History. This is so true, that ther was no 
Nation then known on the earth which was not in Covenant with their 
respective Deities entering into Covenants being then so essential to all 
Keligion, good and bad, and the opposition among their Deities being the 
chief ground of their mutual hostilities. 

But to return. The first formal Covenant between God and men after 
the Flood, was that with Abraham and his seed by Sarah, not including the 
descendants either of Hagar or Kethurah, otherwise than what concern d 
their single persons; tho, as descended of the Father of the Faithful, they 
had a title to temporal blessings. The posteritie of Ishmael became a mighty 
nation, and that of Keturah indeed did Avorship the true God, and in the 
Avilderness were admitted into Covenant, being represented by Jethro, the 
father-in-law of Moses, and are allwaycs called the Kenites. But this 
Covenant with Abraham had, besides the literal, a mystical signification 
also ; for the Apostle S. Paul assures us that this Covenant with him derived 
blessings on two sorts of his posterities these of his flesh, and these of his 
faith. These of his flesh were the Jewes who did not imbrace the Gospel ; 
these of his faith are all such Jewes as became proselytes to Jesus Christ 
(Gal. iii. 10, &c.) ; yea. and all such Gentiles as are listed under the banner 
of Jesus Christ. Our Lord descended of him as to His human nature ; and 
all such as are entered into the Christian Covenant by Baptism, partakeing 
of the Divine nature derived from Jesus Christ in this sense, are the childrein 
of Abraham, and were included in that Covenant made with him. 



Tho (rod, as supreme Lord of the world, might by vertue of His absolute 
empire, exact what worship and service He pleases of all men indiscrimi 
nately ; tho He permitted the generalise of men to enter into Covenants 



GOD S PRIVILEGES. 165 

with Demons, and yet did overrule and keep them in subordination to Him 
selfe ; yet He hath been pleased to distinguish some people in all ages to he 
peculiar to Himselfe ; and this peculiarity or appropriation hath ever been 
made by way of Covenant. This was ahvaycs reckoned the chiefcst privi- 
ledge and choicest blessing ; and God, in pursuance of His Covenant with 
Abraham, was pleased to bring the descendants of this and the other 
Patriarchs which came of him out of the Land of Egypt, and on Mount 
Sinai, in Arabia, did, after a most solemn and astonishing manner, enter 
into Covenant with that people. 

Anent this august Covenant, two things arc to be considered First, 
the priviledges and blessings which God oblcidged Himself to conferr on 
them. 2dly. The conditions by which they were to qualiiie themselves for 
the actual reception and application of these benefitcs. 

I. The priviledges and blessings which (rod obleidged Himselfe to 
conferr on them ; and these were cither of a spirituall or of a temporall 
nature. 

1. He oblcidged Himselfe to be their God in particular, and this exclu 
sive of the interposition of any of these Deities Avliich other nations did 
worship. Again, the Eternal Word, the Son of God, was to be their Presi 
dent, Protector, and Patron. Hence their fathers arc said by the Apostle 
to have tempted Christ in the AYilderness ; hence He is called the Spiritual 
Eock, out of which the waters issued that refreshed them in the Wilderness. 
He was that Cloud which skrecncd them from the heat of the day, and that 
Pillar of Eire which fenced them from the injuries of the night. He was to 
them that Angel of the Covenant (Mai. iii. 1), Who visibly appeared to them 
in their exigencies; that Shechinah, or the Glory of God, which was often 
manifested after a sensible manner in their Tabernacle and Temple, particu 
larly in the Holy of Holies. He it was "Who gave responses in arduous cases 
by the Trim and Thumhn (Acts vii. :-38) of their High Priests. He it was 
Who directed the Angel that delivered the Law on Mount Sinai, and inspired 
their Prophets with the knowledge of future events. By this interposition 
all their Sacrifices were accepted, and became available to the ends for which 
they were offered. Indeed He was the Patron of all the people that were in 
Covenant w l God from the beginning ; hence, such people arc called Sons of 
God (Hob. i. 0) ; yea, gods themselves, by way of emiiicncy above all other 
people. If ye call them gods to whom the Word of the Lord, or the Eternal 
Son, came, ttc. He was Patron, consequently, of the Childreiii of Israel. 
I own that all this was not clearly understood by the body of the people, 
but by these of more eminent pietie ; by their Prophets, and by those of 
them who, sometime before the comeing of the Messias, began to studie the 
spiritual meaning of this Dispensation by Moses. Besydes these spirituall 
advantages, it was a very great one that our Lord, the promised Messiah, 
should, as to His human nature, be one of their Nation ; that conseqently 
the first tender of the Gospel should be made to them. This priviledge was 
that which most of the Prophets harped on, as that which enhansed the 
dignity and happieness of their Nation above that of all others, and stated 
it the fountain of the amplest blessing that ever was derived to mankind. 
These were the spirituall priviledges to which they were intitled by their 
Covenant. 

But then, besides, they had also assurances of temporal blessings ; and 
it is very plain that the body of the people had no furder views than these. 



1U<) MAN S CONDITIONS. 

Such were their protection from enemies, or deliverance when at any time 
they were oppressed, enslaved, or under deportation ; such were plentifull 
crops, wealth, case, and long life, particularly victory over their enemies in 
time of warr : and these victories were often obtained by waves pretcr- 
naturall, yea and supcrnaturall. God stated llimselfe their King. As such 
he choosed their rulers and generals, at least till the time of Haul. Such 
also was the holicncss of their Land of Canaan, of their persons and 
posterities, of their Priests and Kings, of their Temple and Altars ; holyness 
in this sense signifying that which is separated from that which is common, 
and which is dedicated to Clod, and therefore ought not to be encroached on 
without the guilt of a peculiar crime. 

These were the priviledges and benefits which Clod obleidged liimselfe 
to conferr on Ilis ancient people, by vertue of this Covenant. And now, in 
the next place, the conditions required on their part are to lie considered. 

God hath ane indisputable right to our Worship and Service, as lie is 
the Almighty Creator, the Gracious Preserver, and Supreme Lord and 
Proprietor of His creatures. Hence it follows, that tho He condescends to 
enter into Covenant with men, yet He hath a full faculty of prescribing and 
fixing the terms and conditions to which they are bound. To enter into 
Covenant with men is ane act of chiefest favour and coiidcscention : it is 
what God in no way stands in need of. The conditions He prescribes arc 
but necessary qualifications for the reception of the benefits which He 
obleidges llimselfe to bestow on His part, and which are acts of pure grace, 
which He was not bound to vouchsafe by any antecedent obligation of equity. 
P>esydes, He is perfeitly wise, and knows exactly what is fit for us to doe. 
AVas our duty left to our own contriving, as we could not possibly know that 
it would be acceptable unto God, so we would never tix on it, but would alter 
and innovate eternally, according to the various vicissitudes of our condition 
and the temper of our bodies, yea and the incessant turns and reelings of 
fancy. "Whcrefor. as it is most just, so also most prudential, that God 
should determine the conditions of these Covenants into which He conde 
scends to enter with men, and that they should be thoroughly consenting to 
these terms. 

Thus the Children of Israel were thoroughly consenting to these con 
ditions ; they voluntarly cursed themselves from Mount Ebal, and invoked 
the Pivyne vengeance 011 themselves in case of non-performance. And, 
indeed, this their entering into Covenant with God is interpreted a marriage 
to Him ; hence their idolatry is called whoredom, in the uniform style of 
the Prophets. 

This premised : The first condition God prescribed to them, to which 
they were consenting, and which was fundamental to all the rest, is that 
they should love the Lord their God with all their heart, &c., and their 
neighbour as themselves. This implies a resignation of themselves to God, 
not only as He is the infinitly perfeit Being, the Almighty Creator, Sustainer, 
and Lord of His creatures, but as He is a God in Covenant with them, 
imply d in that word, The Lord their God. And then, since all and each of 
them were interested in this Covenant, therefor they were to love one another 
with ane affection and sympathie like to that which the members of the same 
bodie bear to one another. Their other Lawes are commonly ranged under 
three heads The Levitical, the Moral, and the Judicial. 

The Levitical are those which respect their Keligious Worship ; and 



THE INSTITUTION OF PRIESTHOOD. 167 

they who consider them with a judicious eye, will find them to be indeed 
worthy of that infinite wisdom which did institute them. The great God 
Who graciously had stoop d so low as to enter into Covenant with that 
people, behooved, as such, to keep communion with them. This He choosed 
to doe by separating a whole Tribe, even that of Lcvi, to interpose and 
mediate between Him and them ; to exact in His name the tribute of their 
worship and service ; and then, as personating Him, to apply unto and 
confcrr on them the blessings promised by God. This Tribe of Levi was, 
by God s own appointment, divided into three Orders The Levites. the 
lowest rank of these Sacred Orders ; the Priests, the superior ; and the High 
Priest, the most supreme, who was allowed to enter into the Holy of Holies 
(the place of God s spcciall presence), as that eminent person who was 
priviledged more near, direct, and immediat access to the great and awfull 
God. This wise institution conciliates that fear and reverence, that faith 
and dependance, which is due from the creature to the Creator, from the 
subject to Him the King, from the one covenanting party to Him the other 
infinitly more illustrious and exalted party. And seeing Religion, generally 
considered, supposeth God to be a King, with respect to His votaries, 
therefor very reason itselfe shewes the necessity of Ministers, or Officers of 
State. It is in very rare instances, particularly since the first apostacy, that 
He directly applys to men ; it is by the interposition of His Ministers, 
Angels, or men. The former are too awful for our ilesh and blood, and 
there are few whose strength of mind is proportioned to such ane intercourse. 
It s ane effect of God s goodness and wisdom that He keeps communion with 
us by the intervention of creatures of our own kind. Their Consecration to 
these Sacred oilices animates the people of God to draw nigh to Him, even 
as subjects approach their Soveraigne with greater assurance when introduced 
to him by their familiar friends and acquaintance ; as, on the other hand, 
when people are obleidgcd to use the mediation of Officers and Ministers of 
State, in order to the reception of favours from the Prince, this elicites 
reverence to his person, and that is the mother of duty and obedience. The 
assurance which men have of receiving blessings from God, is founded on 
His Covenant with them ; their own reasoning can amount to no more than 
a presumption or a doubtful uncertainty. Now, Avith the same breath He is 
pleased to make His Covenant, He also oblcidgeth His people to receive His 
promised favours through the ministric of His commissioned servants. 
Corah and his company broke in upon this Divine establishment, the event 
of which was fatal to a prodigie. The Kings Saul and Uziah were remark 
ably punished for attempts of the like nature. Many subjects are capable 
to know that such a crime meets with such a capital punishment as the Law 
defines ; and in questions of right many may know to which of the competi 
tors it doth appertain ; yet none can interpose decisive and valid sentences, 
save the authorised judges. 

The institution of the Priesthood was the prime Levitical Law ; the 
other Lawes anent Religion and Worship plainly suppose it. Their Fasts 
and Feasts, their Sacrifices for commemorating Mercies received or impe- 
trating such as they wanted, for averting impending or incumbent judge 
ments, or secureing these benefitcs they enjoyed, were admirably well fitted 
to the particular genius of that people, and their situation among their 
neighbouring nations. But chiefly they were exactly suited to thegrand 
design of them, even their mystical signification under the far more sublime 



1GH THE M01UL LAWS. 

Dispensation which was in view, and of which this of Moses was hut a figure 
and a prelude to it. Such wore also their various purifications, and their 
restraints from such particular meats. 

The next set of Laws to which they were obliged, were the Moral Laws, 
so called because founded on prime equity. The First restrains religious 
worship and service to the true and living God. and to Him alone, so that 
no other God was to share in their worship. This the rather, hecause that 
people was most prone to worship other gods in conjunction with the true 
God, on the account of the assistance, protection, and influence which these 
other gods had on their respective votaries. The true and liveing God did 
expressly discharge this impious practice, as derogatory to His transcendant 
excellencie, and interprets it alwaycs to be idolatry. This He did, the, they 
believed these gods to be subordinate to Him. and that they held no other 
room than that of prevalent intercessors with Him, the true and supreme 
God. Hence, as being in Covenant with Him, they were allowed immediat 
access to Himselfe, without application either to good Angels or to their 
pious deceased ancestors. 

The Second of these Commands forbids any sensible representations of 
God bv any thing created, that being what would derogate from His trans 
cendant excellencie. And here it may be remarked, that this Command 
doili not discharge all ingravcings and paintings in religious houses or books, 
seeing it is evident that in the very Temple there was plenty of these ; yea, 
and the very Mercy-seat.itselfe was ovcrshaddowed with the two Cherubs; 
so that the chief importance of this Command strikes directly against any 
visible representations of the great God, and the worship of Him by such 
similitudes or any creature. 

The Third obligcth to the profoundest reverence of the name of God, 
and to reverence things and persons which bear any relation to Him ;_ and, 
particularly, that we should so stand in awe of His Omniscience and intimate 
knowledge of our inmost thoughts and intentions, as never to avouch Him 
to men as witness of the sincerity of our outward professions when really 
we think otherwise ; or swear by Him to doe that which we never intend to 
perform. 

The Fourth seems to have been a positive Institution from the begin 
ning, as was Marriage, the, founded on ane high reason ; and that it might 
have bein renewed to the Childrein of Israel, as to worship and serve the 
great Creator of the Universe, so to ascribe to Him, and Him only, that 
wonderful work, exclusive of all the gods of the heathen, who so far might 
have abused their deluded votaries as to make them believe that they were 
the creators of the world. I also think that by this Command all in Cove 
nant with God are bound to observe all other select portions of time which 
God hath enjoyned, or which are injoyned by lawful authority ; even as the 
Commands of the Second Table comprehend all the vertues and vices that 
are subordinate to the grand vertue enjoyned or the great vice condemned in 
each of them. 

The Fifth obligeth to honour parents. Honour, in its primary notion, 
implies not only reverence but also obedience; yea, and maintenance, if 
circumstances require it. This Command obligeth to all duty to superiors 
of all sorts. Dominion is peculiar to God, and is no otherwise competent 
to angel or man but as it is derived on them from God ; therfpr, all tres 
passes on duty to them rebounds on God, the fountain of dominion. 



THE LAW AGAINST IDOLATRY. 1G9 

The Sixth respecteth the body of our neigbour, and comprehends all 
injuries that may be done wittingly and willingly with a bad intention. Life 
belongs to God, and cannot be taken away without His order. 

The Seventh strikes against all uncleanness in general, particularly 
that with the wife of the neighbour, she being, in the sense of the Divine 
Law, appropriated to the husband indeed, by a hallowing or consecration. 

The Eighth respecteth the goods of our neighbour, these being that 
portion which God hath assigned to him ; and therefor to break in upon it 
without the justest claime (in which case it is not his, notwithstanding of 
possession), is to invade the order of God. 

The Ninth respecteth the fame of our neighbour. Our neighbour has a 
title as such to our love, esteem, and assistance ; and to spoil him of his 
good name is to rob him of all these things which are so useful and neces 
sary. It, as his goods, is his portion from God ; and therfor to spoil him of 
that, is to encroach on God s assignments. 

The Tenth reacheth the very heart, and rebukes the very inward desires 
after that which belongeth to another ; for covetousness is a plain proof of 
a debauched mind and will, and is the sin itselfe in desire, tho not in fact. 

The last class of Laws is that which concerned them as a civil politie, 
independent of and remarkably distinguished from all other civil societies. 
All interchange of mutual offices among themselves are most just as well as 
prudential ; but here it is needless to descend to particular remarks. Their 
Laws concerning their intercourse with other nations have some singularities 
about them, agreeable to the very great sacredness of their Nation, and its 
separation from all other people then on the earth. 

Ther was one Law, that of the Zealots, which, because it is abused by 
some even at this time, deserves some consideration. God had most signally 
declared against Idolatry ; insomuch that it, committed by any individual, 
inferred a judgment on the whole body of the people. This sin could not be 
expiated otherwise than by the death of the offender, after ane ordinary way. 
It s true God could, and actually did, pardon this sin upon Repentance ; but 
then He extraordinarily declared His will upon the subject by His Prophets. 
But ordinarly all and sundry who were guilty of this behoved to be put to 
death, otherwise the penalty of the Law affected the whole societie. Wher- 
for, God priviledged some privat persons, without waiting the common form 
of Law, to kill idolaters. Whence some Christians have settled it as a 
maxime, that any particular person, or body of men, may, yea and are 
obleidged in duty, to destroy Idolaters. This doctrine hath been maintained 
and practised by some within the Roman Communion, by the Anabaptists 
in Germany, and some among ourselves. 

Now, in the first place, this faculty should be assumed by none till the 
fact which is the object of this zeal be really, and by common suffrage, 
owned and confessed to be the very Idolatrie which God condemned among 
the Jewes, otherwise the Zealots not only susurp the Magistrate s office, but 
also are guilty of Murder. 

2dly. If this Law was peculiar to the Jew (as were many other Laws), 
and only concerned their own Nation, then all their other Civil Laws are as 
much in force still and as binding as this ; but this even these men will by 
no means allow. 

Sdly. These Zealots insist much on the abrogation of many of the 
Jewish Laws, and therefore they should condescend on the reasons why this 
should subsist. 

VOL. n. y 



70 .WRONG IDEAS AS TO THE JEWISH LAWS. 

4tlily. This Law seems to 1)0 expressly annulled by onr Lord when he 
rebuked the Apostles James and John, for calling for lire from Heaven to 
destroy the inhospitable and malignant Samaritans, telling them that the 
spirit of the (iospel was designed not to take away hut to save men s lives. 

Stilly. The kingdom of Jesus Christ is not of this world, particularly in 
this respect, that His servants are not allowed to light for it. The weapons 
of their warfare arc not carnal, hut spiritual, and yet mighty to pull down 
the strongholds of the Devil. 

Gtlily. The utmost punishment which the Church of Christ is allowed 
to inllid is Excommunication, w h is a thorough deprivation of the henefites 
purchased by Jesus, and a consignation of the delinquent to the Devil. 
From which reasons it appears that this Doctrine is purely Jewish, and 
indeed Antichristian. 

Here occasion may be taken to consider another subject, which hath 
been the ground of much trouble amongst Protestants. It is aiient the 
abolishing of the Jewish Laws. Some, and even these among ourselves, 
allcdgc that all the Jewish Laws are rescinded by Clod, save these of a moral 
nature, and which are contained in the Ten Commandments. Now this 
seems not to be true, seeing it is plain that the Apostle S. Paul reasons from 
the obligations under the Old Testament to those under the New, as in the 
maintenance of Christ s Ministers, from the like obligation under the old. 
So expressly 1 Cor. ix. ; and against Christians marrying those of another 
Communion, 1 Cor. vii. 1-1. This was most likely to be done by the Apostles, 
considering their education, their xeal for the Law, and their not admitting 
innovations without evident revelations. There is no tcstimonie in the New 
Testament that all Ceremonial precepts of the Law were to lie abrogated 
under the Gospel, or that Christians might not resume these Rites if they 
thought them edifying in their circumstances. The great thing the Apostles 
insist on with respect to the Mosaick Law is, that the G entiles were to be 
admitted into the new Church of Jesus Christ, without any obligation to 
observe the Law of Moses as imposed on the Jewish Nation, and without 
incorporating themselves into the particular Nation of the Jews ; and conse 
quently that ther was no necessity of Circumcision, Baptism being sufficient 
to admit the Gentile Cornelius into the Christian Church (Acts x. 11) ; that 
they were no more to depend upon the Temple Sacrifices and Service, or to 
abstain from the meats forbidden to the Jews, never to the Gentiles. Who 
ever will read attentively the reasonings of the Apostle S. Paul upon this 
subject, in the Epistles to the Romans and (ialatiaus, will find that he insists 
against nothing else than the abrogation of such things in the Laws of Moses 
as did hinder the coalescence of both Jew and Gentile into one new Church, 
founded by Jesus Christ. Circumcision, Bloody Sacrifice, Dependance 011 
the one Temple of Jerusalem, reckoning Meats forbidden the Jews unlawful, 
the Law concerning the Zealots already mentioned; in short, incorporating 
into the Jewish Nation ere they could be Members of the Christian Church, 
are what the Apostle disputes against, and all that s implyed in that 
shakeing, Heb. xii. 20, 27 ; for the observance of such things wherin Jews 
and Gentiles did not differ, could not have made any breach among them. 

Inference 1. From all which it is plain, that all things will still obleige 
as Laws whyle the same reason continues for which God was pleased to 
impose them. 

Inference 2nd. That the Governours of the Christian Church may 
impose Rites us,ed by the Jews, or any other Rites no where forbidden by 



THE CHRISTIAN COVENANT. 171 

(loci, and winch arc of anc indifferent nature, antecedently to their imposi 
tion; and which derive their obligation to observance, not from their nature, 
but from the authority that imposes them, provyded they be for order, 
deccncie, and edification. 



Our first parents by their sin haveing forfeited their sublime priviledges, 
particularly the Divine Image or the Spirit which dwelt within them, and 
was so powerfully assisting to their reason in the government of their senses 
and animal appetites, they fell under the dominion of these fallen Angels 
who left their first habitation; whence it came that their posterity were 
under all these disadvantages. They, antecedently to the coming of Jesus 
Christ, had strong bents to carnal and earthly satisfactions, and placed all 
their happiness in these, contrair to the designs of their Creator. Their 
reason, now left unassisted by the Divine Spirit, could no more manage the 
animal appetites ; yea, became so debauched by them, as to invent, or rather 
to unbrace, these false maxims which the Devil and his Angels suggested to 
them. Their will, which before stood in anc equal ballance, and had no 
byass in favours of carnal satisfactions, is now prejudiced, and hath a strong 
tendencie to earthly and sensual gratifications, together with anc aversion to 
God and to that felicity which is spiritual. In the other world their undis 
ciplined appetites will become iixed ; and yet no possibility of satisfying 
them. They will become indisposed to celestial pleasures and conversation 
with good spirits, and have cougruity of inclination with cursed spirits, 
which must give them a more absolute power over such impure souls. This 
woful deprivation, together with their tailing in with the Apostate Angels, 
could not but put them in a state of enmitie with God, and lay them open 
to the punishments due to offending creatures. Besides, the sin of their first 
parents derived pollution and obnoxiousness to punishment on the posterities 
which in the case supposed was not done away by Repentance. 

Our first parents and their posteritie haveing fallen into this most 
wretched state, it pleased the Eternal Word, the Second Person of the 
Glorious Trinity, the increatcd AYisdom of the Father, the Son of God, by 
Whom the worlds were made, Whose delight Avas with the sons of men, and 
after Whose Image the first man was made, to take compassion on this once 
favourite but now disgraced and condemned creature ; and in pursuance of 
this His most generous and exuberant compassion, to treat with the Father 
Almighty in favour of man. Offended Justice behoved to be satisfied, and 
this after such a manner as that the honour of the Divine Authority should 
be preserved, and yet man be terrified from venturing on sin. Wherfor, He 
covenants with the Father to take on Him the compleat human nature, to 
unite it personally with the Divine, and substitute Himselfe with greatest 
willingness in the stead of man ; and since Heaven had decreed Death to be 
the punishment of sin, and that without shedding of blood ther could be no 
remission therof, therf or He condescended to suffer death in the human 
nature, personally united with the Divine nature of Him the Eternal 
Wisdom ; which death of the human nature, so dignified by this union, 
should be a perfect satisfaction to the Divine justice, exactly preserve the 
honour of the Divine authority, and of all other was to be the most terrible 
guard against relapsing into sin. For if sin could not otherwise be expiated 



172 THE DIFFERENT COVENANTS. 

than by the death of the Son of God, then it must be of a very malignant 
nature, and its releasment from punishment cannot be easily procured. 
This was so acceptable to God the Father, that He agreed His Son, Avhen 
God and Man in one person, should become the Mediator of a new Covenant, 
perfeit in its nature, and equal with the world in its duration. 

We have but imperfeit Accounts of the first Covenant after the Fall. 
It s plain Cain and his posteritie were passed by ; and then it was but tem 
porary, and broke up by the Flood. There was no Covenant w l any after 
the Flood, at least such as comprehended posteritie, till God called Abraham. 
The Covenant with him and his seed contained promises temporal and 
spiritual ; but these later were very distant, and all of them centered in the 
Messiah. The Covenant with Abraham had a direct aspect on that which 
was transacted by the mediation of Moses ; and it again had an aspect to 
this better, more perfeit, and everlasting Covenant. That by Moses was a 
shadow in comparison of this, which is the body of that shadow ; it was the 
type of this antitype ; it was the literal, this the spiritual Israel ; it was the 
figure of the evangelical, as this again is that of the celestial state ; it pro 
mised temporary favours in this life, and their most pious persons could 
attain no more happiness in the after life than what is found in the separate 
intermediate state. This overlooks earthly felicity, and that of the inter 
mediate state, and hath in prospect the most sublime and consumated 
felicity in the highest heavens. The hope of the Jew reached no farther 
than the Kingdom of the Messias. The Kingdom of the Messias being come, 
comforts its subjects with the hope of the most glorious immortality. The 
Jewish Covenant was dark; its spiritual things were hid under the veil of 
burdensome Ceremonies and costly Sacrifices ; the light they had was by 
their Prophets, concerning the Dispensation of the Messias, W h was to come. 
This is easie, clear, and bright, and the full accomplishment of all foretold 
by the Prophets. The Jew had no more than the transient visits of the 
Spirit, ceasing [x<>i~.hi<i, perhaps] sometimes their Priests, Prophets, and 
Kings. This promiseth the Spirit to dwell within every Member of the 
Christian Church, as an abiding and living Principle. By these hints we 
may come to have some view of the vast honour and happiness which 
redounds to those who are within the Christian Covenant, and its far greater 
excellencies than any of the former. And now we may consider the terms 
stipulated between God and men by virtue of this most august Covenant. 

On God s part, the first thing stipulated is Pardon of Sin by Baptism. 

It is already observed that Jesus Christ, by His generous undertakeiug for 
man, and voluntary substitution of Himselfe in man s stead, did merit, upon 
the actual discharge of His engagement, to be the Mediator of this new, good, 
and everlasting Covenant between God and man. In this quality he stipulates 
between them," that God should vouchsafe the free pardon of the sins of all 
those that enter into this Covenant, on condition of their repentance. This 
pardon is the same with Justification, which is a term of Law signifying the 
guilty person s absolution from the penalty of the Law due to the crimes com 
mitted ; and Repentance, the condition on man s part, in the original signifies 
a change of mind, even a conversion of the thought and will from error and 
sin unto God and goodness. Hence it is plain that, antecedently to Bap 
tism (the mysterie of initiation, or entering into this Covenant), all these of 
age were obliged to renounce the Devil, their former master, and voluntarly 
to list themselves in the service of God and His Christ ; to forgoe their 



THE GIFTS OF BAPTISM. 173 

former bad principles and maxims, and embrace the doctrines of God taught 
by Christ and His Spirit in His Apostles and Prophets ; and then no more 
to act by the false maxims of the world or the flesh, but by the Laws and 
example of Jesus Christ. On the sincere profession of all this, persons of 
age were Baptised ; and this is Kepentance in the true and proper sense of 
that term. It is true that in all ages too many have sinned after Baptism, 
and that wilfully, heinously, and habitually ; and such is the exuberant 
goodness of God, in and by that Covenant, that He admits them to pardon 
on a second repentance. Such as are admitted by Baptism to the priviledges 
of this Covenant, are said to be come to the City of God, to the Heavenly 
Jerusalem, &c. (Hob. xii. 22, 23.) And in the Book of the Revelations, the 
Society made up of Members so admitted, or the Church, is called the New 
Jerusalem, descending from Heaven (Revel, xxi. 10). The Citizens of this 
Kingdom are said to have come to the Mount Zion that is above, &c. 

The term Justification is much used by S. Paul in his dispxites with the 
Judaizing Christians, signifying, as is said, remission of sin, or anc absolu 
tion from the penalty of the Law, and consequently a restoration to the 
favour of the Sovereign, and to the priviledges of a dutiful subject, a title to 
which the criminal was supposed to have forfeited. 

The next thing promised by God is His Holy Spirit, and that to abide 
and dwell with every member of the Society, as a living and assisting prin 
ciple. The giving of the Holy Spirit thus to dwell within us, is that by 
which we are made partakers of the Divine nature ; that Avhich constitutes 
our new birth and denominates us regenerate, or born again, or sanctified. 
It s true there is a relative and external sanctification beside the real one. 
All circumcised Jews are such, and all the Members of the Church arc called 
.such indiscriminately. The Apostle calls the Corinthians Saints, thn after 
ward, on the account of their divisions, he calls them carnal. But by this 
inhabitation of the Spirit we are truly sanctified, after a true and proper 
manner. This Spirit is said to be given to Christ (the head of that body 
which is the Church) above measure. He communicates this to all His 
mystical members, as the vital spirits flow from the head of the natural body 
to each member ; or as the nourishing juice from the root of the tree to its 
branches. All acts of Christian pietic are the fruits of the Spirit : such as 
are unfruitful in these are dead members, or withered branches. It is this 
Divine Spirit which unites us to Christ the Head, and to one another, there 
for called the unity of the Spirit. It is He that denominates us the Sons of 
God, and states us the adopted children of His family. It is It which so 
qualifies our Prayers that they become acceptable ; yea, and He, the Spirit, 
makes intercession for us to Him Who knows the mind of the Spirit. His 
gifts and operations are of two sorts. One, of those freely given t/ratia yratix 
ilftta, as the Schools speak ; and such were the miraculous powers shed 
abroad on the Apostles and the Primitive Christians, all designed for the 
increase and edification of the Body, the Church ; for the conversion of those 
without and the improvement of those within. His other sort of gifts are 
these which render us good and Aviso. This He doth by presenting pious 
thoughts to our minds, and setting them in such a light that our will may 
take in with them ; and they are not resisted without inward reluctancie, 
and a kind of violence done to our minds. The Spirit is the seal by which 
we ourselves, and those who see our good works, know us to be the children 
of God. He is the Author of all inward consolation ; hence it is called the 



171 BENEFITS OF Till-: COVENANT OF GUACE. 

joy of the Holy Ghost. He is also that Earnest of Heaven, that Pledge by 
which we are assured of it ; hence called the Earnest of the Spirit. 

Thirdly. Pardon of sins of relapse after Baptism, mentioned before. 
These are of two kinds: 1st. Such as are the effects of weakness, surprise, 
or inadvertency, and in the commission of which the will is not thoroughly 
concurring. 2d. Are deliberate, premeditate sins, which one commits 
wittingly and willingly. The Ancient Church distinguished them into 
venial and mortal. According to S. John there is a sin unto death, and a 
bin not unto death. The Holy Spirit is provoked to depart by the wilful 
sins, but not by the other, unless they grow into habits. The wilful sin lays 
open to Excommunication, which implies a total deprivation of the privi- 
Icdges and benefits of the Societie ; the other obleigcs to penitence, but does 
not infer anc obnoxionsncss to the dire penalty of Excommunication. 
Nevertheless, such is the grace of God in this new Covenant, that all sorts 
and sizes of sins are forgiven upon penitence, and the sincerity of it duly 
signified (Heb. viii. H, &c. ; 1 Jo. i. 1 ; Ps. Ixxxix. :->;-j. ;>!). 

1. The fourth thing stipulated is Acceptance of our imperfeit duty as 
if it was perfeit, on supposition of sincerity. God is not obliged, in strict 
equity, to accept of any performance but what meets exactly with the Law, 
far less to reward it ; but such as are interested in this Covenant have a 
title both to acceptance and reward, on supposition of a willing mind, a 
sincere endeavour, and ane upright intention. Voluntary defects of these 
is hypocrisie ; but when our will doth not exactly concur with the will of 
God, through involuntary weakness, then God accepts according to what a 
man hath, and not according to what he hath not. 

5. God, by this great and everlasting Covenant through Jesus Christ, 
hath bound llimselfe by promise to bestow on those interested in it ever 
lasting honour and happieness, and that on the soul and body, reunited in 
the third Heavens. This is a reward wholly supernatural, due neither to 
our nature or our works. A pious or a virtuous heathen may be rewarded 
with temporal blessings. He may also be favoured with that happieness in 
the separate state which results from a victory over the animal passions, and 
a sense of liaveing done good in this life ; and if he hath not resisted the 
Gospel, but acted according to his light, then it is reasonable and charitable 
to think that he shall find a reward proportioned to his virtue. But the 
glorious resurrection of the body, and the exaltation of both, thus reunited, 
to the third Heavens, that place where the glory of God is most conspicu 
ously manifested, and ther to enjoy the infinitly perfeit Being and His 
Christ in the most intimate manner, is peculiar to Christians a reward by 
no means due to the utmost pietie, or competent to our rational nature, but 
is purely owing to the grace and generous favour of God, purchased by the 
merits of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

These are the priviledges and benefits which God hath promised by the 
Covenant of Grace, in consideration of the merits of Jesus. 

Now, as to the conditions required at our hands, and to which we bind 
ourselves by our admission into that Covenant. 

1. The first of these stipulated on man s part, and which is fundamental 
to all the rest, is Faith. "Whosoever believeth and is baptized shall be 
saved." Faith in the Scriptures signifies three things (1) The Doctrine of 
our Lord Jesus Christ ; even these sublime truths which He taught, the Laws 
He enjoyned, the promises He made, and the punishments He hath threatned. 



FAITH AND REPENTANCE. 175 

(2) That act of our minds by which we thoroughly assent unto and firmly 
believe all these propositions ; and this because the God of infinite and 
essential truth hath revealed and declared them, and doth peremptory 
require us to believe them under the highest pains. (3) Faith often signifies 
the state of the Gospel, as it stands distinguished from the state of the 
Heathen and Jew. 

Faith, in the first and second sense that is, the knowledge of the 
sublime doctrine, preceps, promises, and tlireatnings of the Gospel, together 
with a full and hearty belief and assent to all and each of these propositions 
is absolutely necessary ere any person of age can be received by Baptism 
into the Christian Covenant. This Faith was the effect of the Holy Spirit s 
preventing grace in the beginning of Christianity ; and, being absolutely 
necessary, is still required, antecedently to admission to the Covenant. 
None cometh to me (saith our Lord) unless the Father which sent me 
draw him." And then, after any one was baptised, they were said to be in 
the Faith, and were denominated faithful ; and ever therafter, to the end of 
their life, were obliged to abide in the Faith, till their very death. Renounc 
ing the Faith in general, or any article of it, was the sin of Apostasie, which 
was punishable by Excommunication, the which deprived the excommuni 
cate of all the benefits purchased by Jesus, and consigned the person to the 
Devil. Thus Faith behoved to lie equal in length with the life ; and the 
Christian, at his admission into the new Covenant by Baptism, is obliged to 
own the Christian Doctrine by a publick avowed profession, and to suffer 
martyrdome in the strictest sense of that word ; that is, losing all that is 
dear to us, the life of the body not excepted, ere we renounce the Faith or 
any part of it. 

*2. The next condition of the Covenant of Grace is Repentance. "Wher 
true Faith is, this will follow of course, as a practical inference from its 
premisses. Now, Repentance, in its primary sense, doth signifie a change 
of mind, of thoughts, desires, and intentions ; and when the interior habit 
of the mind is changed, the outward reformation of the life will issue from 
it, as good fruits from a good tree. This Repentance was required, in the 
beginning of Christianity, of all those persons of age who were to be Bap 
tised ; not that it was compleat in its kind till they received the Baptismal 
Spirit, but they behoved to have it in view, that is, in firm purpose and 
resolution, and this qualified for entrance into the Covenant by Baptism. 
Nor had Penitents a title to, or was Justification (that is, remission of sins) 
actually applied till Baptism. Hence were they charged to Repent and be 
Baptised, that they might receive Remission of Sins (Acts ii. 38). 

This Repentance, at first initiation into the Covenant of Grace, or into 
the Church or Christian state, is the Repentance which is primarly intended 
by the Holy Ghost in the New Testament. Now, I said before that such is 
the exuberant grace of God through Jesus Christ, that He doth promise 
pardon to such as fall into sin after Baptism, if they repent of the evil of 
their ways, and turn unto God after the way which He hath appointed. 
Such was that of S. Peter, of the Corinthians, of the incestuous person in 
particular, and of the Churches in the Revelations ; and generally of all 
lapsers into deliberate and habitual sins after Baptism. This Repentance is 
occasioned by motives of fear, and these of hope ; but the great effect of it 
is Contrition, or a hearty sorrow for having offended God, and then a 
thorough resignation to Him, to love His excellencie and to do His will. 



170 MORTIFICATION AND CHARITY. 

3. Mortification. To this we are bound by Baptism, we then being 
buried with Christ. The Devil, the World, and the Flesh are supposed to 
be the masters we serve antecedently to our engagement in the Christian 
Covenant. These, therfor, must be renounced when we enlist ourselves 
under the banner of Jesus, and take allegiance to Him. Ther is nothing 
more plain in the New Testament than that the Devil is the god of this 
world ; and the great thing he proposes on men is to inspire them with 
inordinate and immoderate desires after carnal and earthly satisfactions. 
Hence the first Pastors of the Church exorcised the evil spirit out of those 
whom they were to Baptize, and obliged them who were of age to strict dis 
cipline, in order to the attainment of a victory over the flesh and the world, 
and this ere they were Baptized. Mortification is therefor then attained 
when reason hath obtained a masterly command over the carnal and earthly 
desires and bents; and this from Christian motives, and with Christian 
views and intentions. I say with Christian intentions, otherwise it comes 
to no more than a Philosopher s severitie, which may meet with a propor 
tional reward if the persons were such as were under a moral incapacity of 
knowing the Gospel. Such were the Philosophers of old, and the Bramans 
and Dervises at this time. But if these austerities be of such as may and 
actually knoAV the Gospel, and yet do not intend them to the end it proposes, 
then their Mortification hath no title as such to the benefits purchased by 
Jesus, because in the case supposed Jesus intends one thing and they 
another (Colons, ii. 18, &c.) 

4. Charity. This comprehends the love of Clod and of men. Charity, 
as it signifies the love of God, implies two things (1) That He should be 
the great object of our esteem and love, and that all other things should be 
beloved in subordination to Him; that is, with these degrees of esteem and 
love which He permits and approves of. Nothing more clear than that He 
makes His creatures the instruments of our support and comfort. These, 
therfor, whether reasonable or unreasonable, are by His order the object of 
our love and regard. If reasonable, we owe them, by the order of God, the 
returns of gratitude ; if unreasonable, whether animate or inanimate, they 
call for our care and Industrie, both which imply love. Thus, a temporal 
degree of love to the creatures, in subordination to God, that is, for His sake 
and in obedience to His command, is by no means inconsistent with the 
love of Him. Neither is a just regard to our temporal and eternal happie- 
ness in any way inconsistent with the love of God. As for our temporal 
happieness, it never must be purchased at the rate of any known sin. It 
must be chearfully offered up as a sacrifice to God when He requires it. It 
must frankly be parted with, either for His sake or in submission to His 
will. As for the spiritual and eternal happiness, it is what He requires us 
to pursue. Our Lord Himself is said to have endured the Cross and 
despised the shame for the glory that was set before Him. The love of God 
and the happiness of a Christian are inseparable, and He standeth in no 
need of our love ; therfor wills us to love Him, that we may find a consum 
mate felicity in that love of Him. Moreover, God hath implanted in all 
rational creatures, Angels and men, ane invincible desire of happiness, and 
ane equal aversion to miserie. This is what makes them the subjects of the 
Divine Government, and without this I cannot conceive of their obligation 
to dependance. It is scarcely possible to conceive of God, but He must be 
supposed good ; that it is in Him which commends Him to our love ; and 



DIVINE CHARITY. 177 

that attribute of His goodness cannot be conceived without a regard to 
ourselves. Praise and Prayer are acts of Religious Worship, and a disinter 
ested love of God, pretended to by some, supersedes both, at least the last. 
In truth, Prayer on this supposition is impertinent ; and as to Praise, He 
may be extolled and loved on the account of His other perfections ; but not 
(consequentially) as He is good and beneficent, with regard at least to this 
disinterested lover. Yet tho it is scarce conceivable how God can be loved 
so very disinterestedly, as is affirmed by some pious persons goodness, and 
that as it respecteth the votarie in particular, being one, if not the chief, 
motive of Charity yet certainly the love of God is the noblest and highest 
virtue. This on the account of His infinite excellency, it being impossible 
(acting rationally) not to love that which is most perfeit, or which is appre 
hended as such. It argues a strong perverseuess of nature not to love that 
which is beneficent in the highest degree, particularly to the beneficiary. 
Charity should be so much cultivated, that all created things should be 
despised, in comparison at least, so farr as that it supcrat all inordinate and 
immoderate affections ; that is, that the love may not fix on any forbidden 
object, or bend Avith excessive vehemencie toward that object which God 
allowes us to love in a proportionate and inferior degree. Charity should be 
so predominant in the mind as that evil should be refrained, and all good 
should be done from this noble motive of the love of God, and not chiefly 
from subordinate and selfish considerations. It should so farr have the 
ascendant as to determine the choice, even in things that not only are incon 
sistent with, but contrary to our interest, which is supposed to be the case 
of all such as suffer for Righteousness sake. This Charity should the rather 
be laboured after, because it is the grand business of Saints and Angels in 
Heaven ; and, therfor, without it ther cannot be any felicity in the other 
world, seeing otherwise our mind can never be in any disposition for fixing 
its delight on the Supreme Good, God blessed for ever. 

The fruit of this Charity or Divine Love is obedience to all God s 
Commands, without exception or reserve, tho it should bear never so hard 
on our carnal and earthly desires. It should be voluntary ; and such it will 
be if the love of God hath the ascendant. Obedience also must have the 
publick good chiefly in view. This I take to be the moral perfection so 
much insisted on in the New Testament. This regard to the publick is the 
closest imitation of Jesus Christ, and of His Father in Heaven ; and is very 
far preferable to a solitary abstracted pietie, which, how exalted soever, is 
more selfish and less beneficent than the study of the public good. And this 
leads me to the second sort of Charity, which is that to men. 

This is twofold (1) Universal Benevolence, that respecteth all men as 
such, without distinction, and should be extended to all men, our temporal 
and spiritual enemies not excepted. This love of men was that generous 
principle which so fully abounded in our Lord, and moved Him to undertake 
and achieve that grand work of our Redemption. It therfor must dwell in 
the breast of every Christian, and express itself on all occasions. We should 
therfor study the conversion, not the destruction of God s or our enemies, 
and nothing should provoke us to do them any harm, save incorrigible 
obstinacie ; yea, and even then none should execute vengeance, save the 
Magistrate who personates God. 

(2) The other, Charity to men, is that which is among the Members of 
the Church those who have one Faith, one Baptism, one Lord, one Spirit, 

VOL. II. 2 



ITS CHARITY TO MEN. 

one Hope ; who are linked together by the sacred cords of spiritual rela 
tion. This is that Charity which is chiefly insisted on by the Spirit of 
God in the New Testament. In truth, not that latitudinarian, novel Charity 
so much abused at this time, to the utter breach of Christian unity and the 
subversion of the beauty of order. He who will be at pains to attend to the 
Revelations of the Gospel on this subject, will find that this is the great 
thing laboured by the Holy Ghost, especially by the Apostles S. John and 
8. Paul. These who are without the Church may lay claim to the benevo 
lence already mentioned, but not to this Charity, properly so called. This 
is that which is so much celebrated 1 Cor. xiii., and in the First Epistle of 
S. John. In truth, it s it which corresponds to and effectually disposes for 
that great branch of perfection and blessedness that is in Heaven among 
Saints and Angels. The chief design of this Charity is edification ; that is, 
the improvement of one another in knowledge and pictie, even as all the 
members of the body conspire in promoting the health and strength of the 
whole. 

This Charity, the bond of perfectiress, is violated by want of sympathie 
with the fellow-members of the Church, either in good or bad circumstances; 
for, saith the Apostle, if one member rejoice, so should the rest ; if any 
suffer, the rest should also. It is also violated by withholding supply, 
comfort, and assistance from suffering members of the same body, when it 
is in our power to afford these. Thus at the Day of Judgment our Lord 
interprets all these omissions as neglects of Himself, who is the Head of the 
Mystical Body. It is violated by factious maintenance of groundless 
opinions. This plainly is censured in the Christian Corinthians, insomuch 
that the Apostle calls them carnal on the account of their divisions. This 
Charity is yet more signally violated by resisting and separating from 
spiritual governors ; hence such are likened to Jannes and Jambres, the 
Egyptian Magicians, who withstood Moses (2 Tim. iii. G, 8), to Cain and 
Ko rch (S. Jude, 11) ; and they who have no fellowship or communion with 
the Apostles, and consequently with their Successors, are said to have no 
fellowship with the Father and the Son, but to be in darkness, to lye and 
not to do the truth (1 S. Jo. i. 8, 0). This yet more fully appears from the 
First Epistle of the Apostolical S. Clemens to the Corinthians. 

5th. The next condition of the Covenant of Grace, is the devout obser 
vance of the primitive Institutions of the Christian Religion. These are the 
Ministrie, the Sacraments, and the Ordinances. 

(1) The Ministrie. It is plain from what hath been already observed, 
that since the apostasy of our first parents, God hath positively instituted 
and revealed that Religion to men Avhich is acceptable to Him ; so that tlier is 
no trusting (in order to the favour of God) to Natural Religion, or that which 
we conceit to be right and rational, even tho approved by natural conscience. 
The Will of God must be the Rule, and its uniform, constant, and universal 
prescribing Law to all men, and not allowing every one to go by his private 
spirit. That conscience is but deluded which inquires not after the will of 
God, and frames not its practice to the common standard of it, but trusts to 
its own private and personal conceits. One may as well, and with infinitely 
more safety, trust to his own particular apprehensions with respect to civil 
right and wrong, to the neglect of the Laws of that civil society of which he 
is a member, as to his own notions in Religion. Since, then, God hath 
revealed and instituted Religion ; and since this Religion hath instituted a 



MINISTERS AND THEIR POWERS. 179 

Ministry, therfor this Ministry must be religiously observed. It s plain our 
Lord did commissionate His Apostles, and promised to be with them to the 
end of the world ; therfor never to expire, but be perpetual. It s plain that 
our Lord was sent or cominissionated by His Father, and the like authority 
He derived on His Apostles : "As my Eather sent me, even so send I you," 
&c. (S. Jo. xx. 21, &c.) This commission the Apostles exerted by ordaining, 
authorizing, or sending others ; and so on still to this present time, and 
henceforth to the end of the Avorld, even as light kindleth fresh successive 
lights. This could not be otherwise, considering that according to the 
Prophecies of the Old Testament concerning the Messias, and the many and 
luculent Revelations of the New Testament, Christ was to bo a King, "Who 
should found a Society and State, Himself being King and Governor of it ; 
consequently He behoved to have Officers to act in His name, whose sen 
tences, agreeably to His Law, He Avould ratitie in Heaven, and without 
whose interposition no legal deeds could be of any validity. This should be 
diligently considered ; for all those who go on the latitudinarian novel 
ground consider our Holy Religion, not as it is indeed a Society, and that 
infinitely transcending in real excellency all the Kingdoms and Common 
wealths in the world, both on the account of its glorious Sovereign, and of 
its object, which is the rectitude of our minds and our peace with God in 
this life, and our everlasting felicity in the other; whereas our civil societies 
have at best but weak, corrupt men for their supreme governours, and a 
sorry fugitive temporal happiness for their object. Not only hath God 
revealed and instituted our Holy Religion ; not only is Jesus Christ a King 
and Founder of ane excellent Society, and as such hath ordained and 
authorized men to act in His name ; but He hath entered into Covenant 
with us, by which He hath stipulated for favours to be conferred on His 
part, and men are bound to terms and conditions on their part. In this 
Covenant stands all our security, insomuch that we can have no assurance 
either of grace or glory without an interest in it ; no more than a charitable 
presumption, founded on the uncovenaiitcd goodness of God. Now every 
Covenant must have Seals, without which it is not of any legal validity. 
These Seals cannot be appended but by commissioned persons, and these 
arc the Ministers of Religion. Moreover, we having to do with anc invisible 
King, it is rational that His visible Ministers should be judges of the quali 
fications of those who are to be admitted into this Covenant ; and when 
entered, who arc worthy to be kccped within it, or who have forfeited the 
benefits of it. This is the import of the "Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven 
that are given to them, and of their faculty of retaining or remitting sins. 
Finally, all within the Christian Covenant arc obliged to retain unto and 
live in communion with the Ministers of Religion. S. John, in the place 
above cited, professeth that his communion was with the Eather and the 
Son ; consequently that they Averc in the light ; consequently the Schis- 
maticks of these times were in darkness. What was obliging on the Chris 
tians of these times, continues to be obligatory on their successors to the 
end of the world. Nothing can excuse separation from the authorized 
Minister of Religion, save Heresie and Schism ; and this imposed as terms 
and conditions of Communion ; 110 personal immorality or negligence for 
this they are to answer to their great Constituent. Still men should dis 
tinguish between the office and the personal qualities of the officer. The 
legal validity of their deeds (in which alone the people are concerned) depends 



180 HOLY BAPTISM. 

on their commission, not on their personal endowments or moral Dualities. 
The Ministers of Religion are as principles of unity by which the people are 
knit to Christ the Head. This is the import of our Lord s saying, " He that 
heareth you, heareth me ; and he that despiseth you, despiseth me ; and he 
that despiseth me, despiseth him that sent me" a remarkable gradation, 
and founded in order, and that of persons, according to the principles of 
government in general. This should be seriously pondered by two sorts of 
persons : those who usurp the room of God and His Christ, by thinking (and 
practising their thought) that Church Government and Govcrnours arc 
alterable by secular powers. It s strange that the sin of Jeroboam, the son of 
Nebat, doth not deter them from a practice so audacious. It should also be 
seriously considered by such pretenders to personal perfection as makes them 
conceit themselves above all Ordinances. 

(2) The next Christian Institution is Baptism. Our Blessed Lord 
having proposed to form a Society, and in order to that having ordained a 
Ministrie to officiate in it, He in the next place appointed Baptism to be a 
sacred door or solemn mysterie, in and by which all these who arc well 
qualified should be admitted or received into the same. It is plain that 
none could have any interest in the Covenant made with Abraham, or in 
that with his posterity through the mediation of Moses, till first they were 
Circumcised. It s also plain that ther was not any religious Society even 
among the very Heathens, without both their initiatory and perfective 
mysteries. This was most agreeable to the principles of Government in 
general, with respect to ane invisible Supreme Governour. Moreover, water 
being of a purifying nature, simple also and uncompoundcd, was the most 
apposite symbol could be chosen for admission to a Societic which, of all 
others, in the intention of the Founder, was to be the most pure and furthest 
removed from what is carnal and earthly, and which is dispositive for what 
is sublime and celestial. This Ordinance being once established and fixed 
by its great Author, He admitted none therby into His new Society, while 
lie was bodily here on earth, save Jews, these of that Nation being so far 
privilcdged as to have the first tender of the Gospel offered to them. But 
after His Resurrection from the dead, and when He was to ascend into 
Heaven, then He enlarged the Apostles commission, commanding them to 
goe teach, that is, to proselyte all Nations, and to baptize them, etc. 

Baptism is not only a Rite or Mysterie of Initiation into the Covenant 
of Grace, but also a Seal of it, which gives it legal validity ; even as in 
naturalizing of foreigners, thcr is not only ane act of naturalization, but that 
deed must also have the Seal appended, and it must pass the ordinary 
solemnities ; yea, and at that time the mutual stipulations must be struck, 
wherby both parties are solemnly bound to one another for mutual perform 
ance God being one partie and the admitted Christians the other. 

It is needless here to repeat the acts of grace which God obliges Himself 
to perform, in consideration of the merits of His Son, these being already 
condescended on, as are also the terms and conditions to which the party 
admitted is bound, these being already mentioned. Only here it will not be 
amiss to observe, that in the beginning of the Gospel (as the Apostle words 
it), the first fruits or converts were persons of age ; and these behoved to be 
qualified First, by Faith ; 2dly, by Renunciation of the Devil, who was 
supposed to be the head and King of all who rejected the Gospel after con 
viction ; 3dly, by Repentance, which implies a change of thoughts and 



QUALIFICATIONS. 181 

principles, as well as of moral habits, and which was the effect of God s 
preventing grace, as is already said. This shews the necessity of an interest 
in the Sacraments, notwithstanding of antecedent Faith and Repentance. 
Ther were at that time many pious Jews, particularly the Essens, mentioned 
by Josephus ; ther were also many virtuous Heathens ; and it was then 
supposed that the pietie of the one and the virtue of the other was the effect 
of this preventing grace, called the Trauicnt [transient] Visits of the Divine 
Spirit. Yet all this did not supersede the Sacraments, or gave them any 
title to the benefits of the Covenant. This is yet more plain from luculent 
instances in Scripture. Cornelius hath a high character bestowed 011 him ; 
yea, the Holy Ghost had extraordinary descended on him ; yet he must be 
Baptised. S. Paul had lived in all good conscience ere he was a Christian, 
while yet a Jew, and was extraordinarly converted, even by a vision of our 
Lord in His excellent glory, which was reckoned a great privilege ; and for 
all this was Baptised. The like we find of all other converts, both in the 
sacred text and in Church Historic. 

Thus, the persons of age who believed and repented were qualified for 
Baptism. But then, God at Baptism performed His part of the Covenant. 

The first act was that of Justification, or a full remission of all the sins, 
original and actual, whereof they had been guilty, antecedently to their 
admission into the Christian Covenant. 2dly. A thorough purification from 
these pollutions which by sin cleave unto the soul. Belly. A Consecration 
to the Holy Trinity. 4thly. The Collation of the Holy Ghost, and that to 
abide with them as a living principle. By means of this they were partakers 
of the Divine nature, and became the sons of God ; hence regenerated and 
born again of the water and of the Spirit ; yea, and to have their name 
written in the Book of Life. 

Thus it was with those who were exalted to the privilege of Baptism in 
the beginning of Christianity ; and tho the time in which the Scriptures of 
the New Testament were wrote was extraordinary, ther then being instan 
taneous and miraculous changes wrought on the moral habit of the mind 
upon the belicfc of the Gospel ; yet in the 2d and 3d Century, and some 
ages after, these who believed the Gospel were not admitted to Baptism, but 
were kept in the state of Catechumens, and under discipline, not only till 
they were fully instructed in the knowledge of the Gospel, but also till their 
vicious habits were reasonably presumed to be mortified, and their persever 
ance both in their Faith and Holyness secured ; and indeed lapses into wilful, 
deliberate, and habitual sins were then very rare, much more apostacy from 
yc Faith. 

As for the children of Christian parents, they were supposed to be of the 
holy seed, and therefor had a title to Baptism ; and tho they were not pre 
disposed by actual Faith and Repentance, as these of age, yet were in a 
negative preparedness, upon the account of their descent and the want of 
actual guilt, the original defilement being done away by Baptism, and 
utmost provision being made by the Ministers of Religion for their instruc 
tion and good behaviour for the future, by taking Sponsors who represented 
them, and who were to take care to keep parents to their duty of education, 
and to supply their room in the case of death. 

The next Institution to Baptism is Confirmation. The inhabitation of 
the Holy Spirit, as a new and vital principle, is so very necessary for the 
ends which Jesus Christ would serve on the souls of the faithful, that after 



182 HOLY CONFIRMATION. 

Baptism lie liutli ordained His Ministers to lay their Lands on the growing 
members of His mystical body, and to confer on them yet greater measures 
of His Holy Spirit, by which their faith and piety may be strengthened, and 
the young beginners fortified in their spiritual conflict with the Devil, the 
world, and the flesh. This holy Rite of Confirmation was practised by the 
Apostles (Acts viii. 14, 10, xix. (5, Ileb. vi. 2), no doubt in consequence of a, 
Divine Revelation, and ever after by their successors the Bishops, the Ministers 
in chief of Christ s Religion. This was done after a solemn and pious manner, 
with prayer and faith, and in (he primitive times the effect followed the 
performance of the holy Rite ; for the Confirmed party did visibly grow in 
faith and in all manner of pietie and virtuous practice, insomuch that 
Holiness was not only voluntary but delightful. They lived by faith and not 
by sight ; yea, choosed severities, nay and martyrdom itself, when these 
were found to be proofs of their faith and charity ; they trampled on the 
earth, despised death, and disdained the soft solicitations of the flesh ; they 
reckoned Heaven their true home, this life but a journey thitherward in the 
road of the commands and example of Jesus, and were not much ail ected 
with their temporal circumstances, whether good or bad, no more than a 
bardie traveller is with the quality of the weather or the way. That this 
blissful effect doth not now accompany this, and indeed all the other Ordi 
nances, is owing to the utter decay of faith and pietie, both in the perform 
ers and recipients, to the formal and pageant Avay of administration, and 
to the neglect of the very Ordinance itself, God not being obliged to vouch 
safe His promised favours on [un] qualified persons, no more than to make 
uncultivated ground fruitful of good grain. There is a wise Providence or a 
Divine order in grace, as ther is in the beautiful disposition of material 
things. The effect doth not follow without antecedent dispositions. 

This Rite of Confirmation was performed in the Primitive Church by 
the symbol of Oyle, wherewith the forehead of the Confirmed party was Anoin 
ted, that being the visible symbol whereby Kings, Priests, and Prophets among 
the Jews were Consecrated ; the Divine Spirit, for the right discharge of their 
offices, being supposed to be given by the solemn intervention of Anointing. 
Now, Christians being Consecrated anew to God by Confirmation were Anoin 
ted, to signify their being indued with the Holy Spirit. Hence, in the judgement 
of the best Criticks, that Unction by the Holy One is Confirmation, and the 
Antients interpret our Lord s being Anointed with the Oyle of Gladness 
above His fellowcs, to mean His deriving the Holy Spirit upon His Disciples, 
by which He eminently, and they in Him, were distinguished from the 
common rout of mankind. 

The Christian Institution next to this is the Lord s Supper. It s plain 
that all religious persons had their Mysteries from the beginning of the 
world. In and by these Mysteries ther was a communion between the Deity 
and the votaries. The Deity vouchsafed favours on the votaries, and they 
payed unto him the highest acts of worship and service. Some of these 
Mysteries were initiatory, at what time they resigned themselves to the 
Deity, and were dedicated to him ; some progressive, respecting their im 
provement ; and yet others perfective. It is not questioned but these 
Mysteries were instituted by the demons themselves, and that in this they 
imitated the true and living God in His manner of dealing with His peculiar 
and covenanted people. All the Divine institutions which God enjoyned 
His people from the beginning, were figures of and directly respected that 



HOLY EUCHARIST. 183 

most intimate, most perfect, good, and everlasting Covenant, which He was 
to make with men in and through the Messias, and this sublime Sacrament 
of the Lord s Supper was specially regarded. It is plain that these Cove 
nants were transacted at first, and afterward ratified by Sacrifice. Without 
blood ther was no remission of sins. Hence the expiatory Sacrifices were 
substitutions of the thing sacrificed, in the vice and room of the party 
sacrificing. All the Sacrifices offered up by the people of God from the 
beginning were but types of that Sacrifice which Christ was to offer up, and 
were accepted meerly on account of it ; they being but acts in view, were 
figures and types of what was to be fulfilled, were therfor imperfect, and 
behoved to be often repeated. Our Lord offered up His body a Sacrifice for 
the sins of the world ; and it being highly dignified by its personal union 
with the Divine nature, was of infinite value ; and as it fulfilled the inten 
tion of all Sacrifices, so it henceforward superseded the use of all bloody 
Sacrifices, it being a constant and universally received maxime that ther 
was always a proportion between the dignity of the Sacrifice and the degree 
of its merit. Hence the abused heathenish custom of offering up human 
sacrifices. This is not all, biit moreover the party sacrificing was priviledged 
to cat a share of the offered Sacrifice, to denote that God and the Sacrificer were 
at such perfect accord that they feasted together on the same common viands 
and at the same common table, the meat and the Altar or Table being that of 
God hallowed and consecrated to Him ; so that God was the inviter and enter 
tainer, the meat and table being His, and the people the guests or the party 
invited and entertained. Finally, the meat became the support, sustenance, 
and strength of the eater, by which he was enabled to do his work, particularly 
the service he owed to God, and by which his life was prolonged. Now, the 
Sacrament of the Lord s Supper is a Commemorative Sacrifice of thanks 
giving for that great Sacrifice of Christ s Body once offered upon the Cross. 
Thus it was universally believed by the first Christian Church ; hence called 
by them the Eucharist, the Eulogie, and often the Liturgic or Service, by 
way of eminence. They thought it was prefigured by the Bread and Wine 
which Melchiscdeck, the King of Salem, and Priest of the Most High God, 
brought forth to Abraham (Gen. xiv. 18). They thought it was predicted 
by the Psalmist (Ps. 1. G, 1-i). They thought it was the pure offering which, 
with the incense of prayers, was to be offered up by the Gentiles, foretold by 
the Prophet Malachi. They thought that as our Lord did institute and 
administer that Sacrament to His Disciple*, so he enjoyncd them, and in 
them their Successors, to administer the same to the Church to the end of 
the world: "Doe this in remembrance of me;" which in the original 
signifies a priestly act in sacrificial functions. They believed our Lord to 
have spoken of this Sacramental Bread in His long discourse with the Jews, 
Jo. vi. 31 to 42 ; and it is obvious that of this Sacrament the Apostle dis- 
courseth, 1 Cor. x. 15 to 32. Thus they understood the Altar, whereof these 
had no right to eat which served the Tabernacle, viz., the Jews and their 
Priests. In short, the breaking of bread, and eating with one accord in the 
religious Assemblies, so often mentioned in the Book of Acts, is the very 
same thing. 

The first Christians, therefor, thought and believed that the Christian 
Priest, in name of the people, offered up to God Bread and Wine as the 
Lord of His creatures ; this when the Elements were laid on the Altar or 
Table of God. 2. When He pronounced the words of the Institution, and 



184 ANGELS PRESENT AT THE EUCHARIST. 

made the Prayer of Consecration, then they became the Body and Blood of 
Christ mystical or spiritual, not the natural Flesh and Blood of our Lord 
transubstantiated, as the Church of Rome would have it. 8. When the 
Christian Priest invited the people to partake, then both Priest and people 
did offer up to Cod the Consecrated Bread and Wine, now the spiritual 
Body and Blood of Christ, made such by the contact of the Spirit (as the 
Ancients worded it), as a commemoration of the great Sacrifice once offered 
up on the Altar of the Cross, in virtue of Avhich they bcgg d the pardon of 
their sins, and further assistances of the Divine Spirit, which was actually 
applied to them, on supposition of their faith and charity. 4. By partaking 
of meat coming iVom the Table of the Lord, they believed their mutual 
renewing of their Covenant with (rod, that they keeped Communion with 
Him, were at perfect accord with Cod and with one another, exactly agreeable 
to 1 Cor. x. l(i, Ac. 5. They believed that this eating the Bread and Wine, 
now the Spiritual and Sacramental Body and Blood of our Lord, did nourish 
their souls to life everlasting, agreeable to our Saviour s own words, Jo. vi. 
32, &c. They believed ther was a Spiritual Body as well as a Natural, 
according to the express words of the Apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 40, and 1 Cor. x. 
8, 4, and elsewhere. 

This Account of this great Ordinance I doubt nothing they had from 
the Divine Spirit in the Apostles, and therfor infinitly preferable to the 
novel, fanciful whims of Papists, Lutherans, Calvinists, or Socinians. And 
this rule I set to myself, to goc by true and credible authority in matters of 
mystical and supernatural nature, and not by Philosophical uncertain 
notions, which are turned into varietie of forms, as men would serve their 
respective favourite schemes of things against one another in their eternal 
and scandalous wrangles. 

Ther is yet one thing remarkable in the Ancients, that they thought the 
Angels present in their religious Assemblies, more especially at the celebra 
tion of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. It s plain that the Angels are 
ministring spirits to the heirs of salvation (Heb. i. 14) ; tis plain they 
rejoice in the conversion of a sinner (Luke xv. 7) ; it s plain that our Lord 
aliirms them to be guardians of little children ; it is also plain that women 
were commanded to have their heads covered in the publick Assemblies, 
because of the Angels ; it is plain that they are tenderly affected with the 
miseries of the Church here on earth, [which] should joyn with them in such 
Angelick Hymns as arc made known to the Church (Ps. ciii. 20, 21). To 
join with them in these known choirs, hath nothing of Popish Idolatrie in 
it ; it seems on the contrary to be commanded. This argues no omniscience 
in them, seeing all the above cited places prove them present with us, if not 
at all times, yet habitually. Doth not this give us some deeper impressions 
of the invisible world, and shew the relation they have to us ? 

From this it nowise will follow that we may pray unto them, because it 
is expressly forbidden, as derogatory to the honour due to God, and Him 
alone. It is the priviledge of these in Covenant with God, particularly 
Christians, that they are allowed direct access to God, their God in Cove 
nant, and that through no other Mediator than Jesus Christ. Whence, as 
it was criminal in the Jew, so it is much more in the Christian to apply [to] 
the Most High by any other intercessor. The Members of the Church are 
expressly commanded to pray with and for one another ; but no such com 
mand for addresses to or through Angels. Our fellow Christians are visible, 



THE VIATICUM. 185 

men of like passions with ourselves ; therefor, no fear of rushing into 
Idolatry by imploying their intercessions ; nor doe we pay them any religious 
worship when for this end we apply to them. The case is otherwise with 
Saints and Angels ; they are invisible, they vastly excel us, and are of more 
power ; therfor prayers unto them, even for no more than intercession, may 
fairly lead into Idolatry, from which we should stand at the greatest distance. 

Ther was yet another practice among the Ancients. It was of giving 
this Holy Sacrament to the faithful in perilous and afflicting circumstances, 
such as these of personal or publick calamities, in times of persecution, on 
a sick bed, particularly when death was reasonably presumed to be ap 
proaching. They thought this Bread of Life and "Wine of Consolation did 
mightily support the faithful under their conflict, and inspired them with 
noble fortitude, as to bear their burden so to resist all the temptations of the 
Devil to infidelity, distrust, impatience, or murmuring under the rod of God. 
Nay, if the afflicted party had been a heinous sinner, and was penitent, and 
if death was reasonably feared, then the Minister of Religion absolved him, 
and then administered to him the Holy Sacrament, on condition still, that 
if he recovered he should signify his repentance for removing the scandal by 
such ways as the Governours of the Church judged most expedient. The 
sum of the whole is this. Man, tho in all respects ane innocent creature 
and perfect in his kind, yet is obliged to worship and serve his Creator. 
This worship and service must not depend on the contrivance and choice of 
the creature, but must be instituted and a] pointed by Him the Creator. If 
this be reasonable with respect to ane innocent rational creature, much more 
so with regard to ane offending and sinful creature. This worship and 
service which this offending and sinful creature owes to his Creator, must 
be manifested to him, and he must be assured that it is the will and mind 
of the Creator. This assurance is from supernatural acts of the Creator, 
attesting that the worship and service is really that of the Creator, and not 
that of any impostor, cither bad angel or man. This worship and service 
thus attested is the rather necessary, that the reason of man, ever since his 
Apostasy (which chiefly lies in his falling in with his animal bents against 
the dictates of the Divine Spirit), is both weakned and debauched. The 
manifestation of the worship and service which the Creator requires is yet 
the more necessary, that his reason being prone to sensible things and averse 
to those of a moral and spiritual nature, he would not apprehend or believe 
moral or spiritual propositions, unless he were convinced that they were 
propounded and injoincd by God. This revelation or manifestation of the 
Divine will is yet more necessary, that God intends all men who know it 
should submit unto it, as a common and uniform standard, and that every 
individual should not be at liberty to conceit and act his conceits as he 
pleases ; but that all men, having the same common nature, should be uni 
formly determined by the one common rule, which is the will of God, and 
not that of any impostor. This, if adverted to, cuts off all pretensions of 
freethinkers and latitudinarians, who abandon to their own conceits, not 
regarding the will of God as the general standard to which they ought to 
submit their judgements. 

The propositions declared and enjoined in Holy Scripture are these 

which God hath propounded and attested to be His, and not of any creature, 

as is clearly proven by many facts, and for which we have as much evidence 

as we have for unquestionable history for distant countries in which we 

VOL. n. 1 A 



1HO GOD S PROPOSITIONS. 

have not been ourselves ; yea, and for charters on which our properties are 
bounded. 

The true sense and meaning of these propositions revealed by God, is 
what was that of those to whom they were at first revealed, since it is 
impossible that God could deceive them, seeing every one, the most rude 
not excepted, understood the language, the terms and notions alluded to by 
the Holy Ghost ; seeing they were perfectly good, despised all things in 
comparison, and scaled the truth of them, when called, with their blood. 

This sense of these first Christians is infinitely preferable to that of 
those who live and have lived at a vast distance ; Avho have the language, 
the idioms, the terms of art, and the notions alluded to. to acquire ; who are 
also interested, divided, and eternally subdivided. 

These Divine Revelations, thus understood, give us aue Account that 
the way which God took <o oblige man to pay Him that worship and service 
which should be acceptable to Him and render God propitious, hath been 
always by entering in Covenants with such men as for whom He designed 
that priviledgc. 

]>y these Covenants God obliged Himself by promise to vouchsafe such 
particular favours; and the covenanting persons were obliged to fulfil, on 
their part, such terms and conditions as required and prescribed. 

All the Covenants, since the apostacy of our first parents, were but 
preparatory, and had a direct reference to the great, the better, and ever 
lasting Covenant through the mediation of Jesus Christ. The favours which 
God promises to such as are w in this Covenant, are Remission of sins ; 
acceptance of ane imperfect duty, it sincere, as if it were perfect; forgiven- 
ncss of relapses into sin after Baptism, on supposition of true repentance; 
the Holy Spirit s inhabitation, and everlasting happiness in the highest 
Heavens. 

The terms and conditions to be performed by the covenanting persons 
are of two kinds 1. These of a moral ; 2. these of a positive nature. These 
of a moral nature are Faith in the doctrines, precepts, promises, and threat- 
iiings of the Gospel; Charitie, that is the love of God and man, expressed 
by a free, voluntary, and cheerful obedience to all His commands the which 
includes sincerity, improvement in pietie and Christian virtue, and perse 
verance in well doing to the end of the life ; Repentance in cases of wilful 
lapses into sin, of the commission of any heinous sin, living in any one or 
more vicious habits, and even negligence, or spiritual sloth and stupidity. 
This Repentance includes Mortification, Avhich consists in a victory over our 
carnal and earthly bents, and generally all our animal appetites, as far as 
they are inordinate or immoderate ; and this constitutes the virtue of 
Temperance and Sobrietie. 

These are the conditions of a moral nature, called such because they 
are enforced by prime reasons. The other are of a positive nature, because 
they are founded only on Divine authoritie and God s positive institution. 
These are the Ministrie, Sacraments, and Ordinances. God hath peremp- 
torly enjoyiied the observance of them, and that by Sanctions strong as these 
by which He hath inforced the moral precepts. Nay, He hath more signally 
manifested His displeasure against such as brake in upon them than against 
trespasses on the moral precepts, because His authority is only that which 
supports them ; wheras strong cogent reasons command the other. 

This should oblige all to inquire accuratly into the commission of 



KOBEiri 1 KEITH. 167 

Ministers of licligion, since on that the validity of Sacraments depends ; and 
unless the Sacraments we receive he valid, we can can have 110 assurance of 
salvation after a legal ordinary way, particularly when the ordinary way is 
at hand and in our option, and nothing to clot err us from it hut some earthly 
inconvenience, or perhaps that which is worse, some whim, conceit, or 
caprice of our own. It must in that case he a matter of extreme danger to 
trust to an uncovenanted extraordinary way. I know the Socinians and 
their favourers, the Arminians, the Calvinists also, the Independants, and 
the Prcshyterians, have erected schemes of Divinity different from this ; hut 
this is that which was once and lirst delivered to the Saints by the Spirit of 
Jesus Christ, and I will trust to no other in such important matters as arc 
the Glory of God, the Honour of Jesus, and Everlasting Salvation. 



LV. EGBERT KEITH. A.D. 1733-43. (Xo Seal.) 

In regard to his Birth and Family, we arc supplied with some 
well-authenticated facts, furnished hy himself, in two different 
forms. A few years before his Death he was induced to yield 
to the importunity of a Clerical friend, and to commit to him 
certain Particulars relative to his early history, for which we 
should have looked in vain to any other quarter. This little 
piece of Autobiography begins as follows : 

I was Born at I ras, in the Mearns, on Monday, February 7, 1081, and 
named liobert, after the Viscount of Arbuthnot, in the Shire of Kincardine, 
who was a kind friend to my father ; and suckled by my own mother, 
Marjory Arbuthnot. My father, Alexander Keith, Died Thursday, January 
25, 1083 ; and I have been told that, in the course of his fever, he took me 
in his arms, dandled me, and said, " If Idic at this time, 0! that my keen 
cockie would go with me!" Besides my eldest brother Alexander, who had 
been Married in the end of the preceding year, I had three sisters, &c., &c. 

N.B. The occasion of writing the above, says Bishop Forbes, was this: 
Upon Bishop Keith s informing that he had, at the particular desire of Dr. 
George Garden, Translated a part of Dr. Forbes s Diary, I said that was a 
thing not at all known, and therefore it ought to be recorded in some proper 
way. He answered, " That I might note it down on a bit of paper, in any 
shape I pleased." " No, Sir," said I, " it would be far more advisable that 
you should leave some short account of yourself to posterity, under your 
own hand." He thanked me for the hint, and said he would think of it. 
This happened after 175 2, when he had left Edinburgh, and was living at 
Bonnyhaugh, near Leith. 

Much about the same time, too, he entered into a Contro 
versy with the late Mr. Keith of Ravelston, in regard to the 



188 DISTRICT OF FIl- l-:. 

comparative proximity of their several Families to the noble liace 
of the Earls Marisclial ; and in pursuance of the claims which he 
there urged in behalf of his nephews to the honour of a Lineal 
descent, he thought proper to draw up a short statement of facts, 
to which he gave the title of "A VINDICATION of Mr. Robert 
Keith, and of his young Grand-nephew, Alexander Keith, from 
the unfriendly representation of Mr. Alexander Keith, Jim., of 
Piavclston, one of the Under- Clerks in the Court of Session." 
This is Printed at the end of Lawson s Biographical Sketch of 
Bishop Keith, in his Edition of the "History of the Affairs of 
Church and State in Scotland," Published in 1844 by the 
Spottiswoode Socictij, p. Li .ccii. 

Uras is in the Parish of Dunnottar, a small estate of which 
his Family possessed either the /Vr-.s/////^ , or what in Scotland 
is called the U ctdact. Having lost his father while only two 
years of age, he was indebted for the knowledge of letters, and 
for the still more important lessons of early virtue and religion, 
to his mother ; who, when he had arrived at the age of seven 
years, removed with him to Aberdeen, where, on a very limited 
income, and chiefly by means of her own industry, she procured 
for him a good education both at school and Marisclial College, 
which was founded by his collateral relative, George, fifth Earl 
Marisclial, in 1593. His excellent mother was the daughter of 
Piobert Arbuthnot of Little iddcs, in Kincardineshire, and her 
prudence and affection appear to have left a deep impression on 
the mind of her son. Alluding to her unceasing exertions in his 
behalf, he says, in the Notes dictated to Bishop Forbes "For 
these and many many other obligations I owe her memory, I do 
pay her much acknowledgment." " She Died at Aberdeen," he 
adds, " on Saturday the Cth December, 1707, about the G9th year 
of her age, after she had the comfort of seeing me Preceptor or 
Tutor to my young Chief, the Lord Keith, from the month of 
July, 1703 ; with whom and his brother I continued seven full 
years, till July, 1710." 

The Bishop alludes to a report which had reached his ears, 
that he had likewise been Tutor to Mr. Alexander Garden, of 
Troup. " This," says lie, " is not correct. I was indeed a good 



IIOIJKLIT KKLTH. is;) 

acquaintance of theirs at College, and no more. During my 
long abode at Aberdeen, I had the happiness to be much 
acquainted with the worthy and learned Dr. George Garden, 
Deprived Minister of that City ; from whom I had the oppor 
tunity to receive many internal good books, for which I bless 
God to this day. And as the Doctor was employed about that 
time in a new Edition of the excellent Works of the very learned 
Dr. John Forbes of Corse, he was pleased to desire me to Trans 
late into Latin the last seven years of "Dr. Forbes s Diary, or 
rita Interior." 

In the Life of a Scotchman, however meanly born, the article 
of Pedigree, in the Seventeenth Century, was, in all cases, a con 
sideration of some weight ; for, if he had not to tell of hereditary 
wealth or Family honours, he was pleased with the assurance 
that his parents were virtuous, and perhaps with the tradition 
that their blood had been improved by some illustrious con 
nexion. But, in this respect, Bishop Keith had more to boast 
of than Scottish Churchmen usually have in modern times : and 
no one ever valued more highly his relationship with the Noble 
and the Great than did this humble Pastor of a poor, depressed, 
and calumniated Branch of Christ s Catholic Church. He was 
a Cadet of the celebrated Family of Keith, Faiis Marischal of 
Scotland, being lineally descended from Alexander, the youngest 
son of William the third Earl. In 1513, this Nobleman con 
ferred upon the ancestor of the Bishop the Lands of Pittcndrurn, 
in the Shire of Aberdeen ; which Grant is vouched by an attested 
copy of the precept of Sasine, inserted in the controversial 
Pamphlet alluded to. After the lapse of little more than a 
Century, we find the Laird of Pittendruin in possession of the 
Estate of Over and Nether Cowton, in the Parish of Fetteresso, 
adjoining Dumiottar ; for which acquisition also the Instrument 
of legal investment is produced at full length from the Register 
of Sasines. But the Lands of Cowton passed away from the 
Bishop s Family in the person of his immediate ancestor ; who, 
having " denuded himself," as the phrase is, of that Property, in 
1672, purchased the Estate of Uras, in the Parish of Dumiottar 
and Shire of Kincardine. As an apology for this alienation of 



!<;o DltSTliLl T Oi: F1FM. 

tlio Family inlierituiice, the good 13isliop thinks it necessary to 
add, in a Note, that " this hasty denudation did not proceed from 
a squandering temper in my father, lint from his haying enlisted 
himself a volunteer in that expedition under King Charles II. 
(which ended in the unfortunate battle of Worcester) whilst a 
mere strippling only of about eighteen years of age ; and 
although he had the good fortune to escape out of prison by the 
means and contrivance of t\vo English ladies, yet the difficulties 
he was exposed to, and the inciinibrances which naturally came 
upon his small Estate during the long continuance of the 
Rebellion, stuck severely to him all his days after, and do stick 
to his offspring to this d;iy." 

Having mentioned the misunderstanding which arose between 
the Bishop and the late Alexander Keith, of luivelston (a beauti 
ful Property at the foot of Corstorpliine Hill, about two miles 
west of Edinburgh, on the road to Glasgow), respecting the 
relationship of their Families to the ancient Race of the Earls 
Marischal, it may be stated that the superior claims of the 
Bishop in behalf of his nephew were well founded ; and so long 
as the Uras branch of the Pittendrum Keiths existed in the male 
line, the Keiths of Bavelston were not entitled to the honour to 
which they have since succeeded. 

About a month after he retired from tin; situation of Precep 
tor to his noble relatives, he was admitted to the Order of 
Deacons on the 10th of August, 1710, by the Eight Reverend 
George Halyburton, the Deprived Lord Bishop of Aberdeen ; 
and in November following, he informs us, he became Domestic 
Chaplain to Charles, twelfth Earl of Erroll, and his mother the 
Countess, who was Lady Anne Drummond, only daughter of 
James, third Earl of Perth. In June, 171:2, he accompanied his 
Lordship to the Baths of Aix-la-Chapelle ; and in passing 
through Holland he was greatly delighted with an opportunity of 
enjoying the acquaintance and conversation of the celebrated 
Peter Poiret, famous for his mystic and speculative Writings, 
who attacked Des Cartes, Locke, and Spinoza, and Published 
both an Apology for Madame Bourignon, and a complete Edition 
of her Works in 21 Volumes. In the course of their Journey he 



ROBERT KEITH. 101 

was also gratified with a short residence in Amsterdam, Rotter 
dam, Dort, Leyden, Utrecht, Nemuegen, Cleves, and Cologne : 
and leaving his Lordship at Aix, he returned homewards through 
Maestriclit, Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges, Ostend, Neuport, and 
Dunkirk. "At this last place," says he, " I took ship ; hut we 
were soon obliged to put into Calais. Next day we set sail again 
for England, but met with a most prodigious storm of wind, 
insomuch that sonic ships were lost just in the passage near to 
us. However, it pleased God that I landed safe at Dover, S. 
Michael s Day, 1712, where I remained a long time very tender 
through the wet and cold during the storm. I set out in the 
stage coach for Edinburgh, February 2, 1718. 

The Bishop seems naturally to have possessed that peculiar 
turn of mind which leads to the investigation of Antiquities, and 
which appears to derive the most exquisite gratification from 
ascertaining even the minutest relations of a Genealogical Table. 
In his "Vindication," accordingly, the Reader will find the most 
precise and regularly authenticated statements of all such trans 
actions in which his Family were concerned, as might in the 
least degree illustrate the purity of their descent, and the respec- 
tabilit} r of their connexions. For instance, after furnishing a 
Copy of the Contract of Marriage between his grandfather and 
grandmother, and having specified that the Litter was the 
daughter of Gawn Douglas of Easter B arras, he adds in a Note 
"This Gawn Douglas was a son of that Laird of Glenbervy 
who became Earl of Angus about the year 1588, and by this 
Marriage Mr. Robert Keith ( lii nisei fj and his nephew have the 
honour to be related to the Dukes of Douglas and Hamilton, and 
to all the branches of these most honourable Families since that 
Marriage." Alluding again to the kindred of his mother, he 
remarks that, by her marriage into the Family of Keith, their 
posterity " are related to all the Arbuthnots and Burnets in the 
Shire of Mearns." 

He concludes his "Vindication," too, in the same spirit of 
Family love, and with a just sense of the importance which 
attached to the discussion in which he had been so successfully 
engaged. "Mr. Robert Keith hopes that all his friends, and 



192 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

every unprejudiced person into whose hands this Paper may 
chance to fall (for he has only Printed some few Copies to be 
privately given away), will have him excused for vindicating his 
own and nephew s Birth ; for although he himself, now in the 
close of the 70th year of his age, and having only one daughter, 
might he pretty indifferent about any thing of this nature, yet he 
suspects his young grandnephews (for there are no less than three 
of them, Alexander, Iiobert, and John), when they came of age, 
might reproach the memory of their uncle, and justly perhaps, 
for his not endeavouring to set their Birth at rights against so 
flagrant an attack, seeing the one was capable, and the others 
might not have the same means of knowing, or the same abilities 
to perform it." 

Keith, as has been already stated, was Ordained a Deacon on 
the 10th of August, 1710. On his return from the Continent, 
after his engagement with Lord Erroll, he was invited by one of 
the numerous small Congregations then in Edinburgh to become 
their Pastor ; and accordingly he was raised to the Priesthood 
by Bishop Ilalyburton, on the 20th of May, 1718. It is worthy 
of remark that he continued in the same Charge till the- day of 
his Death. 

Xinnler 18 in BisJtnp Forbes Ccitalor/ue in tJie Fjiiscujial Cabinet. 

12. (Original) Deed of Diaconate to Mr. Robert Keith, by Bishop of 
Aberdeen, August 10, 1710. " Secnndum ritus et morem antiqutc ecclesire." 

10. (Original Deed) Mr. Robert Keith, Presbyterate, by the Bishop of 
Aberdeen, May 20, 1713. " Secundum," &c., as above. 

The talents and learning of such a man could not fail, even 
in the miserable times wherein his lot was cast, to procure for 
him a certain degree of influence in the Church to which he had 
attached himself, and even to establish his character among those 
of a different Communion, as an able Scholar, Historian, and 
Antiquary. He is, accordingly, found taking an active share in 
all the measures that were proposed, either for restoring Purity 
of Worship, or for propping the pillars of that Ecclesiastical 
System, in the Divine Institution of which he believed, and for 
the maintenance of which he spared no labour and grudged no 



ROBERT KEITH. 193 

sacrifice. There remains a number of Letters which passed 
between him and Bishop Smith of England, respecting the affairs 
of the two Non-Juring Churches. 



1. An exact List of Bishop Smith s Letters, according to their Dates, 
in the handwriting of Bishop Keith. 

2. (Holograph) Bishop Smith to Bishop Gillan, Michaelmas-day, 1732, 
requesting a Correspondence giving an Account of his Book, then Published, 
in Order to promote an Union among Nonjurors in England ; that an agree 
ment had been accordingly made on 3d instant, one Bishop exceptcd ; but 
that Mr. Lawrence had virulently Published against it, being mainly encour 
aged by Bishop Campbell, &c. ; and that these two were thinking of applying 
to Scotland for Consecrations, but he hopes they will meet Avith a repulse ; 
and last of all begs a particular Account of the precise terms of Union in 
Scotland. The following, having reference to the above, are also in the 
Catalogue : 

3-4 of Number 4. (Holograph) Bishop Campbell to Bishop Rattray, 
Aprile 10, 1733, about ye Consecrating Mr. Lawrence a Bishop by 
Bishop Campbell alone, craving Bishop Rath-ay s consent and appro 
bation, AY Bishop Rath-ay s Answer tacked to it (holograph), May 4, 
1733, refusing to give any opinion w out consulting the other Bishops of 
Scotland. 

12 of Number 9. (Holograph) Bishop Rattray to Bishop Keith, 
Deer. G, 1732, wherein of a Letter from Bishop Campbell, craving 
assistance or consent for Consecrating a Bishop, &c. ; Avhich Bishop 
Rattray not only declined, but dissuaded Bishop Campbell from any such 
attempt ; and that Bishop Ouchterlonie had wisely dropt his formula. 

35 of Number 4. (Holograph) Messrs. Clarke and Pierce to Bishop 
Rattray, Aprile 10, 1723, hoping for his approbation of the Consecra 
tion of s (1 Mr. Laurence by Bishop Campbell, .SY////.V. 

30 of Number 4. (Holograph) Dr. Deacon, of Manchester, to Dr. 
Rattray, April 20, 1733, extremely earnest for his encouragement in and 
approbation of the above-mentioned Consecration. 

3. (Holograph) Bishop Smith to Bishop Gillan, Octor. 17, 1732, con 
gratulatory on the Concordate, and thanking for so particular an Account of 
it, and informing very particularly about terms of Union in England from 
first to last. Herein these remarkable words, viz., "I leave you to judge 
whether those who have the chief authority in the Church, and the solo right 
over the Discipline thereof (the Presbyters by the Laws of the Church of 
England having no power in such matters, but in a due obedience and 
subordination to the Bishops), ought not rather to exert their authority in 
such a case as this, than to suffer it to be despised, &c." 

4. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Dccemr. 31, 1732; that some Presbyters, 
who had sought the Episcopate with eagerness and ambition, were much 

VOL. n. 2 n 



10 1 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

incensed at Bishop Smith s Promotion, who had been Diaconate, Prcsbyter- 
atc, and Episcopate, in the space of 18 days ; and that Messrs. Campbell and 
Laurence either have sent or design to send to Scotland for a Commission 
to continue their Succession, as above. 

5. (Holograph) Do. to Do., June 20, 1733, condoling upon the Death 
of Bishop Duncan, and requesting a Catalogue of the Bishops in Scotland 
since the Revolution. 

G. (Holograph) Do. to Do., September 11, 1732, wherein he assigns the 
reason of their fatal disorders, by giving a quotation out of S. Cyprian as to 
the ambition and pride of Presbyters; that some Presbyters in England, 
because not called to the Episcopate, have turned rebels against it, and 
openly enough declared for a Presbyterian Parity; and y 4 Bishop Doughty 
of England was Consecrated in Ed 1 by Bishops Fullarton, Miller, Irvine, 
and Frecbairn. 

4 of Number 11. (Holograph) Mr. Robert Keith to Dr. Rattvay, 
March 31, 172."), informing that one Mr. Doughty, an English Divine, 
Avas in Ed 1 , and had been Consecrated the day before, to make a com 
petent number of Bishops on Mr. Spinckes side. 

7. (Holograph) Bishop Smith to Bishop Gillan, Michaelmas-day, 1733 ; 
very desirous that the Bishop of Scotland would declare for them, and ag l 
Messrs. Campbell and Lawrence. 

8. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Jaiiry. 18, 1733-4, taking it in good part, 
that the Bishops of Scotland care not to make any Declaration according to 
his desire. 

0. (Holograph) Do. to Do., March 31, 1734; still very desirous the 
Bishops of Scotland would make some Declaration, &c., giving two instances 
of the Bishops of Scotland enabling them in England to continue a Canoni 
cal Succession I 1 "", two assisting Bishop Hickes ; and 2 cl , Mr. Doughty 
having been sent to Ed 1 for Consecration: branding Bishop Campbell with 
Heresy and Schism ; telling of Mr. Gandy s Death, &c. 

10. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Aprilc 4, 1734, mentioning Letters from 
Bishop Rattray to Bishop Campbell, "for which," says he, "we are ex 
tremely oblidged to him ; he has said what is abundantly sufficient to per 
suade our dissenting Brethren to unite with us, &c." 

11. (Copy) Do. to Do., May 10, 1734, shewing that the Church of Eng 
land has a competent provision for the Christian Sacrifice. 

12. (Holograph) Do. to Do., July 21, 1734, giving an Account of Dr. 
Deacon s new Prayer Book, &c., and saying, "I grant our Book [Liturgy] 
might be mended in some few things, &c." 

13. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Decemr. 29, 1734, about Mr. Clark s 
getting a woman with child ; " for which," says Mr. Smith, " he ought never 
to have been in Orders ; for being guilty of what deserves Deprivation, he 
can t Canonically be Ordained ; and if he is Ordained, ought not to be 
suffered to perform the Office of a Priest, &c." 



ROBERT KEITH. 195 

It. (Holograph) Bishop Smith to Bishop Keith, Janry. 81, 1734-5, 
condoling upon Bishop Gillan s Death, and declaring Mr. Clark, or any man 
guilty of fornication, incapable of Holy Orders. 

15. (Prima Cura, in his own hand) Bishop Keith s Answer, Aprile 12, 
1735, to ye precccding of Janry. 81. 

10. (Holograph) Bishop Smith to Bishop Keith, Aprile 18, 1735, 
declaring the Bishops in England will not stretch beyond their line in 
meddling in Scottish affairs. 

17. (Original) Do. to Do., Febry. 8, 1730, congratulatory upon Bishop 
White s Promotion ; and saying that ho had been reading Burnet s History 
of his own times, and found him what he always took him for, a rank Pres 
byterian. 

18. (Holograph) Do. to Do., July 15, 1730, highly commending Bishop 
Keith and his History, kc. "Such a Book," says he, "will stand the test 
of ages, and will always be valued, because 110 fact is related but upon the 
best authority, &c." 

19. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Scptr. 17, 1737, wherein "I asurc you I 
set a great value upon your Correspondence and Friendship, &c.," and that 
Bishop Mawman had been Consecrated in preceding July. 

20. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Septemr. 4, 1738, wherein a Copy of 
Bishop Campbell s Act of Consecration, and requesting the Scottish Bishops 
to keep a Register of these Acts of Consecration. 

21. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Janry. 20, 1738-9, proposing, with all 
respect and humility, the use of the English Liturgy onbj in Scotland, and 
useing several arguments for that purpose, &c.; but declaring, if the pro 
posal docs not take, he shall not be at all discontented about it ; for y l the 
Church of Scotland, being a National and Independent Church, has an un 
doubted right and authority to use a different Service Book, &c. ; with Bishop 
Keith s Answer (Feby. 15, 1739) tacked to it, that the proposal being a matter 
which concerns the other Bishops, he could not well declare his opinion till 
he had theirs, &c. 

22. (Holograph) Do. to Do. (Febry. 23, 1739), promising never to 
pretend to intermeddle in Scots affairs any other way than by counsel and 
advice, &c. 

23. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Septemr. 27, 1739, heartily acquiescing 
in the Resolution of the Scottish Bishops not to enjoin the use of the Eng 
lish Liturgy only, but to leave it and the Scottish on an equal footing, as in 
ye Concordate, 1731 ; "uniformity with iis," says he, "not being necessary 
at all." 

24. (Holograph) Do. to Do., March 30, 1739, strong and pointed against 
intermeddling in the affairs of another Province, which he terms " a vile and 
wicked thing," particularly in that of Consecration of a Bishop, &c., together 
with a Copy tacked to it of that Letter, March 24, 1739, from Bishop Keith, 
concerning the Consecration to be of Mr. Ogilvie, which occasioned said 
Letter from Bishop Smith. 



190 .DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

25. (Holograph) Do. to Do., Novenir. 29, 17-10, wishing the English 
Liturgy had not been altered from what it was at the first composure in K. 
Edward Gth s time; "it would, I assure you," says he, "have pleased me 
better." 

2i>. (Holograph) Do. to Do., July 7th, 17-13, sincerely condoling the 
Death of Bishop It at tray, and highly commending the Design of Publishing 
St. James s Liturgy, and promising his assistance. Herein he is a favourer 
or defender of Lay Baptism, in the cases of Mr. and Mrs. Hcwctt, in New 
castle, &c. 

27. (Two Holographs) Septcmr. 10, &c., 1718, Bishop Keith his Account 
of a conversation between himself and Bishop Smith of England in Ed 1 , con 
cerning the Deposition of Mr. Fife in Dundee by Bishop Haiti. 

28. (Holograph and Copy) Bishop Smith his very long Letter to Bishop 
Keith, Odor. 9, 17-13, concerning Mr. Fife s Deposition; owns that Fife s 
intrusion was an act highly provoking and schismatical, and deserving the 
highest censure ; but, considering the number concerned, better a milder 
course had been taken, &c. Bishop Haiti sufficiently provock d to take the 
severest course. Bishop S. still acknowledges the Scottish Book to be pre 
ferable to the English, and yet would abolish the former and entirely estab 
lish the latter in Scotland, as a happy expedient for peace and quiet, &c. 

29. Several Copies of Bishop Keith s short and pertinent Answer, Deer. 
13, 17-13, to ye forsaid very long Letter from Bishop Smith ; that it is the 
opinion of the Bishops of Scotland not to go into Bishop Smith s proposal of 
laying the Scottish aside, and assuming the English Liturgy in its place, 
nothing being more imprudent, as there arc about 125 Presbyters in Scot 
land, and not 5 without Ed r who minister by the English Liturgy, and not 
above 3 in Ed 1 who minister by it without addition or transposition ; and 
then refers to Bishop Smith s own judgment Avhat he would find advisable 
to be done in a like case ; that differences arise from other sources, c. As 
to the affair of Dundee, he will not enter any more into that, but refers 
Bishop Smith to Bishop Ftaitt for better information ; and y l Mr. Fife never 
received any molestation upon account of using the English Liturgy, which 
he might have still used to the day of his Death in a regular manner. 
Some small difference in the conversation in Edin r , a Copy of which trans 
mitted at same time to Bishop Smith. 

80. (Copy) Mr. Ilobert Lyon to Bishop Gordoun, Octor. 31, 1713, con 
cerning the use of the two Liturgies in Scotland on an equal footing ; that 
no Liturgy, thu written (as Bishop Smith says) with the pen of Angel, 
would have done in Scotland in K. Charles Ist s days ; that very few in 
Scotland use the English Communion Office AY out variation; that some use 
110 Liturgy at all, &c. Never did the Bishops in Scotland, by any overt act, 
condemn the use of the English Liturgy in any shape ; but, on the contrary, 
allow the English, as to point of authority, to stand upon an equal footing 
\vith their own Liturgy, &c. ; eiyo, surprized at Mr. Smith s saying otherwise. 

31. (Holograph) To Bishop Keith, Bishop Smith s short but very 



ROBERT KE1T1I. 197 

magisterial Letter, June 4, 1744, owning receipts of Papers, viz., excerpts 
out of his own Letters, and insisting upon a close adherence to an 
Ecclesiastical Constitution, and that proposals of Peace are to be tendered 
from him and his Colleagues to the Scottish Bishops. 

82. (Copy) Bishop Smith to Mr. Andrew Gerard, June -J, 1744, pro 
testing, in name of himself and his Colleagues, against all Consecrations of 
Bishops in Scotland, hut by cither English or Scottish authorized form ; 
and to do otherwise is 310 less than schism, &c. ! 

Xiiailii i 13 /;) Jjixhoji ] \ir</cx (Jutidnijnc. 

1. Letter of Bishop Keith, July 12, 17-14, in his own Holograph, to ye 
other Bishops of Scotland, concerning proposals of Peace (already mentioned) 
by Bishop Smith, of England, June 2G, 1744, to yc Bishops of Scotland ; 
that Bishop Smith has talked of late in such a magisterial strain " You 
ought," "you should," "you must," &c. and w such an air of superiority, 
as if all in Scotland were his petty suffragans, &c.; that he now sees his 
error, and acknowledges it, in corresponding at all with Bishop Smith, 
contrary to yc advice of Bishop Puittray, who always suspected him to be a 
dangerous man, &c., &c., &c. 

2. (Holograph) Bishop Smith s long Letter to Bishop Keith, with two 
Copies of it (June 20, 1744) longer than the very long one mentioned in 28 
of Number 12. N.B. This important Letter, given in full, will be found at 
p. 200. 

8. Several Copies of said Excerpts, &c., as sent by Bishop Keith to 
Bishop Smith for the refreshment of his memory. Originals in Number 12. 

4. (Copy) Bishop Smith to Mr. John Mackenzie, Aprile 2, 1744, dog 
matically affirming that the Bishops have no authority during the Vacancy 
of Ed r to encroach upon that Bishoprick, &c., assigning two reasons why 
Canons of Synod, 1743, in his opinion, are not binding, &c. "We must 
desire," says lie, "that they [the Bishops] will, with all convenient speed, 
permit the Presbyters of Ed r to proceed to a new Election, &c. ; the sup 
posed genuine Liturgy of S. James, &c. ; the sole use of the English Office, 
without addition, transposition, or diminution, w c :i is the only Office has any 
title to an Establishment among you ; universally received among you, a3id 
had the first settlement in your Church, &c.; by the English Office, all 
their Clergy [Scots] have been Ordained ever since the restitution of Epis 
copacy, &c. ; I still look upon Mr. Fife as a Presbyter of our Communion, 
&c., &c., etc.!!!" 

5. (Copy) Bishop Keith to Bishop Smith, May 22, 1744, upon seeing 
Bishop Smith s said surprizing Letter to Mr. John Mackenzie, of Aprile 2 ; 
that yc suppositions framed by Bishop Smith, of Synod 1743, are altogether 
groundless ; 110 alteration intended in the Public Worship ; even the sedi 
tious of Ed r will not venture to declare solemnly that ye two Liturgies, Eng. 
and Scot., are the true cause of their quarrel with us ; as they, all and every 
one of them, have admiuistred the Holy Eucharist by the Scots Liturgy 



198 DISTPJCT OF FIFE. 

only, or by some addition, diminution, or transposition in the English, and 
this of their own accord, Ac. No person has suffered the smallest frown for 
using the English Liturgy ; that Bishop Keith has in possession just now 
an Original Act of Ordination, performed at Ed 1 , 1080, xccitmlinii rit/uii ct 
irciii l- .ccl, xi<i Sciitic/nur, which he is to put into yc lioyal Register, &c. 

0. (Copy) Bishop Dunbar to Bishop Keith, May 20. 174.1, declaring his 
opinion of Bishop Smith s iirst long Letter of Odor. 9, 1713, proposing a 
public Declaration, and giving the heads thereof, both from Bishops and 
Presbyters. 

7. (Copy) Bishop Alexander to Bishop Keith, May 20, 17-1-J, immedi 
ately after seeing Bishop Smith s astonishing Letter to Mr. John M Kenzie 
of Aprile 2. See above, particularly that he [B. A.] had offered to recall Mr. 
Fife to his former Charge, there to use the English Liturgy as formerly, and 
proposed to the Dundee gentlemen to pitch upon any other who would 
officiate by the English Ollice. &c. 

8. Copy of a Letter, in 2S pages 4to, anonymous and without Date, but 
strong and pointed, and appears to be from Bishop Alexander to Bishop 
Keith, reviewing the conduct of Bishop Smith as to Scots affairs, upon 
seeing Bishop Smith s extraordinary Letter to Mr. John Mackenzie, ut (into/. 

9. Draught, in the handwriting of Bishop Falconar, of a Paper (June 
1, 174 U, by the Clergy of Murray, against the Usurpation and Intrusions of 
Bishop Smith, as contained in his Letter to Mr. John Mackenzie, in a Letter 
from Bishop Falconar to Bishop Keith, Augt. 10, 1744. X.B. Said Paper 
had been drawn clean out, and Subscribed by said Clergy, but was unluckily 
miscarried in its way to Edin r , and was never recovered. 

10. (Prima Cura, in his own hand) Bishop Keith to Bishop Smith, 
particularly anent Mr. Harper, Senior, his affair with a certain Lady, July 
14, 1744. 

11. (Holograph) Bishop Smith s Answer to Bishop Keith, July 19, 
1744, still upon yc matter much the same, and in the old tune. 

12. (Prima Cura, in his own hand) Bishop Keith to Bishop Smith, 
Augt. 11, 1744, of another Letter, particularly and minutely ancnt Mr. 
Harper s affair, ?// siifini. 

IB. (Holograph) Bishop Smith to Bishop Keith, Augt. 21, 1744, where 
in he acknowledges Bishop Keith to have given strong evidence against Mr. 
Harper, which he is sorry to see, &c. ; but as to other things, still as peremp 
tory and stiff as ever. To this Letter Bishop Keith gave no return. 

14. (Holograph) Bishop Smith to Bishop Keith, Septemr. 10, 1744, 
calling all the Scottish Bishops schismaticks, and threatning to Print, with 
Copy of Bishop Keith s Answer, Septemr. 15, 1744 ; that he knows his 
character better as a gentleman and a Bishop than to repay him in kind, 
and desiring him to address no more Letters to him, for he will not relieve 
them out of the Post Office ; and very easie whether he Prints or not. 

15. Two Copies of a Declaration, Aprile 7, 1744, sent into England by 
Bishop Keith about an intention, falsely spread, of introducing Litutyia 



ROBERT KEITH. 199 

Jncoli into the public Worship. Both Copies authenticated by Bishop 
Keith s own manual corrections. 

10. Copies of three most excellent Letters 1, one to Bishop Smith, 
June 14, 1744 ; 2, one to Sir Robert Cotton, June 4, 1741 ; and 8, to some 
one friend or other (perhaps Thomas Bowdler, Esqr.), June 17, 1744, all by 
Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Cotton, concerning Bishop Smith s angry and 
turbulent intermeddling^ in Scottish affairs. 

17. (In the handwriting of Bishop Alexander) A true Narrative of what 
passed at Dundee, relating to the Conference twixt two of the Bishops and 
two gentlemen of the Sea-gate fleeting, Augt. 31, 1743. 

18. Copy, in Shorthand of Bishop Keith, of part of a Letter from Mr. 
Hary Edgar to Mr. Robert Lyon, July 4, 1745, concerning the woeful affair 
of Mr. D. Eife, and the Minutes of Synod, 1743. 

19. Two Copies of a Letter, Bishop Smith to Mr. D. Eife, after Deposi 
tion, Septemr. 13, 1744, owning him still as a Clergyman ; all whose hearers 
(about 3 or 4 cxceptcd) called a qualified Clergyman after the Troubles in 
174(5 ! 

20. (Copies) Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Cotton to Mr. Robert Lyon 
(most excellent), Octor. 15, 1744, anent " Mr. Smith s last violent Letter to 
Bishop Keith, in which grieved at Mr. Smith s resolution to Print ; that he 
seems blinded with passion ; and giving the substance of a Letter he (Mr. 
Cotton) had written to Bishop Gordoun upon the subject viz., the fatal 
effects of Printing, which gives the Romish Emissaries a handle to draw off 
persons, by charging us with being a Parliamentary Church, as they did 
before, assigning the true reason for refusing the Primitive Usages to be 
(whatever else might be pretended) the supposed want of power to alter any 
thing settled by Parliament, c. Then the usclessness of Printing at any 
rate, as proceeding from vanity, &c. He then informs he had got a most 
agreeable Answer from Mr. Gordoun, &c., to which he had made a Reply, 
that it was a very difficult point to decide how far the coalition of the Civil 
and Ecclesiastical Power could bind Bishops from exerting Powers allowed 
to be in them, when for the good of the Church ; for that ye ancient Bishops, 
makeing Constantino a land of Supreme Ordinary, proved of fatal conse 
quence to ye Church ; and that had the Bishop of Alexandria been allowed 
to censure his own Presbyter Arius, that Heresy had been stop d at once ; 
but appeals to the Emperor, and intcrmcddlings of Courtiers, made that 
Heresy take deep roots, &c. At last the notion of two independent powers 
became in a manner lost, etc.; so that the Romish Bishops, instead of en 
deavouring to resume their just rights, gave up all the power of the Church 
to Henry 8., under the blasphemous Title of Head of the Church. Queen 
Elizabeth seemed to give up those powers ; but then the Court of Delegates 
(the last resort) may be Laymen, &c. Under so good and pious a King as 
Charles 1st, this might have been remedied, and the Church restored to its 
Rights ; but the Bishops, thu good and great men, finding him ready to 
support the Church, exalted his power to such a degree, that there are to be 



200 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

seen Printed, with approbation at the end of Archbishop Laiid s Life, Letters 
of King Charles 1, written with the air and stile of a Supreme Ordinary, 
demanding an Account of the Bishops of the Government of their Dioceses, 
&c. It looks extremely odd for one of the Flock to undertake to govern the 
Shepherds. K. James 2 set up an High Commission Court, and named 
Archbishop Bancroft one of tlie Commissioners, who refused to act, saying 
the whole power given that Court was already in him as Archbishop. Had 
he gone farther, and forbid his Suffragans to act there, he might have been 
guilty of jii tnin/iiii i ; but would he have been guilty of Schism ? Would 
that have justified the Scots Bishops to have broken Communion with him ? 
&e. Suppose that by prorogations, Convocations are hindered from sitting, 
and that the Bishops thought it their duty to sit, and actually do, they are 
certainly guilty of jmciimnin ; but can it be said they are guilty of 
Schism, or that it would be lawful to break Communion with them ? In 
Scotland the breaking off from Home was in a tumultuous manner ; and 
when King James 1 settled Episcopacy, Scotland was so much inclined to 
Presbytery that he rather did what he could than what he wished to do. 
Even the Act of Parliament in K. Charles 2d s lleign, which Bishop Smith 
builds upon, was rather a temporary expedient to prevent a National Pres 
byterian-like Assembly, than a iixed settlement of the Church. And now 
that Presbytery nourishes, and the Church is in distress, and the people 
have juster notions of Church Government, can the Bishops be guilty of 
Schism for exerting some powers for the good of the Church, &c. ? I dare 
say misrepresentations have not been made of Mr. Smith, but to him, &c." 

21. (Copy) Bishop Smith, Xovr. 1 2, 17-1-1, to Mr. David Fife, Deposed 
Clergyman in Dundee, wherein that ye Bishops of Scotland are guilty of 
Perjury, Schism, and lic-bellion, and therefore not rightful Bishops, and no 
Confirmation to he asked of them, &c. 

BISHOP SMITH S LETTER TO BISHOP KEITH. 

Referred to in 2 of Number IX. 

Pi. Pi. BR., It is great grief and vexation to me that I should have the 
misfortune to be engaged in a dispute w l you and my o y r Colleagues in 
Scotland. But in my judgement and conscience I m persuaded your late 
proceedings can by no means be justify d; and since I was called upon to 
give my opinion of y m , I think I am not much to be blamed if I did it w L a 
freedom w h the occasion scein d to me to require. I must confess I am still 
much of ye same mind I was before, and see no convincing reasons to alter 
my sentiments in the Papers you were plcas d to send me, w rh I shall now 
give you my sense of in the clearest manner I can. I have no Copies of my 
Letters except of the last I sent you, and y not perfect ; but doubt not ye 
several particulars you have extracted from y" 1 are faithfully Transcrib d ; 
and having carefully consider d y" 1 , I cannot understand of what use they 
will be to your cause, and how I now act inconsistently w rt q ( I have there 
said when ye matter is thoroughly examined, ye case, in my- apprehension, 
being much alter d from q l it was when most of those Letters were written. 
As to the passages about the Union which was made here, they can be 



EOBEET KEITH. 201 

nothing to the purpose ; for we made no new Canons, or Offices, or Kubricks. 
We did nothing contrary to the Laws either of our Church or State, but 
agreed to what was perfectly conformable to y m . We did not attempt to 
alter one word in our Office ; and since mix d Wine is Wine, as well as 
unmix d, the placing Wine beforehand privately mix d upon ye II. Table Tlie Mixed 
cannot be repugnant to the Kubrick, which prescribes placing Wine there. Cup 
And the last clause of ye Preface to ye Book of Common Prayer, giving ye 
Bishops power to interpret ye Kubricks, and put an end to all doubts and 
disputes about them, by taking Order for ye quieting and appeasing the 
same, so that the same Order be not contrary to anything contaiii d in ye 
Liturgy. We did no more than use our just power, and interpreted the 
Kubrick to mean mixt as well as pure Wine, as many other Bishops and 
Divines of our Church had done before us. We have thus kept w iu the due 
bounds of Law, and unless you can shew y l you have done the same in your 
late proceedings which I am confident you cannot it is very easy to dis 
cern your case and ours are not paralel. We have not in this affair departed 
one hairsbreadth from ye Constitution of our Church ; we have exercised no 
power but what y 1 has given us ; and if you had acted in the same cautious 
manner, it had been much happier both for yourselves and the Church. 
When I say y 1 ye Bishops of the Ch. of Eng. have the sole right over the 
Discipline thereof, I don t mean they have the sole right to make new Canons 
about Discipline, or new Offices or Kubricks ; for I know very Avell y l such 
things can t be done but in ye two full Provincial Convocations, composed Provincial 
as well of certain Presbyters as Bishops, and that when once such things are Convocations, 
establish d by this full authority, no lesser authority can alter them. And 
this was the very reason we gave why we could not admit the least altera 
tions in the Communion Office, when those who Averc for the Usages 
requir d it of us. All I meant by y l expression was, y l by the Laws of our 
Ch. ye Bishops have the sole right of interpreting ye Kubricks already made, 
and of directing the execution of ye Canons already settled ; and that all ye 
inferiours are to pay a due obedience to such lawfull directions. If, there 
fore, some Presbyters of ye Ch. of Eng. would not allow ye Bishops in all 
such matters an authority over y m , it can t be denied y l it look d very like 
setting up for y m selves, and advancing themselves to be either above, or at 
least equal, to their Bishops. 

Well, what of all this ? Will it follow y 1 ye Bishops way assume the 
sole right of doing things, when ye Laws -of ye Ch. in certain cases have 
enjoin d they must have ye concurrence of Presbyters ? Will it follow y ye 
Bishops alone can make new Canons and compose new Church Offices, or Bishops have 
do even any act of Discipline, when the Constitution of your Ch. gainsays no sole rights - 
and directs they shall have ye consent of some Presbyters ? In some Ch. 
ye inferiour Clergy have more privileges than in others, and particularly 
they have more in Scot, than in Eng. ; because the Bishops there can do no 
momentuous act of Jurisdiction without them. Now, it was never my 
intention to say anything ag the Canonical and Legal Rights of Presbyters : 
this is what I ara very sure I never so much as dreamt of. All I design d 
was to speak against Presbyters assuming liberties to themselves which ye 
Law had not given them ; which you can t pretend to be the case of those 
Presbyters who now oppose you ; and therefore unless you can prove y* ye 
Presbyters of Scot, refuse to obey the authority of ye Bishops, exerted 
according to ye Laws, it is in vain to imagine that they are now in rebellion 
VOL. n. 2 c 



202 



DISTRICT OF FIFE. 



fig 4 their right full superiours. For q" Bishops transgress the Laws and act 
ag f ye superiour autliority y made y" 1 , in y l case they cease to have any 
authority the greater and higher authority of a National Synod, ratified by 
ye Prince, invalidating the lesser and inferiour authority, proceeding con 
trary to it ; and consequently they are not ye right full superiors, and all 
their illegal acts are null. 

I was informed both by Mr. Clillan and you y some of your Presbyters 
were raising disturbances in your Ch., ag 1 ye just and lawful! autliority of ye 
Bishops, who had. as I presumed, done nothing repugnant to ye Laws either 
of your Church or State. I relied entirely upon your testimony in y 1 matter, 

Mr. Gillan and as being both of you persons whom I doubted not I could very well trust. 

others. Yov this I scrupled not to condemn all such schismatical practices; and 

upon your intimation that there was a design to desire me to concur in the 
Consecration of a Bishop, in order to promote such schismatical purposes 
(an overture which yet was never made to me or any o y r of my Colleagues, 
that I know of), I gave you assurances y none of us would ever come into 
such unwarrantable measures, upon supposition y" that you adher d strictly 
to your Constitution, as I hop d and then believed you did. I told you we 
knew our duty better than to stretch ourselves beyond our measure, or to 
extend our authority to your Province, where we have no right (that is, no 
ordinary right) to exercise any Jurisdiction; and that tis a wicked thing to 
intermeddle in the affairs of ano v r Province w out the consent of that Pro 
vince, such a practice being the way to entail perpetual Schisms upon ye 
Church. 

These were my sentiments then, and arc so still. But ye case appears 
now very different from q l I believed it to be when I wrote those words ; for 
upon your representation of ye matter, w <h I gave full credit to, believing 

teUi ngYstory. vou understood your own Laws better than I did, I doubted not the truth of 
what you told me, that some of ye then Presbyters were of a factious dis 
position, and of a seditious and schismatical humour, and had no regard to 
y r superiours behaving themselves like worthy men, and acting in a lawful 
and regular way. But those Presbyters who now desire us to assist v m , are 
not ye factious persons who raise new disturbances ; they are guilty of no 
designs which will not admit of a clear justification. They have done no 
more than to insist upon y 1 Canonical rights and privileges, and entreat us 
to defend y 1 " ag your manifest encroachments upon both ; and, therefore, 
tho we ought not ncaUc^/f/ to transgress our line, yet when we are called 
upon by persons in our Communion, who are oppressed for supporting ye 
Laws and Canons of ye National Ch., to defend them ag 1 the Bishops, who 
are openly, by y r inauthoritative proceedings, overturning ye frame of it, it 
can t be justly entitled " needlessly transgress our line," to use y 1 extraordi 
nary power God has intrusted us w l , in order to give some check to so 
flagrant an usurpation upon ye rights both of ye Church and State, w ch we 
are verily persuaded you in your late Synod have attempted. 

I confess I was very much a stranger to your Constitution, till I read 
your Minutes and ye Presbyters Paper ag 1 them. But I now find by looking 
into ye Account thereof given us by the Ch. Historians of both Nations, that 
ye indiction of all National Synods of your Ch. belong to his Majesty, by ye 

The King prerogatives of his Crown, and all Convocations of y 1 kind, without his 
License, are merely unlawful! ; and y 1 ye said Assembly shall consist not 
only of Bishops, but of Deans, Arch-deacons, and such of ye Ministry as 



EGBERT KEITH. 203 

shall be Elected by ye rest. This you can t but know was Synodically 
establish *! by ye highest Ecclesiastical authority in 1010, as appears from 
Spotiswood s History; and at ye restitution of Episcopacy by K. Charles ye 
2il, Mr. Collier, p. 887, tells us his Maj- v had nominated aiid presented Arch- Collier - 
bishops and Bishops to y r respective Sees, to exercise and enjoy the same 
authority with which ye Prelates governed y* Church in ye Eeign of his 
Royal grandfather : and, p. 892, he gives us ye Act of your Parliament for ye 
establishment of a National Synod, by which it was enacted that it, for ye 
lawfull members thereof, shall consist of ye Archbishops, Bishops, and 
Deans, of Archdeacons, Moderators of Meeting for exercise, and of one Pres 
byter of each meeting, &c. ; that this Synod is to meet when and where his 
Majesty shall appoint, and unless his Majesty or Commissioners be present, 
no National Assembly shall be kept. Tis farther enacted that no Canon, 
Order, or Ordinance shall be own d as an Act of ye National Synod, except 
y l which shall be agreed upon by ye President and major part of ye Members 
above specitied. This is ye Law both of your Church and State, which, 
Av out any manner of necessity, you have transgressed, and by the violation 
of which ye principal disturbances have been occasioned. This is the Law 
which all their Predecessors, both before and after ye Revolution, till a very 
few years since, have observed, particularly ye late excellent and prudent 
Bishop Ross, who never set about to make new Canons, &c., but believ d 
it most for ye peace of ye Church to see to the execution of the old. This 
another of your Countrymen, Mr. Sage, who well understood the Con- Bishops Ross 
stitution both of the Primitive Ch. and of your own, in his "Vindication," and Sage. 
&c., p. 177, calls ye only true and genuine Constitution of your Ch. ; and, p. 
178, he says that National Synods, by ye Constitution, consist always of 
Presbyters having definitive voices as well as Bishops ; and in p. 319 he 
asserts y by ye Scotish Constitutions, Bishops are limited to act, with the 
advice and consent of Presbyters, in making of Canons and performing 
Ordinations, and all other momentuous acts of Jurisdiction ; and, p. 350, 
" that the Scotish Bishops arc limited by the very Constitution to do nothing 
of consequence by themselves, and by consequence there is not now y 
hazard of arbitrary Government in Scotl." In which words is couch d a 
most severe reflection upon your late proceedings. Here we have ye judge 
ment of ye wisest men of your Ch., even after it fell into a persecuted state, 
expressly ag l you. You will then do well to consider upon what gixmnds 
you will be able to vindicate your late enterprises, and prove them consis 
tent w l your Ecclesiastical Constitution ; whether they arc not a direct 
encroachment upon ye just rights and privileges competent to secular powers 
in Ch. affairs ; and whether your declaration y you don t intend to encroach 
upon ye said just rights, is not a manifest protestation against fact, and con 
sequently altogether ineffectual to excuse you from such encroachment. 
And give me leave to ask these plain questions : Can those be rightfull 
Bishops, or even true Members of a National Church, who persist in thwart- Q uer i es 
ing the Constitution of it ? And is it anything less than Rebellion in 
Bishops to persevere in disobeying the just Laws of the Land, and Schism 
in acting countre to ye Constitution of your National Ch., and in raising 
factions and seditions to enforce obedience to ye inauthori/ed Commands ? 
This is what I m afraid you will never be able to answer. 

It is plain, then, who those are y l have been the authors of ye new 
disturbances ; who they are that forward and encourage schismatical designs, 



204 DISTEICT OF FIFE. 

and are bringing things to confusion and ruin. I therefore cannot but 
highly commend those who courageously stand in the gap, who oppose such 
desperate courses ; and I am clearly of the same opinion with the meek and 

Kcttlewell. pious Mr. Kcttlcwell, iii his Book of Christian Communion (see his Works, 
vol. 2, p. 595) " It is just ground (says he) to brake of from Bishops, if they 
make unrighteous usurpations and encroachments upon ye terms and condi 
tions of y r Communion. Both Bishops and Churches may turn tyrannical 
and arrogant usurpers upon y r Brethren s liberties, not admitting y r own 
Members to y r Communion without acknowledging and submitting to their 
unjustly and illegally assumed powers. And when they will allow Com 
munion to none, unless they are content to purchase it at such rates, good 
Christians may pass them by, and unite themselves to o-r Churches, where 
they will be more justly and fairly dealt with. The Communion of Chris 
tians is a Communion of Brethren upon brotherly terms ; not of captives 
who must submit to any terms, or bear q l hardships and encroachments are 
put upon them by their conquerors. They arc not bound to purchase unity 
by enslaving themselves, or any Brethren s Communion, by receiving their 
yoke, or giving up their own rights and liberties." If then you still insist 
upon your Clergy s paying obedience to your illegal Canons, and resolve, 
against Law and Justice, to bind these fetters close upon them, as plainly 

M Kenzie. appears you do, from your Letter to Mr. M Kenzie, and your late amazing 
separation from him, you plainly perceive who they arc that have already 
commenced ye Schism, and at whose door all ye sad consequences of so 
unjustifiable a step must ly. In such a case as this, the persons aggriev d 
have a right to seek a remedy from o y r neighbouring Bishops, if they can t 
find a cure for their troubles at home. And tho it be true that no Bishops 
ought to invade the rights of their other Brethren, acting in a regular and 
Canonical manner, yet it is as true that all Bishops are not only to attend 
yc government of ye flocks peculiarly committed to their charge, but ye care 
of the whole flock, in extraordinary cases, does likewise belong to y m , when 
yc interest of Iveligion is at stake, and the peace of yc Church broken by 
their Colleagues. "For," as S. Cyprian says, "the Episcopate is one, part 
of which each Bishop shares, so as to have a right in ye whole ; and tho we 
are many Shepherds, yet we feed but one flock, and are obliged to gather 
together and cherish all the sheep which Christ has purchased with His 
blood and passion. And if any of our College make a Schism, and endeavour 
to tear and waste the flock of Christ, let ye rest come in to y r rescue. If 
then your late Synodical proceedings, so plainly repugnant to ye Laws, have 
occasional a rupture in your Church, ye pastoral care being common to all 
who have ye oflice of Bishops, it is our duty to assist and support those who 
have been compelled to make their complaints against you ; and, in the first 
place, to admonish you in a friendly way to rescind and annul your too 
violent measures, which we hereby request and exhort you to do ; and if y* 

tserious threats shall not have the desired effect, then to provide for ye injur d Members of 

of Sclnsm. OIU . Communion in ye best manner we can. And if hereby a Schism is 
eutail d upon ye Ch., you will remember that we are not the persons that 
cause this mischief, but you, who throw off all love and regard for those 
faithfull sons of your Ch. who adhere to her Constitution, which you forsake 
and do all you can to subvert. But I hope you will, by resolving to return 
to your duty, and to a dutifull obedience to ye Laws of your Church, and to 
ye unity of it, which you have violated, make up the breach. This is what 



EOBEKT KEITH. 205 

we most heartily wish and earnestly beg of you. For, as it has been our 
endeavour hitherto, so tis now by this present Letter, to promote peace and R ecommen( j 
compose your differences as much as lies in our power. This alone is what Harmony, 
we aim at by our interposition, and we trust the God of peace and love will 
so melt your hearts that it will not be fruitless. 

In one of my Letters to you, I say that if a perfect harmony and una 
nimity among ye Bishops of Scot, could once be brought about, the ill 
humours of their inferiors would have but small influence. But here, good 
Sir, I did not mean a harmony and unanimity of any sort or in any thing 
that was bad, but only such a harmony and unanimity as was agreeable to, 
and would conspire in supporting, their Constitution. I little imagin d such 
an unanimity was endeavoured after as would entirely unhinge it, as I with 
sorrow find now to be the case. It was allways my avow d principle, which 
I have taken the best care I can to pursue, that Bishops should studiously 
adhere to the Constitution of their Church, and obey all the just Laws of 
the State about Ecclesiastical affairs. This you can t but know was the 
very plan upon which we proceeded in our late Union. But you Avill not 
endure your authority should be thus shackled. Both Church and State 
must give way to it. It resolves to be free and absolute, and will not *f ws an(1 
submitt to be regulated either by Canons or Laws. But while it thus dis 
dains to own any subjection, methinks it is somewhat unreasonable to 
challenge obedience from others, and loudly to complain of the ill humours, 
faction, and rebellion of inferiors, who disobey it on no other account but 
because itself is so ill dispos d as to be guilty of that very fault which it 
unjustly accuses them of. If the things commanded by this inferior 
authority were lawi ull, it were another case ; but how can they be lawfull 
when they are clean contrary to the Laws of a superior authority those of 
a National Synod and of the Prince ; both which powers conjoyn d have 
expressly limited the Episcopal authority, so that it cannot act in that 
absolute manner which you with so much vehemence contend for. 

You insinuate as if I was as much to blame for setting up and head 
ing a Communion opposite to the Bishops in Scotland, as Mr. Campbell was 
for doing so to the Bishops in England ; but still you rmist prove the 
two cases alike. You must shew that the English Bishops, as you have 
done, made Canons, or did something not warranted by the Laws Ecclesi 
astical and Civil ; and that Mr Campbell for that reason thought himself ^hop Camp- 
bound, for the good of the flock, who believ d it their duty to obey those bell in Eng- 
Laws, and consequently to disobey those Canons, to preserve them in the lanj> 
true Com" of the Church of England. Now, you cannot but be conscious 
the reverse of this is the truth ; and therefore Mr. Campbell s practices will 
not admit of any defence, unless you are of the same opinion with him, that 
the Church of England itself is schismatical, by having, through some pre 
tended defects, separated itself from the Primitive. In the next place, this 
insinuation supposes that there is in fact a Communion opposite to the 
Bishops in Scotland. If there is, then the question will be, which is the 
true Communion there and which is the schismatical. Now, this may easily 
be resolv d by considering which side sticks to the Constitution, and which 
has deserted it ; and then the result will be, that the side which sticks to it 
must be the true Com" of the National Church, and that the other is an 
entirely new, and consequently a schismatical Church, set up in opposition 
to the National. If, then, there is indeed a Schism, the Bishops who head 



200 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

Who MM? this new Cliurch or Com", and their adherents, must be the Schismaticks ; 

Schismatics? for, as the learned Dr. Ilickes, who understood the nature of Church Com" 
as well as any now living, says very pertinently, in his Book of the Consti 
tution of the Catholic Church, p. 200 " Obedience neither is nor can he 
due to Bishops which overthwart the local Customs and Constitutions of the 
places where they pretend to he Bishops." AYhat, then, must the true 
and faithfull [Members of a National Cliurch do, who, through the defection 
of all their Bishops from the Com 11 of it, are deserted by them, and arc left, 
as it were, in a state of widowhood ? Most certainly they have no other 
choice left but to apply to other Bishops of their Com" to aid them in their 
calamitous circumstances. Their own Bishops, by becoming s/w^/ym to the 
Constitution of their Cliurch, are become strangers to them, whose call and 
voices they arc not bound to hear; and therefore they naturally come under 
the more immediate care of other Bishops of the same Com", who, thu they 
are strangers in a Civil, yet arc not so in an Ecclesiastical sense, in a case 

Ddfenc^of 1 * 11 8 * tn ^ s imturo - ^ 5ut WG i iave n t yet headed a Com" opposite to yours. AYc 

his throat. rc willing to hope you will return to the same Com" your Predecessors were 
of. and will not finally It ave it . We wish you to reform your past mistakes, 
and then we shall with joy and all fraternal affection again acknowledge you 
to be true and lawful Bishops of the Church of Scotland; otherwise our 
heading those of our Com" among you will at length become absolutely 
necessary, and will not be a crime but a duty ; and this in the case now 
before us will not be stretching ourselves beyond our measure, or needlessly 
transgressing our line. For upon such an occasion, when the quiet of the 
Church is disturbed and its unity broke, we, as Catholick Bishops, ought to 
administer comfort and succour to the Flock committed in common to us, 
which is left without lawfull Shepherds, and implores our help against those 
who seek to enslave it. To act thus is not to act anything against just 
authority, but against an usurp d power, against rebellious and schismatical 
practices, against a violation of the Laws both of Church and State, against 
an invasion of the rights and liberties of your Brethren things you will 
never be able to clear yourselves of; which, therefore, I heartily pray to 
God, that both for your own and your Church s benelite, you may speedily 
ammend. 

You tell me that in one of my Letters, I applaud everything done in 

Synod of 1";S. your Synod in 17i>8. AYhat was done there I don t remember, neither 
have I the Minutes to consult. If there were any new Canons made by the 
Bishops alone, however I might applaud them then, when I had, I own, a 
very lame and imperfect notion of your Constitution, and charitably imagin d 
the Bishops would never attempt to break the laws of it I give it you under 
my hand that I utterly disapprove of them now, being clearly convinc d you 
have no more authority than we in that particular, which is none at all. 
The Bishops of the Church of England, during the time of the Picbellion, in 
the Pieign of K. C., etc., when they were under much greater distress than 
the Bishops of Scotland have been for many years, did not think themselves 
at liberty to do any thing contrary to the Laws still in force, notwithstand 
ing their Repeal by the usurping powers; and the Bishops of the same Cli., 
who have followed their example since the Revolution, have all along 
believ d the Laws both of Church and State still retain their power of oblig 
ing the conscience. The same may be said of your own Bishops who were 
ejected in K. "Wm. s time ; and how you came to fancy you are delivered 



EOBEET KEITH. 207 

from this obligation is, I confess, beyond my comprehension. Bishops arc 
undoubtedly subjects as well as other men, and they ought not to infringe 
what has been regularly establish d both in Synod and by the Laws of the 
State confirming the Synodical decrees ; and the Commission they have 
received from Christ will not warrant them to contravcen such superior 
authority, unless they can shew that such an establishment is contrary to Extempore 
the Laws of God. or that some urgent necessity requires something extra- Prayers, 
ordinary should be done for the publick advantage of the Church. In such 
particular cases, which very rarely happen (and such I take that of intro 
ducing a Liturgy to be, to prevent the nauseous tautologies, the rashness 
and confusion, not to say blasphemies, that cleave to extempore prayers), I 
grant it may be justly presum d that it is the intention of Lawgivers to 
dispense with their Laws : and then in the like circumstances as your 
Church is in. the care of it naturally returns to the Bishops and Pastours, 
to whom Christ committed it. But unless you can make it evident that all, 
or even any of your transactions in the late Synod, come under the case of 
Necessity, the Laws will have their due force against them, and render them 
of no validity. Let me then, I beseech you, ask Are any of your new 
Canons necessary ? Nay, was not your Church in a much more peaceable 
state before the enacting of them than since, and consequently are they so 
much as expedient ? Is it necessary for you, by your sole authority, to draw 
up farther catechetical instructions than are contained in the Liturgy ? And 
have not the youth both in your Church and ours been sufficiently instructed Questions, 
by the use of the present Catechism, being diligently explained by those 
whose duty it is to instruct them ? And will you affirm there is any manner 
of occasion for a new Ordinal ? Please to answer these plain questions, and 
then I will no longer oppose but vindicate you. 

There is one of your Canons which I cannot but particularly take notice 
of, as it concerns you rather more than any other of your Colleagues, and that 
is the 9th, about the Exemption. By virtue of this Canon you have, during panon of 
the vacancy of the See of Edinb., exempted your Congregation from that See. Exemption. 
Now, besides that the exemption of a parcel of a Bislioprick, made by the 
remaining Bishops alone, without staying for the consent of the future 
Bishop and his Clergy, and also that of the State, seems a manifest injury 
to that See, I must put you in mind, and I wish you had before considered 
it, that such exemptions arc against the Laws both of your Church and 
State; since, as appears from Archbishop Spotswood, p. 514, these have 
taken all possible care to remove and prevent them in the following words : 
"Whereas there be in sundry Dioceses some Churches belonging to other 
Bishops, that care be taken to exchange the Churches one with another, that 
all the Dioceses may be contiguous, if possibly they may be performed." 
Perhaps you will in defence of your Canon say that some few of the Bishops 
of England have exempt Chappels in or near London, and therefore why 
may not you ? But to this I answer That the English Bishops have not 
this privilege merely from an Episcopal Canon, but from the consent of all 
parties concern d, viz., that of the Bishop in whose Diocese the Chappel is, 
and that of the Pope also, and of the King; for you can t but know that 
these Exemptions were first made in Popish times ; and since the Ileforma- 
tion, they have been confirmed by Act of Parl. in Hen. Sth s time. When 
you can shew such authority for your Exemption, nobody Avill dispute that 
privilege, thu there is no footstep of it in the primitive ages. But if you 



208 



DISTEICT OF FIFE. 



M Kcnzie : 
Falkener. 



Scottish 
Liturgy. 



Cotton and 
Bowdler. 



can t, will not those you call Rebels be apt to say that you exalt yourselves 
above Popes and Kings, and the Pontifical and Eegal authority must yield 
to yours ? I am afraid, notwithstanding your Canon, Mr. Mackenzie will 
have a very strong plea against you, and I can t but be concern d to find you 
have parted with him upon this account. This your separation from a faith- 
full Presbyter, who abides by the Establish d Constitution of your Church, 
seems to amount to a publick declaration you have left the Communion of 
the Establish d Church; and then yours is a schismatical assembly, and no 
one who has a regard for his spiritual interest ought to join in it. This is 
the learned Mr. Ealkencr s judgement in his 1. ilia-tux J- .cclcxiaxtica, p. 51, 
where lie says that one of the conditions requir d in any particular fixt 
Assembly, embracing the Christian Faith and Worship in the place of our 
residence, to make it our duty, upon account of the Christian unity, to joyn 
therein, is this that the Assembly we joyn in doth not maintain an unirar- 
r/niinli/i xr/ntr<ttion from the Communion of the Established Church ; for here 
to joyn in Communion is to joyn in separation, and is like Barnabas and the 
other Jews joining with S. Peter, who all walked contrary to the truth of the 
Gospel, in withdrawing from the Communion of the Gentiles at Antioch, 
and the Communicating with such a separating Assembly would be a breach 
of that Apostolical Command of avoiding those who cause divisions. And 
we may observe that the joining in mrd/cxs separations, being a sin against 
the commands of Christ, which require Christian Unity and Connection, 
cannot be warranted l>y any authority upon cartJi." 

You have cited several passages out of my Letters, wherein I have given 
the preference to the Scottish Liturgy; but tis obvious to observe that I 
don t mean it is better than ours in things of any moment. It is only in 
circumstantials, not in the substance or essence of the Ministration, it is a 
little fuller expressed in some particulars, which yet are sufficiently provided 
for in ours. But at the same time I allow it to be better in this respect ; yet 
I assert that ours is better with respect to the present circumstances of the 
Church, it being a better instrument of preserving the strict union of both 
Churches, and also of maintaining peace and unity among yourselves. And 
this I have not only asserted but proved in mine of (Mr. 9, and it is my 
opinion my arguments cannot be answered : this, however, I am sure of, 
that you have not answered them. For which reason I cannot but complain 
of yo\u- partial citations out of that Letter, with regard to the Liturgies ; 
whereas, if you had fairly quoted all that relates to that business, every 
Reader, I am persuaded, must be convinced of this truth, that it would be 
much happier for both Churches if no other Com. Office but ours were, 
during our present situation, used in them. I expect, therefore, from your 
candor, that you will do me so much justice as to send Mr. Lyon, to whom 
you have sent the Excerpts, a Copy of the most considerable part of my 
Letter, Dated 9 Octr., beginning with these words " I thought once here to 
have made an end, but since I know you expect to be informed," &c. And 
this necessary request I make because I have not an exact Copy of that 
Letter, and that Mr. Lyon may communicate the whole to my worthy 
friends, Mr. Cotton and Mr. Bowdler, to whom he has shewed the scrapes, 
in order to prejudice them ag l me. Let this be honestly done, and then they 
will, it may be, see things in another light than you endeavour to put them 
in. What I have strongly pressed in that Letter is, that there might be an 
universal uniformity in the Publick Worship. And do not you desire the 



ROBERT KEITH. 209 

same ? Are not these, good Sir, your own words : " Is there any person, Defence of 
either within or without this Kingdom, so envious as to bo sorry to see any tho English 
Litnrtjij received with universal approbation ? Ought not every true Chris- Lltul 8y - 
tian, instead of obstructing, to wish for such an happy event (i.e., for a 
Nation to be fully united in one mind and voice), and when it comes, if ever 
it shall come, to holdup his hands and say, I nt/xr/l In iln> Lnnl ! " Now it it 
would be envious in any person to be sorry to see any Litan/i/ received with 
universal approbation, pray what sort of people must they be who, I fear, 
would be right sorry to see the English so received? And if it would be 
happy for a Nation to he fully united in one mind and voice, would it not ho 
a still much happier event if both Nations were so? AYhv then do some, 
who I hope are true Christians, use tbeir utmost efforts to obstruct it ? Bat 
this I know is a tender point, and therefore shall say no more about it. I 
shall only take the liberty to add that, notwithstanding the very weak objec 
tions made ag it, our Office is as agreeable to our B. Saviour s Institution, 
and also to the doctrine and practice of the Primitive Church in all necessary 
points, as any Office whatever; and this we are, God be thanked, very able 
to demonstrate against all gainsayers. 

But, however, to put an end to this part of the dispute, we are willing 
to compromise the matter. We shall not insist upon the sole use of our 
Liturgy, altho we think there is much to be said for it from its having the Com P r misc - 
first and sole possession. We are willing to lay aside our fears and sus 
picions, and to hope it is your settled judgement that both Offices are in 
sense and substance the same. Now, in order to give us a full assurance of 
this, we desire that the Bishops will unanimously make a Declaration that 
they approve of the use of the Church of England s Office, as well as of their 
own, and don t refuse to Communicate where it is used ; and to prevent and 
obviate the calumnies of the malicious, that they will promise sometimes 
(suppose once a year) to officiate by it ; and that they will re-establish the 
1st Article of the Concordatc, wherein the English Office is put upon an 
equal foot with their own : and that they will strictly adhere to this Article, 
not deviating in the least from the Words or Kubricks of either Liturgy, or 
making any alteration in them, either by mutilating, adding, or transposing, 
otherwise it is manifest the Article of the Concordate is not observed; for if 
the Offices are any way altered, tis plain they are neither the Scottish nor 
the English, but other Offices of men s own devising ; and if once a change 
is admitted, it is hard to tell where it will end. We are well informed what 
changes are made in both Offices, and particularly we know that the Office 
commonly used as the Scottish, is in several instances different from the 
genuine one Published in K. Ch. Ist s time. And besides, it is notorious 
enough that some interlard it with Dr. Rattray s additions, mentioned in 
Bishop Dunbar s Letter. Now, we desire that no such unauthorised practice 
be permitted for the future, since nothing but schism and confusion can be 
the issue of it. And if you will condescend to put the matter upon this foot, 
we shall then be satisfied there is a perfect agreement between the two Scotch Litrrgy 
Churches in this matter, for that you will thereby give full evidence there is illterlfmte(1 - 
no necessity for the alterations in either of the Liturgies ; and you may 
depend upon it we will give you all the assistance we can in promoting this 
settlement. 

Bishop Alexander is displeased with me in supposing there was a design 
of extirpating our Office ; but certainly to take away its establishment, which 

VOL. II. 2 1) 



210 



DISTRICT OF FIFE. 



Extirpating 
the English 
Office. 



Bishop Rat- 
tray s Canon. 



Bp. Dunbar. 



was the Concordate, looks extremely like such a design. For suppose the 
Engl. Parl should declare the Act of Uniformity vacated, would not every 
man conclude the purpose was to extirpate the Liturgy, especially, too, if 
the Par! should at the same time strongly recommend another ; for this 
would demonstrate that tho the former might he tolerated for a while, yet 
the rooting it out by degrees was intended, in order to the establishment of 
the latter Liturgy. * Unless, therefore, the 1st Article of the agreement be 
restored, we must believe the extirpation of it was in view ; and then neither 
we nor your own Ivebells, as you call them, will be able to forbear guessing 
at the reasons of it, and laying them open in the most publick manner, 
which the necessary defence of the Church of England will require us. 

As to your intention of introducing St. James s Liturgy into the Publick 
Worship, our belief of it, I assure you, did not proceed from any injurious 
representation some people gave us, as Mr. Alexander supposes, but from 
what seemed to us the most obvious and natural sense of Bishop Dunbar s 
Letter and your answer to it, backed with your proceedings in the Synod, 
Avhcrein you exactly folloAV Mr. Dunbar s advice. And this was not only 
my opinion, whom you may perhaps imagine to be prejudiced, but also 
that of rny Colleagues, upon their careful perusal of your Minutes. Mr. 
Dunbar desires you to establish Bishop Piattray s Canons, and not tit ////s 
time to enjoin the Scottish Liturgy, but only to recommend it, and that for this 
reason because one more prinutire ami c.ccellenl, irhu-li co*t J>r. 11. much labour, 
tiixl irJiicli lie litm left in a rcri/ j air Jl/.S ., tnuij one d<n/ be Published ami rece/red 
irith itiiicertuil ]>probtion. You have exactly followed his advice as far as 
you could for the present ; you have established those Canons ; you have 
iiot at //(/ .< time enjoined, but only strongly recommended the Scottish 
Liturgy. You likewise say in your Letter that his sentiments arc in all 
respect* just in thimjs touched upon I/;/ him, and that he will find by the Minutes 
how just a regard you have for them. Now we know that a fair MS. of Dr. 
R. s had been sent up to bo Published ; and not imagining there was any 
other fair MS., we, as any man would, thought we had good reason to infer 
that this, when Published, was to be made use of, especially since the only 
reason (as we verily believed from the wording of the Letters and your pro 
ceedings) why the Scottish Liturgy was not then enjoined, but only recom 
mended, was because you waited for S. James s Liturgy, as Mr. Dunbar 
advised you, and as you seemed to us to intend by your saying his senti 
ments in things touched upon are in all respects just. You say in your 
Declaration " That you have taken no notice of that expression of Bishop 
Dunbar s neither in the Canons nor your Letter ; so far otherwise, that by 
recommending the use of the Scottish Liturgy, you have plainly shewn you 
intended no further alterations." To this might very well be answered that 
you have not taken express notice in your Letter of any of the particulars 
in Mr. Dunbar s, but have commended them all in the lump. Is it not then 
natural to suppose you intended to commend the particular of the fair MS. 
as well as any of the rest ? And the recommending the use of your Liturgy 
is very far from shewing you intended no further alterations : it rather shews 
the direct contrary ; because, as any one might reasonably collect, you 
recommended it only for the present till the other should be Published, in 
order to be recommended if not enjoined by you, as more primitive and 
excellent. Now, I will be judged by any one whether our construction of 
Bishop Dunbar s Letter, &c., considering all circumstances, is not very 



ROBERT KEITH. 211 

natural. But, however, since Mr. D unbar himself, whose age we reverence, 
and who must know his own meaning best, solemnly affirms he was for no 
changes at present in the Publick Worship ; and since you and Mr. Alex 
ander declare that neither yourselves, nor any other of the Bishops, intended 
any further alterations, we hereby assure you we are fully satisfied with 
your Declaration, and arc heartily glad you have no such intention ; and 
tho, as you may perceive, AVG had not the least thought of injuring you by 
maliciously putting this interpretation upon your words and actions, yet we 
very willingly ask your pardon for it. 

There is yet one passage in Mr. Dunbar s last Letter to you, which you 
may easily imagine we must be concerned at "If you have not seen (says Bishop Rat 
he) the MS. that I recommended, I now tell you it had two columns on each tray s practice, 
page. In the 1st was the Scottish Com. Office; in the other were such 
parcells of the Liturgies of S. James and S. Clement as he (Bishop Rattray) 
thought desirable or, it may be, iiece-wiri/ to be brought in at their proper 
marked places. And this, I think, but am not sure, was his practice when he 
administered the H. Eucharist in his own house." I am sorry to find this was 
that worthy person s practice ; but, having a respect for his memory, I shall 
make no reflections upon it, and shall only observe that his example and, it 
may be, encouragement, has induced others to do the same, as I am well 
assured you will find upon a strict inquiry. 

Tho you intend no further alterations in the Communion Office, yet p ,. .,. 
your Minutes inform us that you intended alterations in the Catechism and Alterations, 
the Ordinal. Now this gives some ground to suspect you design the same 
in other Offices ; and most certainly you have as much right in the one 
case as in the other. This, methinks, savours too much of an innovating 
spirit ; but you must be sensible this right which you assume will always be 
contested with you, and, I may venture to foretell, will never be able to 
prevail against your own Church Establishment, by the Rules of which you 
can compile no new Offices by your own authority. As to the Ordinal, tis 
plain you ought not to set the English aside, because it appears from the 
custom and practice of your Church, which you can t contradict, that it is 
authorized both by your Church and State. I grant your own Ordinal, 
having the same pubhck authority to warrant it, may likewise be used in 
the Consecration of Bishops. But how defective it is with regard to the 
Ordination of Priests and Deacons, appears from the following words in Mr. 
Collier s History, vol. ii., p. 708 :- " Wederburn acquainted the Archbishops 
with some defects in the Scottish Ordinal, as, 1st, that the Order of Deacons 
was made no more than a Lay Office; and, 2dly, in the admission to the Defects of 
Priesthood, the essential words for conferring Orders were omitted. When the Ordmal - 
the King understood their Book was thus remarkably short, he commanded 
Laud to give them the choice of this alternative : either to admit the Eng. 
Book, or else to rectify their own in these two important instances. And in 
the King s instructions, the Archbishops, &c., are required that in their Book 
of Ordination, in giving Orders to Presbyters, they should keep the words of 
the English Book without any change Receive the Holy Ghost, rfr." Now 
it does not appear there was ever any such alteration made as the King en 
joined, the Episcopal Government being soon after in a tumultous manner 
overturned. But it is very plain there was a necessity for this change, and 
therefore no question but the Bishops and Pastors, especially when enjoined 
to do so by the King, might provide for the supplying of such material 



212 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

defects. Hence, when Episcopacy was restored, nil parties concerned in 
giving authority to a Form of Ordination concurred in allowing the use of 
the English, hut probably not so as to exclude your own Form in the Con- 

Severe lnts . . . 

as to Scotch secrating of Bishops, its sufficiency for that purpose being agreed to by all. 
Episcopal Now, since you can t pretend there is a necessity for farther changes, it 
Ritual. follows that upon all such occasions you must cither use the Old Ordinal 

without any new additions, or else the English, these being the only 
Ofiices owned by your Church. If, therefore, you should use any new Office, 
you act contrary to the Publick Establishment, and whoever is Ordained 
thereby cannot be a Bishop of your Established Church ; neither can any of 
those who either Ordain him or allow of his Ordination. For by this un 
lawful act they would set up and make themselves Bishops of a new Church, 
distinct and separate from the Established, and from the Church of England, 
which is in Communion with it. I beg, therefore, you will be content with 
your present Offices, and let not an itch of novelty hurry you on to under 
take what you can never defend. 1 had not the opportunity, tho 1 saw it in 
the Lawyers Library, carefully to examine your Ordinal; but as to ours, I 
believe it is as agreeable to the monuments of the remotest antiquity, as you 
or any other learned person can draw up. 

I n turn you thanks for informing me that you have an original Act of 
Ordination, performed NiTundimi nun im it rlnnii Ecclcsid Scniicmin . But you 
know, according to the Proverb, "One swallow does not make a summer; 
and. besides, these words might be perfectly true tho it was performed by 
Bo either our Ofiice, which your Church had naturali/ed and made her own; so that 
English. Mich an Act seems no convincing proof that the person was not Ordained by 

our Form. And, lastly, if this was the Ordination of a Presbyter, it is too 
plain the validity of it might be questioned, thro the insufficiency of the 
Ritual. And. indeed, I do not much wonder at such an Act in IGtSO, since 
your Bishops and Clergy had, before the Revolution, very loose notions 
concerning Ordination, and admitted Ministers, merely Presbyterians, to 
officiate as Clergymen without an Episcopal Commission. But we need 
make no more words about this. Keep close cither to the Scot, or Engl. 
Ordinal in the Consecration of Bishops, and to the Scot, or Engl. Com. 
Office, and nobody then will raise any objection. 

I don t understand for what purpose you cite a passage of one of my 
Letters to Mr. Gillan, about a Countreyman of yours (one Clerk, if I 
remember right), who fled out of the Kingdom for getting a woman with 
Clerk s child; and being in Deacon s Orders, was afterwards a Curate at Jarrow, in 

Fornication, this neighbourhood ; and being recommended to the Bishop of Edin r to be 
made a Priest, by some of our Communion at Newcastle, who knew nothing 
of his crime, was Ordained by him, and now acts under Mr. Campbell at 
London. I can assure you I had no baud in recommending him for Orders, 
and therefore how this affects me I can t imagine. If somebody has en 
deavoured to blacken me upon this man s account, I hope you will let me 
know, and give me an opportunity of clearing my reputation ; for he is one 
I never saw in all my life, nor heard of till after he became Mr. Campbell s 
Presbyter. 

The affair of Mr. Fife is a point of some delicacy, and it will be a diffi 
cult matter to speak of it without giving offence ; but I am obliged to say 
something, and therefore I shall touch it as tenderly as the nature of the 
thing will bear. And 1. You cannot but be apprized that, at the very time 



EGBERT KEITH. 213 

when I was at Edin 1 , Mr. Fife s Censure was construed, both by the people 
of Dundee and others, to be a designed affront put upon the English Office ; 
and you may please to remember, that when I asked you what was the 
ground of the quarrel, you told me in these very words, "it Avas about the Flfe s Case- 
Liturgy." Now, you can t imagine but such a seemingly, at least, contume 
lious usage of our Church is somewhat hard of digestion ; and I believe, if it 
were your own case, you would be as impatient under it as I was. 2. 1 
grant that Mr. Fife s intrusion (abstractly considered, without those allevi 
ating circumstances which I gave you an account of in my Letter) was an 
act highly provoking and schismatical, and deserving the severest censure. 
But you know I gave you in my Letter good reason to believe there were 
mistakes and misunderstandings on both sides, and that therefore consider 
ing the bad consequences of such censure, it was much better to use tender 
ness than the utmost rigour. You have my words before you, and therefore 
I need not repeat them. This I am sure of, that if you had transcribed that 
part of my Letter as you should have done, and as I now request you to do, 
the passages you have extracted would not bear that invidious sense which 
you would insinuate, o. If Mr. Fife s Intrusion was irregular, so likewise 
was your Censure, it being contrary to the very nature and end of Church 
Discipline, which is for edification and not for destruction ; and also contrary 
to the sentiments and practice of the Primitive Church to come to extremi 
ties, where a multitude is concerned, which yourself was pleased to acknow 
ledge. And, therefore, I take leave to answer to Bishop Alexander s 
question What was then left for the Bishops to do other than what they 
did ? that the severity of Discipline in such a case was not to be exerted, 
lest the Church should be involved in a dangerous Schism ; and such a 
multitude of offenders had better been tolerated than the Church be divided. 
1. Before Mr. Fife s Deposition, the Coiicordate, upon which the Establish 
ment of the English Office stood, was vacated, and the Scottish Office alone 
was to be recommended in the strongest manner. Now, this act of yours 
was enough to make any body conclude, with Mr. Fife and his people, that 
you had no very kind inclinations towards our Ofiice ; and the Deposition, 
coming upon the back of it, might reasonably enough induce one to believe His Deposition 
it one of the xtrunt/ tintiiiicrx of recommending the other, altho you may 1 c a 
perceive it had a quite contrary effect. It is very plain by declaring it 
vacated you broke the Coiicordate, which was the Original Contract made 
by yourselves, and the very condition upon which the obedience of the Clergy 
and people was due to you. Now, this is at least as unjustifiable a step as 
Mr. Fife s Intrusion ; and when you had thus by your own mouths given 
them a discharge from farther obeying you, the consequence must be, that 
any censure you should afterwards pass, could not affect those who were 110 
longer under an obligation of duty to you. 5. In this Deposition you did 
not observe the regular course of proceeding. The Canon of your Church, 
relating to this affair, is this (see Sage s "Vindication," p. 178) "In the 
Deposition of Ministers, the Bishop associating to himself the Ministers of 
the Bounds, Avherc the Delinquent served, he is then to make trial of his 
fault, and upon just cause found, to Deprive." Now, the three Bishops 
ordered to attend the trial, were not Ministers of the Bounds ; therefore, the 
cause was brought, cornm IIOH jiidice, before a Court which had no lawful 
Jurisdiction, and consequently the sentence passed there was invalid. G. If 
before the Deposition in your Synod, illegally and uncanonically assembled, 



214 



DISTRICT OF FIFE. 



Pleading 
urgently for 
his reinstate 
ment. 



Bishop Smith you, by taking upon you to make new Canons and Decrees, contrary to the 
siding strong Laws of your Church, shewed yourselves resolved to pay no farther regard 
to your National Constitutions, and consequently ceased to be any longer 
rightfull Bishops of the National Communion ; it is a great question with 
me whether you had any right to inflict a Censure upon Mr. Fife, who was 
a Presbyter of that Communion, and whether he is not therefore still rectxs 
in curia, notwithstanding that censure. 

Now, put all these things together, and then consider if impartial people 
would not judge it at least doubtful whether you or he have offended most. 
It is certainly, then, the best way for all sides to follow the Apostle s advice 
"Put on therefore, bowels of mercy, kindness, humbleness of mind, 
meekness, longsuffering, forbearing one another and forgiving one another, if 
any man have a quarrel ag 4 any ; even as Christ forgave you, so also do ye." 
But even suppose he is the only delinquent, it may, I hope without offence, 
be said others have been so in a like kind. Whatever measure, then, lias 
been meted to you, let the same be measured to another. What has been 
done in your own case, even so do to your brother ; if you have received 
gentle usage, it is but equitable you should return it. This seems to be 
good and Christian counsel, and we trust you will follow it, which we 
heartily beseech you to do, as one necessary means tore-establish the peace 
of the Church. And we hope you will have some regard to our intercession, 
which we arc willing to believe would be sufficient for the saving both your 
honour and authority. Nobody doubts but the Church may assert or relax 
its Discipline as it sees cause. Ecclesiastical Law is not a Rule of indis 
pensable obligation to the Church, but such as it may and ofttimcs has 
receded from, on great reason and necessity. What Rules the Church 
makes, it may abate and go off from in particular cases, as need shall 
require, and as may best serve those ends for which it made them. To heal 
the division made by the Donatists, Melchiad.es and the Synod of Rome, as 
S. Austin relates, declared their readiness to send communicatory Letters 
even to those who were Ordained by Majorinus ; and decreed that whereso 
ever, by reason of the breach, there were two Bishops, he should be Con 
firmed who was first Ordained, which S. Austin applauds as an innocent and 
perfect, a providential and pacifick, judgement. And afterwards, in the 
Council of Carthage, A.D. 419, whereat S. Austin himself was present, 
concerning the reception of the Donatists into the Church, it was decreed 
that the Donatist Clergy, on their return to the Church, shall be received 
into their proper Honours or Degrees of Orders ; like as tis manifest they 
have been received in Africk in the times foregoing. These are noble pre 
cedents for relaxing and making abatements in cases that will not bear the 
extremity or rigour of the Law ; and as it becomes all pious, meek, and 
humble Bishops who have any regard for the Unity of the Church (the 
maintaining of which is the end of all Discipline), to lay aside all their 
passions and resentment, and charitably to follow them. 

I now come to propose to you as the result of all I have said, the 
method which we conceive may be a proper ground for restoring perfect 
tranquillity and an universal good understanding, and leave it to your most 
serious consideration. 

1. That you suspend sine die the execution of all new Canons, as being 
made contrary to your National Church Constitution, and that you never 
attempt the like for the future, but content yourselves, after the laudable 



Proposals. 



ROBERT .KEITH. 215 

example of your Predecessors, with executing the old ones already canoni- 
cally and legally enacted ; and that in all your Constitutions for the time to 
come, you consider only of the best means of doing so. 

2. That you re-establish the first Article of the Concordate, wherein the 
two Liturgies are put upon an equal foot ; and that in order to the right 
and true observation of that Article, you direct all the Clergy not to deviate 
in the least title from the Words or Eubricks of either of them, neither 
adding to, mutilating, or transposing any part thereof; and for stopping all 
misapprehensions, that you, and all Presbyters iising the Scottish Liturgy, 
shall at least once a year Officiate by the English, to demonstrate your 
perfect agreement and Communion with the Church of England, and that 
you will declare you will Communicate indifferently where either Liturgy is 
used ; and lastly, that you will make no alteration in any other part of the 
Book of Com. Prayer, or in the Forms of Ordination, but will, in the Con 
secration of Bishops, either use the Scottish or English Form, and in the 
Ordination of Priests and Deacons the English only. 

3. To shew your earnest desire of perfectly establishing the peace and 
unity of the Church, that you will please to declare, that either out of your 
own free grace and favour, or upon our request and mediation, which you 
please, you are willing to relax the rigour of Discipline, and to receive 
any Clergyman, in his proper character and station, and his people to Com 
munion, who, having been guilty of no other crime but simply separating 
from you, or who being, under censure for such separation only, shall return 
to your Communion. 

And now, dear Sir, I have laid open to you my whole mind about the 
momentuous affair, and hope Avhat I have said and offered will not be alto 
gether unregarded. You may depend upon it we have no other point in 
view but restoring peace upon the surest and most lasting foundation ; and 
if we could once see any probability of that, it would be matter of great joy 
to us. I thank you for your kind admonitions, to which it will be your own 
faults if a just respect is not paid. Do but your own duty, and then it will 
be very true that wo neither have just call nor title to mix in your Church 
affairs. We have not been yet called upon nor sollicitcd by any body to do 
what you speak of, whatever you may suspect ; and 1 hope we never shall. 
For, besides that you may easily suppose nobody would be very fond of 
being engaged in such troublesome affairs, you may be assured it would be 
the highest satisfaction imaginable to see every difference composed, and all 
feuds and animosities extinguished; and I -wish what is here said may con 
tribute in some measure towards so desirable an end. And thu it must be 
confessed you have not given us any great encouragement to make any 
application to you, yet to show you how desirous we are of corresponding 
with you in an amiable and brotherly way, I give you my word that what is 
here said, shall be communicated to no person whatever in Scotland besides 
yourself, unless it appears there is no preserving your friendship upon just 
and reasonable terms, which I shall be infinitely concerned at ; and even if 
that unhappy case should fall out (which God forbid), I shall give you notice 
of my intentions to Publish this as my vindication. In the meantime, for 
peace sake, I am very willing to bear with patience those aspersions which 
your spreading of these Papers, as I have cause to suspect, may occasion 
some to load me with. However, you must give me leave to send a Copy 
of this to Mr. Cotton and Mr. Bowdler, to whom Mr. Lyon has shewn the 



216 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

Excerpts ; for I must own I can t endure my reputation should suffer in the 
opinion of persons whose friendship I have so much reason to value. And 
thus, dear Sir, being well nigh tired, I conclude myself, 

Your very affect. Brother and faithful Monitor in Christ, 

G. SMITH. 



Pi. Pi. and Dear Brother, I have perused the ahove Letter to Bishop 
Keith, and the, there may he some particulars in it wherein perhaps I might 
have chose to express myself differently ; yet I do very readily and heartily 
assent to the three propositions at the close of it, which I could wish (for 
the sake of all parties any way concerned in these unhappy affairs) might he 
complied with, as the proper and solid basis on which to repair the breaches 
already made. For thus, in my humble opinion, might jealousies be extin 
guished, all unreasonable clamour stopped, and the due exercise of authority 
supported and preserved, which otherwise must be for ever crushed between 
the two extremes of haughtiness and contempt. And it is also my earnest 
Prayer to God, the Author of Peace and Concord, that Peace may speedily 
be restored to His Church, that we may ever be inseparably united with our 
Brethren of Scotland in the bonds of Love and Charity, and that we may 
always live and correspond with them as Brethren and Colleagues indeed. 

That God would vouchsafe His blessing to these and all other laudable 
endeavours for the peace and edification of His Church, is, dearest Brother, 
the most cordial Prayer of 

Your most affect, humble Servant, 

IiOJJT. GORPOUX. 



Lftti r fi nm Jlixluiji J \f<tiniitt)i <>J F.iiijhtinl In ll/x/io 

II. Eevd. Sir, I have carefully read and considered all the Papers 
you sent me relating to the unhappy differences in Scotland, and own it 
gives me the greatest concern to find that our Brethren there have made 
many deviations from their legal Constitution. I hope by this time they 
may he sensible of the mischiefs that must necessarily attend it, and flatter 
myself that the brotherly advice you send our good Brother, Mr. Keith, may 
have some weight with him and his Colleagues, in order to put a stop to 
this impending evil. I would hope what you propose might effectually do 
it; and as for my own part (and in this I know you will agree w l me), I 
should be content with whatever themselves would do, in the healing way, 
to preserve that harmony which should subsist among themselves, and with 
us their Sister Church. " This is all we have in view ; and that Almighty 
God would inspire all Governours with the Spirit of Meekness and Charity, 
and their subjects with Duty and Obedience, is the earnest Prayer of, 

Dear Sir, your ever, c., 

Tnio. MAWMAX. 

Stockton, June 10, 1744. 

Follow in Bishop Smith s hand to Bishop Keith : You will please to 
send these Papers separately to your Colleagues, with my respects and 
service, and communicate their sentiments as well as your own as soon as 
conveniently vou can. 



EGBERT KEITH. 217 

Bishop Keith to his Colleagues. 

E. E. and D. B rn , By Bishop Smith of England his Letter to mo of 
ye 4th inst., yen would see that he had taken it in his head to tender some 
proposals to us. I once thought to have desired him to send us none of his 
proposals ; however, I forbare, as suspecting that nothing would have force 
to divert him from his favourite purpose. The proposals arc now come to 
my hand, contain d in the hody of a very prolix and verbose Letter, and w* 
a request likewise that I may transmit ye same to you, together with two 
other Letters address d to him from two of his Colleagues in EngL, one of 
them a native of this Kingdom, and both of them it appears men of a moro 
moderate temper than himself. This Bishop, you ll perceive, expects to 
have returns from us ; but, for myself, if I continue of the mind I am now 
in, truly he shall receive none from me ; for I neither think we have given 
him any ground to make such proposals to us, nor do I conceive how I could 
give a return to his Letters without employing some observations and 
expressions which, among men of our Order, decency may rather require to 
be let alone. He has talked of late in such a magisterial strain " You 
ought," " you should," " we must," &c. and with such an air of superiority, 
as if all we in Scotland were his petty Suffragans, or that the talents of his 
mind were as far above ours as is the size of his estate. He deals so much 
in the art of quibbling, that any reply would not only be tedious but likewise 
furnish him with a new subject for filling up some more sheets of paper, of 
which on his part there would be no end. He makes and unmakes us 
Bishops ; he directs, confirms, and annulls our sentences at his pleasure. 
The peal of Constitution which he rings continually in our ears, can be only 
intended to teaze us with the sound of saying something and yet saying 
nothing. He prides himself in being always on the healing side, and offers 
us his service for that good purpose. But we may justly say to him this 
Proverb " Physician, heal thyself," for we are not ignorant of the sores in 
his own country. He brags as it were of his great influence to create peace 
to us. God be thanked, we are in profound peace thro all ye nation, a few 
seditious persons in Ed r cxcepted, and who arc only supported and whetted 
on by this intermeddling stranger. I now see and acknowledge my error in 
corresponding with this person contrary to ye advice of our deceased dear 
Brother, the most excellent Dr. Eattray, with whom I never could prevail to 
exchange one Letter w l Bishop Smith", so far as I remember. He always 
said he suspected him to be a dangerous, and I now add a fashious, man. 
Therefore, as I now at last begin to know the man and his communica 
tion, I judge it adviscable for me to let him talk and abound in his own 
sense ; altho what I here say is by no means intended as a Rule to you, my 
Brethren, how to comport yourselves in ye present matter ; but each of you 
may follow your own inclination notwithstanding. And whatever you think 
fit to send me in answer to these Letters, which you herewith receive, I shall 
carefully send forward to this Brother. Meantime, I wish ye Divine conduct 
may ever be with us all ; and I am, with great respect, Et Eevd., 
Your most affect. Brother and humble Servant, 

EOBT. KEITH. 
Edin r , July 12, 1744. 

I may perhaps afterwards give you my opinion concerning Bishop 

VOL. II. 2 E 



218 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

Smith s asking our pardon, and his passing from his former peremptory 
demand of our using ye English Liturgy only in Scotland. 

Bishop Campbell s setting up and heading a Communion opposite to ye 
other Bishops in England, is a phrase of Bishop Smith s in his Letters to 
Bishop Gillan, now in my custody. 

Cojii/ of Letter from JiisJiop Smith to HisJinji Keith. 

E. E. Sir, I acknowledge you have given strong evidence against Mr. 
H., which, both upon account of his person and character, I am sorry to see. 
But suppose him as bad as your Letter represents him, it is nothing to the 
merits of the cause, which (whatever be Mr. H. s case) still continue the 
very same, and must do so ; unless, as you arc bound in duty, you will 
please to subject yourselves to the Laws and Constitution of your Church, 
and stand by the agreement so solemnly made by you. You condemn Mr. 
II. for breaking through his solemn engagement ; and whether violating the 
Concordate (Subscribed and Publish d by you), by declaring it vacated, be 
not in like manner to be condemu d, I leave you and the impartial to judge. 

At the bottom of p. 4G7 of your excellent History, there is this Note 
" "We see men in power, be they of whatever denomination, are still of one 
mind, viz., to carry every thing with a high hand :" Avhich observation your 
late proceedings have too much verified. But I hope you will at length 
begin to think more justly and pacifically, otherwise the necessary conse 
quence will be a formal separation from you, as from Archbishops to your 
National Church and its Communion, and as from persons whom neither 
the Laws Ecclesiastical and Civil, nor your own personal engagements, can 
lay hold of and keep within due bounds. I hope that sad event will never 
happen ; but if through your default it should, I don t at all question but I 
shall be able fully to vindicate myself as to the share I may have in it, and 
so demonstrate to all the world Avho are the truly seditious and extravagant 
persons, the mutineers against Laws, and consequently wanderers out of 
the way of peace and order. 

By your manner of writing, I begin to fear you are resolved entirely to 
reject the advice my Colleagues and I sent you in our late Letters, which I 
am sorry for ; but if you really design so to do, please to take notice we have 
done our duty in endeavouring to settle peace upon the only firm and lasting 
bottom, and we shall not be answerable either to God or man for any mis 
chief that may follow upon your too stiff adhering to your present notions 
arid practices. 

You say very well, Facts are sturdy things, and despise the most 
subtil arts of implication." Now, that such and such Laws and Canons, 
which limit your authority, were enacted and stand yet in full force, are 
sturdy, plain, and glaring facts, which your strongest assaults will never be 
able to overthrow. 

That you may no longer wonder how it comes to passe that Mr. Robert 
son s queries and my words hit so exactly, please to be informed that I had 
a Copy of those queries long before the writing of my Lettre of June 26 ; 
and if I borrowed from them what I took to be very much for my purpose, I 
hope there was no harm in it. 

You are displeased with me for saying the Minutes of your suppos d 
Synod in 1738, are as useless Paper. Now, I must confesse I still think 



ROBERT KEITH. 219 

them so ; because that was not a lawful! Synod, but only a Conventicle, as 
the Title of the 12th Canon of the Church of England calls such Meetings. 
And the Canon itself censures the maintainers of Constitutions made in such 
Conventicles in the following words : " Whosoever shall hereafter affirm 
that it is lawfull for finy *nrt of Ministers and Lay persons, or either of them, 
to join together and make Rules, Orders, or Constitutions, in causes Ecclesi- 
asticall, without the Kimjs (iiithnritij, and shall submit themselves to be rul d 
and govern d by them, let them be Excommunicated, ipw fncto" To this 
the Laws and Canons of your own Church, as I have shewn in my last, are 
very agreeable. Your Minutes, therefore, and all that pay any regard to 
them, are clearly condemned by both Churches ; and nobody that thinks 
justly will be able to discern what such inauthoritative things are good for. 
For my part, to speak my mind freely to you, I can t but look upon those 
who make and defend and submit to such unlawful! Constitutions, to be 
what the Church of Engl. in her 9th Canon calls a new brotherhood, and in 
her 10th Canon, nnoiher Church not extnhlinli d lj Laic: and you know what 
censure is past upon such authors of Schism and maintainers of Schismaticks 
and Conventicles. Consider things impartially, and I trust you will not go 
on to act as you do. For, depend upon it, if ever the matter comes to be 
publickly canvass d and clearly understood, your rash and lawless proceed 
ings will not bear the test, and will inevitably meet with the just contempt 
they deserve, from all who have any regard for the Laws and Constitutions 
of their Ch. and Coimtrey, which you have attempted and do still attempt 
to set aside and subvert. It is an infinite trouble to me to speak in this 
manner, but the cause of truth requires it ; and in such a case as this, either 
silence or mincing the matter would be altogether unjustifiable. 

So again recommending to the serious perusal of you and your Col 
leagues the Letters and proposal we have sent you, and praying God to 
incline the hearts of all persons concern d to embrace such measures as may 
produce a durable settlement, such a one as is agreeable to the Constitu 
tion of yours, and the principles and doctrines of both Churches, 

I am, R. R. Sir, 
Your affectionate brother and humble Servt., 

Aug. 21, 1744. G. SMITH. 

What is the meaning of these words in your Letter " I saw it observ d 
in a publick Paper that inclination has a great power over judgement ; and 
this observation came from England?" I don t understand, and therefore 
can say nothing to them. 

I hope Mr. Lyon got safe to his journey s end, and you will please to 
present my service to him. 

[To this Letter Mr. Keith gave no return.] 

JHxhop Smith to Bishop Keith. 

R. R. Sir, By your Letter, Dated July 14, you told me that you had 
dispatch d Copy of our Letters to your Brethren the Bishops, and no doubt 
they all of them receiv d such Copy soon after. I have now by me an 
authentick Account that the Clergy in Buchan were by their Bishop ap 
pointed to meet at Peterhead, the 15 of August. He laid before them a 
Copy of my Letter to Mr. Mackenzie, with your Answer, as also some 



220 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

Exceptions from my former Letters to Bishop Gillan, &c., whereby you 
would insinuate that I now contradict my former sentiments. But the 
Bishop, tho it is plain he had a Copy of my last long Letter, wherein I have 
clearly vindicated myself (without any possibility of a reply) from your in 
tended reproaches, did not lay that before them, lest they should plainly 
discern the impertinence as well as malice of the Excerptor. I make not 
the least doubt but the rest of the Bishops combine in the same unfair and 
ungenerous method of proceeding. I therefore think myself bound, in my 
own defence, to Publish my Letter, and those of my Colleagues auncxt to it, 
whereby it will appear to all persons conccrn d that we are not those Schis- 
matical^ mtermedlers in other men s affairs as you Avould pretend, but are 
only doing that busiucsse which properly belongs to us, viz., protecting those 
of our Communion from tyranny and oppression, and hindering as much as 
we can all the pious and faithfull Members of your Church from following 
you into a Schism ; you, who have set up another new Church quite 
opposite to Uiat which is by Law established in Scotland. However, I shall 
not take this step till after Michaelmas ; nor then neither if you can clear 
yourself and your Colleagues from this dishonourable way of acting. But 
if you cannot, you must not blame me if ane exact Account of this whole 
affair be laid before the Publick. 

I have been inquiring into the story you informed me of concerning Mr. 
Harper, and have great reason to believe there is more malice than truth 
in it. 

I take leave to end this with the words of Gregory the Great Si 

Canoncs >ni ciKlvililix, fi innjoniiii n<///.s ntntnta conrcllcre, non coi/nosco qui 
estis. I am, R. E. Sir, 

Your affectionate Brother, 

Sept. 10, 17-1-1. G. SMITH. 

Bishop Keith to BisJtop Smith. 

Sir, I have your most rude Letter of the 10th current, but I know my 
own character better, both as a gentleman and a Bishop, than to repay it 
and your former of a like nature in their kind. However, I must advertise 
you to address no more Letters to me, for I do assure you I will not relieve 
them from the Post Ofiicc. 

As I told you in my Letter of the 1-lth July, I did dispatch Copy of 
your long Letter, together with those of your two" Colleagues (men I think 
of better temper than yourself), to my Colleague who resides nearest to me, 
and by him to be transmitted to the next Bishop, and so forward ; but I 
have never had a line from any of my R. R. B" 1 as yet on that subject, and 
even what you tell me of the loth August is quite new to me, tho it be not 
plain enough that Bishop Dunbar was then in possession of your long Letter : 
he might indeed, but tis equally probable he might not. 

Everybody is not of your mind ; for very good judges here, and of very 
good rank, do but laugh at your vindication of the Excerptions : they say 
you outstrip the best Jesuit of them all. The Bishops here are incapable of 
any dishonourable way of acting : they leave that to others that chuse to do 
so ; therefore they are quite easy whether you Publish any thing or not 
Publish. Nor do they doubt of their Clergy and People standing by them 
against the iiicroachments of every busy, officious intermeddler, a few turbu- 



ROBERT KEITH. 221 

lent persons with sinister views exceptcd ; and they as firmly believe and 
hope that the worthy Members of the Ch. of England do not, will not, 
approve of your unaccountable groundless late proceedings. If you set 
about the Publication of an "exact Account of this whole affair," doubtless 
you should take in our whole Correspondence since the 9th of October last ; 
but if not, I will take care to give it a Supplement, without "addition,* 
mutilation, or transposition" of one single a, b. c, down to this present Date, 
which shall shut up the checqucr twixt you and me. 

If there be more malice than truth in that scandalous affair of Mr. 
Harper, he, you, or others of his friends will have the easyer plea against me, 
and any of you may try your skill when you think fit. Might I suggest to 
you to ask your Correspondent, if you please, how many years ago he 
chanc d to hear of that crime, and what might be the ground of the malice 
at that time ? I dare engage tis a dozen of years ago. Or whether Mr. H. 
Avould readily part with his money, in order to cvite a malicious idle story ? 
And that he has parted with it shall be made out. Facts will always remain 
to be sturdy things, unpliable to the wills or interests of one party more than 
another. I am, Sir, Your humble Servant, 

Edinb., Septr. l.j, 17-1-1. R. KEITH. 

When the Bishops give me a return to your Letter, I shall direct it 
for you. Mr. Lyon can furnish a Copy of your Letter of the 9th Octr. if you 
still want it. 

[* But tliis needs not hinder other things, if convenient, to be added.] 

I. Copy of Letter from Bishop Smith to Mr. Darid Fife, September 13, 1714. 

R. Sir, When the Messenger came which you and the other worthy 
Gentlemen of your Congregation sent to my House, I was just taking horse 
for Newcastle, which occasioned my writing so short a Letter. I had not 
then time so much as to read over your Letters, so I hope you will be so 
good as pardon the hasty scribble I returned you ; and believe that I was 
very much concerned I should seem so unmannerly where I cannot but 
acknowledge I owe so much respect. 

It must needs make every good man s heart bleed to see disturbances 
raised by. the indescrction of those whose chief business it should be to 
compose them ; but so it happens that your Bishops have gone into measures 
which both necessarily occasion divisions in your Church, and have a natural 
tendency at least to dissolve the union between that and ours. They have 
made Canons contrary to your Ecclesiastical Laws and Constitution. They 
have vacated the Concordate, by which alone themselves have a right to be 
acknowledged lawfull Bishops. They have shewn their inclination for 
novelty by declaring they design to compose a new Ordinal and make addi 
tions to the Catechism ; and they have manifested their spleen against our 
Communion Office, by annulling that upon which its establishment is 
founded. What farther lengths they may goe, themselves best know, but 
there is no great reason to rely much upon their promises and declarations, 
since so soon as they thought they had it in their power, they broke thro 
those engagements which themselves had solemnly agreed and Subscribed to. 

Upon the perusal of your Papers, I think it plainly appears you have 
had. a very regular Call to officiate where you do, and that the Bishop 



222 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

therefore ought to have admitted you, unless he could have shown you sonic 
just cause to the contrary. But I have very good reason to believe he could 
not, because Mr. Keith himself own d to me in conversation in Edin r , you 
were unexceptionable in your life and conversation ; and it appears from Mr. 
Eaitt s Letter, which I saw, that all that can be pretended against you is, 
you came in against his will, who, to exclude the use of our Liturgy, had 
projected an union between the two Congregations at Dundee ; which, tis 
said, the heads of their Congregations at first consented to, but Avhen they 
found out the drift of the project, soon after set themselves against it. And 
for my part, if that were the case, I cannot but commend them for not 
suffering themselves to be imposed upon by a piece of chicane, contrived to 
set aside that excellent form of Worship, in the use of which they had so 
long received much spiritual benefit. But it seems the other Office was to 
be recommended in the strongest manner, and therefore it was fit the most 
violent methods should be employed to establish it. 

Your case appeared so hard, even to Mr. Keith himself, that he declared 
to me he commiserated it, and said the people could not now in honour 
desert you. And, moreover, if he had been at Dundee with his Colleagues, 
he would have been against the Deposition ; although I find since that he 
had joined in the Decree at the Synod, a matter which he was wise enough 
to conceal from me. But now, if even he was so compassionate, much more 
may we, since you arc a sufferer for our Liturgy ; and therefore we have all 
the reason in the world to receive you and yours under our protection ; and 
you may depend upon all the assistance and encouragement I am capable 
of giving you. 

I had seen Mr. Dundass s Piece before, which shews him to be a person 
of good sense and learning, and courage too, so gallantly to bear up against 
the wrath of his Oppressors. I am very much of his opinion about Prayers 
for the Dead, as you will find by a Piece lately Published at Ed r . As to the 
Mixture, I think the proof brought from Mr. Collier s Dictionary, that it was 
not practised in the Apostle s time, is very weak, it being taken from the 
Liber J uiitijiculis, written in the Oth Century, and therefore of no authority. 
I humbly conceive that Justin Martyr s informing the Bom. Emperor that 
the Mixture was then used universally by the Christians (for he makes no 
exception), is a very probable argument for the Apostolical practice. But 
then every Apostolical practice is not necessary, unless it be delivered in 
Scripture, which is the only rule to acquaint us what is essential either in 
doctrine or practice. Tis probable, likewise, our Saviour s Wine was mixed, 
because such sort of Wine was frequently used in these warm Countrys, and 
at the Paschal Supper ; but the Fruit of the Vine is only mentioned, and 
therefore it alone is the essential matter of the Cup ; and there is great 
difference between Probability and Necessity. Tis then, I imagine, a thing 
indifferent whether the Cup have pure or mixed Wine in it ; and if people 
chuse the one sort of Wine rather than the other, I should think there need 
be no great dispute about it. As to the other points, you will see my sense 
of them in the piece above mentioned. 

With my most earnest Prayers for you all, both Pastor and People, that 
God would defend you against all violence and oppression, and hap you 
under the shadow of His wings, untill this tyranny be overpast ; and that 
you may with courage and constancy persevere (as you do) in the Orthodox 
Communion of your own National Church, as tis by Law established, the 



EOBEKT KEITH. 228 

faithful Members of which alone, and no others, are in Communion with the 
Church of England. lam, E. S., 

Your very affect. Brother and Servant, 

(Signed) GEO. SMITH. 

II. Bishop Smith to 3/>. David Fife, Xoccmler 12, 1744. 

Eevd. Sir, I received yours of the 2d October, and am oblidg d to you 
for the Account you give of the irregular Promotion of severall of your 
Bishops, which is a piece of history I was not thoroughly acquainted with. 
You are pleased to desire my opinion in severall tilings, and first, with 
regard to Mr. liaitt, I think it is very clear that his setting up a Conventicle 
many years ago, in opposition to Bishop Ouchterlony, was highly schis- 
maticall. But I m inform d that upon making the Concordate, or at least 
severall years before that worthy Bishop Died, he admitted Mr. Eaitt to his 
Communion, and allowed him as one of his Presbyters. If this be true, I 
conceive that after his reconciliation with his Bishop, he could not be said 
to be in a state of schism ; and consequently, he being thus rcctux in curia, 
he might be lawfully promoted to the Episcopate. 

2dly. It appears that there were severall Presbyters irregularly and 
schismatically Consecrated, such as Mr. Eattray, Dunbar, and Keith ; but, 
as I take it, this breach was afterwards made up by the Concordate, and the 
irregularity discharg d by those lawfull Bishops, who had, as I suppose, 
authority to do so, in order thereby to restore peace to the Church. And as 
to Mr. White s promotion, whatever irregularity there might be in it, or 
opposition made against it at first, yet I am told that afterwards his Epis- 
copall character was acknowledged both by the Primus and Bishop Ouchter 
lony, or at least by the survivors of them ; and if that were so, there could 
be no further objection against him. And with regard to the other Bishops, 
who were afterwards Consecrated, I don t see that any just exception can ly 
against their Promotion. What I have to except against them all is this 
that by making and imposing new Canons contrary to the Canons and Laws 
of your Established Church, and their own most solemn vows at their 
Ordination and Consecration, they have ceased to be true members of it, 
as lawfull Bishops thereof. They have set up a new Church of their own in 
opposition to the Nationall, and therfore are not in Communion with it, 
nor with the Church of England, which acknowledges no other Communion 
as lawfull but that of the Nationall Church, as it is established among you, 
both by the Canons of your former and regular Synods, and the Laws of the 
Eealm confirming those Canons. Xow, all your Bishops have unnecessarily, 
and without any colour of reason, broke the Constitution of your Church, 
and are therefore guilty of Schism and Eebellion Schism in oposing the 
superior authority of a Nationall Synod, and Eebellion in violating the just 
Laws of the Eealm. And since it also appears that they look upon those 
Usages as essential to the administration of the Holy Eucharist, and reject 
the Office of our Church, upon pretence of wanting them ; and particularly, 
since Bishop Eaitt declared he was not in Communion with our Church and 
had nothing to doe with it this is a further demonstration of their Schism. 
These are the reasons that are of weight with me, to believe them not to be 
our Communion, and to have no farther commerce with such as have in 
volved themselves in such notorious crimes. 



224 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

On the 26th June las 1 :, I wrote at large upon this melancholy affair to 
the Primus, and sent a proposall for the composing your differences, in which 
two of my Colleagues joined with me. The proposnil is as followes : 

1st. That you suspend, .s7/,v die, the Execution of all new Canons, as 
being made contrary to your Xationall Church Constitution ; and that you 
never attempt the like for the time to come, but content yourselves wiih the 
laudable example of your Predecessors, with executing the old ones already 
Legally and Canonically enacted ; and that in all your future consultations 
you consider only of the best means of doing so. 

2dly. That you ll establish the first Article of the Concordate, wherein 
the two Liturgies are put upon an equall foot ; and that in order to the true 
and right observation of that Article, you direct all the Clergy not to deviate 
in the least tittle from the Words or Puibrick of either of them, by either 
adding to, or mutilating, or transposing any part thcroff ; and for the stop 
ping all misapprehensions, that you, and all Presbyters using the Scotish 
Liturgy, shall at least once a year Officiate by the English, to demonstrate 
your perfect agreement and Communion with the Church of England, and 
that you will declare that you will Communicate indifferently where either 
Liturgy is used; and lastly, that you will make no alteration in any other 
part of the Book of Common Prayer or in the Form of Ordination, but will, 
in the Consecration of Bishops, cither use the Scotish or English Forms, 
and in the Ordination of Priests and Deacons the English only. 

3dly. That to shew your earnest desire of perfectly establishing the 
peace and unity of the Church, you will please to declare that, cither out of 
your own free grace and favour, or upon our request and mediation, which 
you will, you are willing to release the rigour of Discipline, and to receive 
any Clergyman, in his proper character and station, and his people to Com 
munion, who having been guilty of no other crime but simply separating 
from you, or who, being under censure for such separation only, shall return 
to your Communion. 

To this proposall. made by three of us, they never yet vouchsafed to 
return any answer, and I dare say never will the consequence of which is 
that they resolve to persist in their Schism and Eebellion; and they being 
thus separated both from your own Nationall Church and from ours, which 
is in Communion with it, we cannot look upon them as rightfull Bishops, or 
believe that any obedience is due to them from the Clergy and people. You 
doe well, therefore, in opposing their pretended authority ; and so long as 
you do so, and strictly adhere to the Liturgy and Communion of our Church, 
I doubt not but God will give a blessing to your administrations, and abun 
dantly supply the defect of a lawfull Bishop among you, for which you shall 
never want my fervent prayers. You desire to know how to do with those 
who were never Confirmed, when they desire to Communicate at the Lord s 
Table. To this I answer, that the Kubrick at the end of the Office for Con 
firmation, gives a sufficient direction what is to be done in your circum 
stances. The Piubrick says that none shall be admitted to the Holy 
Communion untill such time as he bo Confirmed, or be ready or be desirous 
to be Confirmed. 

Now, seeing it is an act of Schism, and therefore criminall, to seek 
Confirmation from the hands of schismaticall Bishops, and you can t have 
this Holy Pdte administred by a lawfull Bishop on account of your great 
distance from one, in this case of necessity, being ready and desirous to be 



ROBERT KEITH, 225 

Confirmed is sufficient for admission to the Holy Communion ; and there is 
no reason to doubt but God will graciously accept the will for the deed. 
You will please to return Doctor Colvill thanks for his kind Letter, and with 
my best respects to him and Mr. Dundass, and my hearty prayers that God 
would give you grace and courage to persevere in the truth, I am, 

Revel. Sir, 
Your very affectionate Brother and Servt., 

(Sic Sub r ) G. SMITH. 

III. Bishop Smith to Mr. David Fife, 19th February, 1745. 

Reverend Sir, I received yours of 29th January, and do assure you I 
am not under the least concern, upon my own account, at the rough treat 
ment Mr. Raitt has been pleased to bestow upon me in such a plentiful 
manner. It is my opinion he has done himself and his cause more harm by 
it than me. He would gladly make it a National Quarrel ; and he and his 
Party would fain have it believed, that my interposing in your affairs tends 
to overthrow the Independency of your Church. But he has not the least 
grounds to raise such a clamour, I having asserted it as strongly as possible 
in my late Letter Printed at Edinburgh ; and done no more than the duty 
of every Catholick Bishop in such a case as this, when the Bishops in a 
Nation have unwarrantably made a breach in their own, and refuse Com 
munion with their Sister Church ; of which this is a manifest token that 
they clearly enough, in this very Pamphlet, declare that some Doctrines, 
intrinsic to the Holy Eucharist, are not so much as implied in her Com 
munion Office ; and that therefore it is not lawful to Communicate with her 
in the highest act of religious Worship. 

The " dear Implication scheme," as Mr. Raitt is pleased to call it, is 
here apparently ridiculed, and is intimated to be contrary to the authentick 
Deeds of our Church, which he most untruly pretends I have set at open 
variance to promote it. I acknowledge he has acted more like an honest 
man than the rest of his Brethren, in not saying in his Declaration, as they 
have done in theirs, that he is in full Communion with the Church of Eng 
land. He, indeed, as well as they, can, it seems, tolerate the use of our 
Office, though they will not Communicate when and where it is used. But 
whether tolerating an invalid Sacrament, or rather a sacrilegious mockery 
instead of a Sacrament, as these gentlemen must think it, can be so much 
as palliated, much less justified, I leave them to consider. 

It is very well that the Narrative will soon be ready, and I hope thereby 
Mr. Raitt s Account of the case will be thoroughly confuted. I could wish 
to see it soon, that I may make a proper use of it in the Answer I am 
preparing to Mr. Raitt s Pamphlet. I presume Mr. Dundass will immedi 
ately set about a Reply, and doubt not but he will be able so fully to clear 
up the affair, as to satisfy all unprejudiced persons. 

As to my Letters which Mr. Raitt has Published, I am not at all dis 
pleased at the event, but rather otherwise ; because therein are contained, 
in short, the reasons why these gentlemen (notwithstanding the validity of 
their Ordination, which all schismatical Bishops have) have no right to the 
obedience of the Clergy and People ; as neither being Bishops of your 
National Church, nor in Communion with ours. And I am so little 
solicitous about your keeping up my Letters, that you are very welcome to 
VOL. n. 2 F 



22G DISTEICT OF FIFE. 

show them to whomsoever you think fit ; that Mr. Eaitt, if he pleases, may 
Print them in his next publick performance. 

Mr. Eaitt, p. 90, complains that I did not communicate first to himself 
any impressions or informations I might have received to his prejudice about 
your affair. Now, lie has no just reason to make this complaint ; for on the 
9 th of October, 1743, I wrote to Mr. Keith, in order to be communicated to 
all his Colleagues, a Letter penned in the most humble and submissive 
Language, and therein interceded for you in the most suppliant manner; 
and proposed, as I imagined, a very proper and easy method to compose the 
difference. Soon after Mr. Keith had received my Letter, Mr. Alexander, at 
his desire, went to Dundee, and told Mr. Eaitt what I had advised ; but Mr. 
Eaitt would not listen to it, although several of his friends there, as well as 
Mr. Alexander, endeavoured to persuade him. Is it not plain then, that my 
sentiments and advice, wherein I spoke the mind of my Colleagues here, as 
Avell as my own, were communicated to him ; and although most civilly and 
candidly offered, were entirely disregarded? I therefore had all the_ reason 
in the world to believe it was to no manner of purpose to intercede with him 
in your behalf, or trouble either him or any body else any farther about it. 
And to let you see how little cause he has to quarrel with my conduct upon 
this account, I will here transcribe that part of my Letter which principally 
relates to this melancholy business. 

" It is a great pity you were not with the rest of your Colleagues at the 
consult about this unhappy Deposition ; for then a person of your pacifick 
temper, joining with the other two Bishops who were against it at first, 
might have been able to prevail with Bishop Eaitt (who I readily acknow 
ledge was sufficiently provoked to take the severest course), to set a noble 
example of a patient and forgiving disposition, and to despise this personal 
affront and injury, especially it being apparent the peace of the Church is 
so much at stake. I still have reason to hope, from the excellent character 
he bears, that upon a due consideration of all circumstances, and particu 
larly upon a view of the very bad consequences which may ensue, he will be 
pleased, upon Mr. Fife s humble submission to his authority, and promise of 
a faithful obedience for the future, which you informed me he was ready to 
make, to take off, with the concurrence of his Colleagues, the heavy censure 
Mr. Fife now lies under, and then permit him to officiate in the Congrega 
tion he is possessed of, in the same manner as Bishop Ouchterlonie used to 
do formerly. This, I am sure, will gain our worthy Colleague the hearts of 
many, who now, I fear, think hardly of him upon this account, and will 
make his name reverenced by all good men, who will everywhere speak of 
him with the highest honour and respect, for sacrificing his own private 
resentment to the public peace and tranquillity. What I here request in 
Mr. Fife s behalf, is undoubtedly in the Bishop s power to grant ; and since a 
person of his good sense and eminent virtue cannot but have an earnest desire 
to see unity entirely restored, which will be both a great comfort to himself 
and an infinite blessing to the Flock over which he presides ; and which 
cannot, as far as I can discern, be effected any other way ; I am willing to 
assure myself he will need little persuasion to do his part in making up the 
breach. And if he will be so good as grant this favour at the intercession 
of you and his other Colleagues, and upon my Irumble application to him, 
which I hereby make through your means, I dare say it will be no small 
pleasure to you, and it will be sure to meet with my grateful acknowledg- 



ROBEET KEITH. 227 

ment. That it would bo very acceptable to you, 1 conclude from your com 
miserating this unhappy man s case, when you discoursed with me about 
him, and from your saying that the people could not now in honour desert 
him, by accepting Mr. Raitt s proposal of having any other Minister they 
pleased set over them, and so leaving him destitute of all support and main 
tenance. This is a thing they cannot, now they have called him, in any 
reason comply with ; and I question not but by this time your worthy Col 
league is sensible of it. I had not spoke one word in Mr. Fife s behalf, but 
that you assured me he was in all other respects, a man of an unexception 
able character. I hope, then, his former merits, and present good qualities 
and capacities, may in some degree plead for him ; and, considering your 
Church is not overstocked with Clergy, it would upon that account be well 
if he were restored to his station. 

" I thought to have made an end here, but since I know you expect to 
have my thoughts concerning the principal parts of Bishop Eaitt s Letter, I 
must beg your patience a little longer, being willing to make you a full 
discovery of my whole sentiments, as far as I can remember the contents of 
it. I speak to you as my friend, whom I highly esteem, with all imaginable 
frankness. If therefore I chance to say anything cross to your opinion, I 
persuade myself you will take no offence at it. As I said before, I here again 
declare, that Mr. Fife s conduct is by no means to be justified ; but yet I 
cannot but conceive his fault will admit of some alleviation. I remember 
Mr. Raitt gives an account that there were two Congregations at Dundee, 
over one of which Bishop Ouchterlonic presided, who, I believe, always used 
the English Liturgy. In the beginning of this year, Bishop Eaitt, who, I 
suppose, prefers the Scots Liturgy, endeavoured to unite both Congregations, 
to Avhich Union a Meeting of the chief persons of both Congregations agreed. 
But upon second thoughts they perceived that the English Liturgy would be 
entirely excluded at Dundee ; and this, as I take it, was the ground of the 
tjuarrel. Hereupon many of them applied to the Bishop, and desired they 
might be in the same state they were in Bishop Ouchterlonie s time, and 
have a Minister who would use the English Liturgy as before. But the 
Bishop, insisting upon the Union of the Congregations, asked them whether 
they owned him for their Bishop ? To which they answered they were of 
the Communion of the Church of England, and rejected his authority, 
supposing, I presume, that he rejected the Communion of the Church of 
England by his not complying with their request for that Church s Liturgy, 
and only officiating by the [Scottish. Now, in reply to this he should, I 
humbly conceive, have told them he did not reject the Communion of the 
Church of England, as appears by his approving the use of the English 
Liturgy in the first Article of the late Concordatc, which he still stands by, 
and by his never refusing to join it in those Congregations where that 
Communion Office was constantly officiated by, although he rather chose 
himself to minister by the Scottish Office, as he was warranted to do by the 
said first Article of the Agreement. Something of this kind said, would 
have given them to understand that he looked upon both Liturgies to be in 
substance and meaning the same, and that he and our Church were of the 
same Communion ; and it is not unlikely this would have pacified them, or 
at least would have rendered them the more inexcusable. But I do not 
remember he says anything in his Letter, from whence one may gather he 
gave them this satisfaction. And yet I cannot but be of opinion he was 



228 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

short iu this ; and he should have taken special care to obviate and prevent 
every scruple and suspicion of theirs upon this score ; which, if he neglected 
to do, it was certainly a very great omission. For what effect could this 
have but to induce them to believe that neither he nor his Colleagues, if 
they were all of one mind, held Communion with us, whom they have 
hitherto esteemed a sound part of the Catholic Church ; or that he, at least, 
had condemned our Liturgy, and thereby broke off all fraternal Correspon 
dence with us ? And what could naturally follow from this, but that the 
people should imagine there was a direct Schism commenced between him 
and all those, whether of your or our Church, who either used or approved 
the use of the English Liturgy ? Thus, as it seems to me, there were great 
mistakes on both sides ; on theirs, for supposing he had broke Communion 
with our Church, with whom they were united ; and on his, for not openly 
confuting that calumny, as I, in charity and respect to him, believe it to be. 
It is plain they thought their Bishop was not of the same Communion with 
them, /.c., was not in Communion with the Church of England. Now, 
though this, I make no question, was a very wrong judgment in them; yet, 
since they were unfortunately prepossessed with this notion, as appears from 
the Bishop s Letter they probably were, there is the less wonder they should 
act in this disrespectful manner. But now, if our dear Brother will, in 
Christian meekness, so far condescend as to declare to Mr. Fife and his 
people his approbation of the use of our Liturgy, and that he is very far 
from intending to reject our Communion by his using the Scottish, and will 
please to receive them into favour upon their submission ; and, to shew he 
has no discs! com for our Church, allow of Mr. Fife s Ministry among them 
by our Liturgy, this will be the most easy and natural method to compose 
the difference, and set the minds of all those in your Church at ease, who 
are now greatly disturbed and uneasy at this rigorous censure. 

" You and your worthy Colleagues will pardon me if I, considering the 
station wherein the Providence of God has placed me, though very un 
worthy of it, cannot blame Mr. Fife and his Adherents just esteem for our 
excellent Liturgy, and zeal for continuing in our Communion ; and there 
fore, with some earnestness, interpose in their behalf. And as I shall 
always be ready to assist you iu supporting your authority, and dissuading 
people, upon any pretence of this sort, from making dissensions in your 
Church ; so I hope you will, in charity to us, and compassion to your own 
Flock, be very careful of giving them the least occasion for receiving any 
such ill impressions of you ; and, as an earnest of this, will vouchsafe to 
cancel this Deposition, which, as it was too hastily and precipitately issued 
out, so it cannot be too speedily discharged and annulled." 

And now let every man of sense judge, after reading of this, whether I 
have been in the least wanting in due respect to Mr. Raitt on this unhappy 
occasion, and whether I did not take a very proper method fairly and frankly 
to communicate my thoughts to him. But he was deaf to every thing both 
I and others could say ; and being hurried away by a strong resentment and 
the warmth of his own temper, and spirited up by his Colleague, Mr. White, 
still continued resolved to push matters to extremity; insomuch that he, in 
conjunction Avith the other, was very angry even with Mr. Keith for not 
reading your Deprivation publickly in his Chapel, and took his not going all 
their lengths in this matter very much amiss. All this I had undoubted 
intelligence of, even by the means of a hearty friend to these gentlemen. 



ROBERT KEITH. 229 

What encouragement then had I to make any farther application to Mr. 
Raitt ? And what room is there for his accusing me of not doing it ? If he 
would not hearken to the earnest intreaties of his Colleagues there, was it 
possible for me to expect that anything I could say would have better 
success ? 

When I wrote the above Letter to Mr. Keith, who had taken pains to 
give me such information about your case as might put the best gloss upon 
the proceedings of his Colleagues which yet did then seem so harsh even 
to himself that he could not but declare his disapprobation of them, and 
who, you may be sure, did his utmost to imprint on my mind the most 
favourable opinion of Mr. Eaitt I was very desirous to believe this gentle 
man was not a declared enemy to our Church, and upon that supposition 
said your conduct was not to be justified. But the share he had in the 
transactions of the late Synod, and most especially his late Pamphlet, have 
fully discovered his rooted aversion to our excellent and Catholick Office ; 
and therefore he cannot, with any reason, expect we should look upon him 
as of the same Communion with the Church of England, which it seems is 
not Catholick enough for him, and from which he has manifestly separated 
by setting up his Office and Altar against her s. 

And upon this account I now think myself bound, in the most publick 
manner, to profess that the conduct of you and all the worthy members of 
your Congregation, who will not suffer yourselves to be compelled to go out 
from us by the violent persecution of your and our common adversaries, but 
are resolved faithfully to continue with us in all events, is so far from being 
blameworthy, that it justly merits the highest commendation and applause. 
Go on, then, in the name of God, to do your duty ; maugre all the menaces 
and rage of your persecutors, who, being not Members of the true Com 
munion, cannot have the lawful aiithority of Bishops in it. And since their 
censures are altogether ineffectual to all Spiritual purposes, your sacerdotal 
character is no more hurt or impaired by them than if Romish, Novation, or 
Donatist Bishops had passed sentence upon you. 

You will observe, in the above written Transcript, several particulars 
which passed in conversation betwixt Mr. Keith and me. Now, he never 
pretended to deny any of them ; but in his Answer to my Letter would 
fain bring himself off by saying I mistook his meaning. For instance, 
with regard to one of the remarkable passages, he would excuse the 
matter thus "For my saying the people of Dundee could not now in 
honour desert Mr. Fife, I only narrated what I knew these people had 
declared to two of my Brethren, who had communed with them on that 
affair, though indeed I did not acquaint you that I had those Accounts." I 
must own I was very much shocked at this ; for he spoke those words as his 
own sense of that matter, and not as the Declaration of others. He did not 
then qualify his discourse as he does here in his Letter ; and he himself 
acknowledges as much, confessing he did not acquaint me with such 
Accounts of that affair as, if he had, could not but have induced me to take 
him, not in an absolute, but in a limited sense. In short, he did not nar 
rate what others said, but spoke, in all appearance, his own mind freely. 
What secret mental reservation he might have, himself best knows. This 
gave me no very favourable impression of my Correspondent s sincere deal 
ing. But when, about two months after, the Minutes of the late Synod 
came into my hands, the Transactions of which he had carefully concealed 



280 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

from me, and I there saw that he was as much concerned as any of the rest 
in agreeing to concur in the Sentence of Deposition. I must confess I was 
quite astonished ; and this I sufficiently discovered in my Letter to Mr. 
Mackenzie. What, thought I, could this gentleman, who so much declared 
his displeasure at the conduct of his Brethren for passing this Censure, he 
himself the head of those who decreed it ? This was a contradiction I could 
by no means reconcile. He is self-condemned, as Mr. Raitt very truly 
observes ; and because I have taken the freedom to tell him so, he is now 
become my professed enemy, and uses all the mean arts he is master of to 
defame me. If Mr. Raitt will have it, that his testimony is good for nothing, 
because he is self-condemned, I shall by no means say anything to the 
contrary ; and his informing me that the quarrel was about the Liturgy, I 
agree, shall be accounted of no signiticancy for the future. 

As for his clamours that I have acted against the Independency of your 
Church, they arc altogether vain and ridiculous, and a mere imposition upon 
the common sense of mankind. I am as fully satisfied, and upon very good 
grounds too, of the truth of that as any man breathing. And therefore, in 
conjunction with others, who have desired my assistance in so good a cause, 
I have been long endeavouring to maintain and preserve its Canons, and the 
Laws which establish it, and the Rights and Privileges of all its Members, 
against the violent attacks of those who would set them aside. I am against 
no other Independency but that which those gentlemen so earnestly contend 
for, who would be independent of the established Canons and Laws, and 
will by no means submit to them ; although, when they were Ordained, they 
most solemnly avowed that, by the help of God, they would give faithful 
diligence always to minister the Discipline of Christ, as the Lord hath com 
manded, and as your Church and Realm hath received the same, according 
to the Commandments of God; and, when they were Consecrated, that the 
criminous they would correct and punish, according to such authority as 
they have by the Word, and as to them shall be committed by the Ordinance 
of your Realm. Let them but make the Laws of their Independent Church 
and Realm their Rule, in subordination to the Law of God, in all possible 
cases (for nemo It iietur ad iin/io.^ilii/c), and this will put an end to all disputes. 
But, unless they will vouchsafe to do this, I, though a stranger, will be 
found in the end a much better friend to Scotland than those Natives who 
are obstinately bent on disobeying the Laws of it ; who, in the eyes of all 
honest Scotsmen, must appear as open disturbers of the publick peace, and 
cannot be esteemed true Bishops of that National Church, against which 
they are in manifest rebellion. 

The National Church of Scotland is in Communion with the Church of 
England, and has made her Liturgy, particularly the Communion Ofiice, 
her own. But these gentlemen are for throwing out this Office with all 
possible speed, as defective in points essential to the Administration. They 
therefore will not Communicate with the Church of England in the highest 
solemnity of Christian Worship ; consequently cannot belong to the Church 
of Scotland. They are of a Church of a new cut, and therfore all their Acts 
are null and void, as to spiritual effect ; and their Censures are no more to 
be regarded than if they were inflicted by Bishops of the Popish or any other 
schismatical Communion. You and your People at Dundee, whatever else 
may be pretended, were censured for adhering to the English Office, by a 
Bishop who will not Communicate in the use of it, because, in his opinion, 



ROBERT KEITH. 231 

it does not contain all the Doctrines intrinsick to the Divine Ordinance. 
His Censure therefore was invalid, because he was a Bishop of another 
Communion, and not of that of the National Church, which is in Com 
munion with the Church of England. 

If he had been in full Communion with us, he would not surely have 
failed, somewhere in his Book, to have given us full satisfaction in the point. 
He would not have failed to declare that our Office wants nothing essential 
to the Administration of the Messed Sacrament ; that it is the same in 
substance and true meaning with that by which himself administers ; and 
that he would never refuse to Communicate where it is used in his own 
Country. Now, nothing of this kind is to be found in his long performance ; 
but in several places he clearly enough avows the direct contrary. People 
then must be utterly blind who do not see he is an enemy to the Church 
of England, and that he persecutes you purely for being in Communion 
with her. 

What a huge dust and tragical outcry is raised about the Independency 
of your Church, which no body questions, purely to raise the passions of 
your Countrymen, and so convey the merits of the cause quite out of sight ! 
But I am persuaded men of sense and sound judgment will not suffer them 
selves to be deluded with mere noise, and will expect, as they have reason, 
that these gentlemen either make a clear and open profession of the suffi 
ciency and perfection of our Office, or ingenuously acknowledge that they 
believe the contrary, and are resolved to support and propagate that Schism 
among you, which we have so just cause to charge them with. If they will 
not be persuaded to do the former, I must plainly tell them, that even their 
silence will be, and deservedly, taken for a confession of the latter. 

As to the Scottish Office, I have all along fully declared my approba 
tion of it, and these gentlemen very well know I do not oppose the use of it, 
but only their rash attempts, who are for perverting what was framed for 
the establishing and keeping uniformity with the Church of England into an 
Instrument of Schism, and who artfully and insidiously make it the pretext 
to thrust our Office out of the Publick Worship, which stands upon as good 
a foundation of authority as the other ; though every body is now convinced 
the true reason for their setting it aside is their erroneous belief of its being 
defective in Doctrines essential to the Blessed Sacrament ; and therefore 
altogether unlawful to be used in a Catholick Assembly. There is no one 
then but must discern the Scottish Office is no part of the dispute ; but the 
schismatical design of causing a division both among your own Members 
and between the two Churches, of which it is by them made the unhappy 
occasion, is the only ground of this contest. And this divisive project is the 
more apparent, for that they are not content with the Office as authorised 
by the Royal Martyr s Proclamation, but they have depraved it with several 
alterations squaring better with their wrong notions and prejudices. And 
this it seems has been done by the authority of some Bishops, although the 
said Proclamation ordains that the Public Form of Service thereby ap 
pointed shall be uniformly observed in the Worship of God ; and altho also 
it is agreed in the Concordate Subscrib d by themselves, that they shall only 
make use of the Scottish or English Liturgy, and that they shall censure 
any of the Clergy that shall act otherwise. Thus, by their supereminent 
authority, they have introduced a new Office that can possibly lay no claim 
to the Royal Sanction ; and this have they done contrary to their own most 



232 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

solemn Agreement. So that it is almost impossible to make a knot strong 
enough to bind these gentlemen. Even their own Subscriptions, and other 
even more sacred engagements, cannot hold them. How then can they 
expect we can have the least regard to mere verbal assurances or windy 
declarations, and those too couched in vague, general, and indefinite expres 
sions ? No ; they must give us some stronger security than this, or else we 
can have no reason to be satisfied. 

As to my lamentable outcries, as he is pleased to stile them, about the 
Publication of S. James s Liturgy, as it is called (for after all, it being so 
much built upon conjecture, its genuineness is still very uncertain), I think 
I have more reason to make them now than ever. For the Preface says, it 
well deserves to be universally received ; which has a great resemblance of 
what Mr. Dunbar says in his Letter. And moreover, at the close of the 
performance, there is an Office to which proper Kubricks arc added for 
direction, which is evidently calculated for present use. And the Author 
having shewn this to some worthy friends (probably Mr. Keith, who was 
particularly zealous for its Publication, Mr. Dunbar, Mr. Raitt, &c.), he was 
advised by them to insert it in the end of the Book. No doubt this was not 
for nothing. And since these gentlemen will not fail to see how much it is 
preferable to any of our modern Forms, it will be difficult to make any one 
that knows them believe they will not put it in practice, notwithstanding 
their Declaration to the contrary. They may think of this as they please, 
but for my part, so unhappily prejudiced am I, as to conceive that the two 
Offices now already in use among you, are as compleat as it, with regard to 
everything essential to the Divine Ordinance, and therefore every whit as 
good and well pleasing to God. Nay, though I fear I shall incur their high 
displeasure for it, I will be bold to say that the English Office is, in one 
respect, much better, as being a better instrument of peace in our present 
circumstances, and a surer means of composing the unhappy divisions now 
most scandalously rending the Church in pieces. 

What I have farther to say to Mr. Raitt s Piece, I shall reserve for the 
furnishing out of a full Answer to it, which I hope, with God s assistance, to 
finish in a little time. I shall here only add my most solemn Declaration, 
that there is no body more earnestly desires to promote the peace of the 
Church than I do. But, under the notion of peace, I am not for sacrificing 
truth and introducing slavery, and giving up the Rights both of the Church 
and Crown to procure it. 

I am entirely of S. Hierom s mind, in the following words against John, 
Bishop of Hierusalem : " Propheta, pax, pax, et ubi est pax ? Nihil enirn 
grande est pacem voce prrctendere, et opere destruere ; aliud niti, aliud 
demonstrare ; verbis sonare concorcliam, re exigere servitutem. Volumus 
et nos pacem, et non solum volumus, sed et rogamus ; sed pacem Christi, 
pacem veram, pacem sine inimicitiis, pacem in qua non sit helium involu- 
tum, pacem qua? non ut adversaries subjiciat, sed ut amicos jungat. Quid 
dominationem pacem vocamus, et non reddimus unicuique rei vocabulurn 
suum ?" 

With my Prayers for you and yours, and all the faithful Members of 
your National Church, I am, 

Reverend Sir, 
Your very affectionate Brother and Servant, 

G. SMITH. 



EOBEET KEITH. 233 

Copy, in Bishop White s Handwriting, of proposed Return to Bishop Smith s 
Proposal of enjoiniii / the Eni/lish Communion Office only in Scotland. The 
Diction seems to lie. Bishop liattrcnj s. 

E. E. and D. B r , Since yon refer it to us to give our sentiments of G. 
S. s proposal, directly to him or by you, we have chosen the latter; and, 
knowing your agreement with us in this, desire you may transmit him a 
Copy of what follows, under your hand, as our joint Answer to it. He has 
himself mention d what alone is a sufficient reason for our not going in 
with it, viz., that if we break through the first Article of our Agreement, by 
setting aside either of the Liturgies, we should raise such a flame as could 
not be extinguished so long as other differences subsist among us. We have 
still Clergymen of turbulent and ambitious spirits, who would make a handle 
of this, and unite in the cry that we design d to break through, not the first 
only, but all the other Articles of that Agreement ; and who, as should serve 
their views, would thence take the liberty of shaking off all regard to it. 
That the Scotish Liturgy was used before the breaking out of our present 
differences, and was allowed by Bishop Eose of Edinburgh ; that Bishop 
Fullarton, his immediate Successor, in the Prayer of Consecration, ever 
added this Claiise, which he had written in the margin of his Book 
"Vouchsafe to bless and sanctifie with thy Word and Holy Spirit," &c. ; 
that in the year 172-4, when Liturgical differences began to make some 
noise, the said Bishop Fullarton convocated a Meeting of the Bishops for 
composing them, which was done by a Concordate Subscrib d by all the 
Bishops, the 3d Article of which had this Preamble " Forasmuch as the 
Primus, and the other Bishops, his Colleagues, have permitted the use of 
the Scotish Liturgy to such of the Clergy as think fit to use it, therefore," &c. 
It was not then the Scotish Liturgy they sought to suppress, which indeed 
has never been made any ground of quarrel ; for tho they had had inclina 
tion they had no power to do it. Since which time it has been used by the 
greatest number of the Clergy, to the great liking of the people. So that 
the disturbers of our peace, did we agree to this proposal, should find ground 
enough for an outcry against us. 

If the time come, and may it soon, when the Church of England shall 
find reason, from better motives than have appeared since the first compil 
ing of her excellent Liturgy, once more to review it, we may then be encour 
aged to follow so worthy an example, or embrace her Liturgy without 
reserve ; but in our present situation, as it would be most unbecoming 
Scotish Bishops (who ought now more than ever to be jealous of their 
Ecclesiastick independency) to set aside their own Liturgy in favour of the 
English, which is not pretended to be any way preferable to it ; so it would 
raise a general clamour against us, even by such as have not yet us d it, 
and be attended with conseqiiences more fatal than all our other differences 
could produce ; and instead of uniting us more closely to our Brethren 
of England, would endanger that friendship which we so much desire to 
maintain with them. Our Church has ever honoured and esteemed that of 
England, and maintain *! Communion with her as a Sister Church, and the 
use of our own Liturgy cannot be constructed a breach of this. 

We are sorry he should take any exception at our conduct with our 
former Primus. Tho the treatment he gave us at our last Meeting was very 
provoking, our proceeding with regard to him had nothing of personal 
VOL. n. 2 G 



EGBERT KEITH. 235 



District tf Drcchiii. 

JAMES RAITT, Bishop, Nov. 22. Jo. OGILVY, Presb., Nov. 28. 

JOHN MAITLAND, Presb., Nov. 28. AL. Lux AX, Prcsb., Nov. 28. 

ROB. IRVINE, Deacon, Nov. 28. 



THOMAS SIME, Prcsb., Dec. 11. ALEXR. CHEYNE, Presb., Dec. 3. 

Ro. WHITE, Deacon, Dec. 11. JOHX PETRIE, Prcsb., Dec. 3. 

WIL. ROBERTSOXE, Prcsb., Nov. 22. JOHX LEiTii, Presb., Dec. 3. 

HARIE EDGAR, Presb., Nov. 23. JOHN GROUYS, Presb., Dec. 4. 

DAVID ROSE, Presb., Nov. 28. JOHX STRACHAX, Deacon, Dec. 3. 

] District (if Dunblane. X.J>. Here some of Edinburgh Sulscrilriix/. 

ROBERT FORBES, Presbyter in Lcith. 

(Robert Forbes, by commission from the R. Mr. 

Jas. Falconar, Presbyter in Air.) 
WILL. BELL, Presb. 

DOXALD ROBERTSOX, Presbyter in Annandalc. 
J. R. DOUGLAS, Presbyter at Dunblain. 
Dec. G. JOHX COXACHAR, Presbyter at Drymen. 
Nov. 3. WIL. ERSKYXE, Presbyter at Mutliil. 
Nov. 21. JOHN BLAIR, Presbyter at Doun. 



JOHX ALEXANDER, Bishop of Dunk 1 . 
WIL. SETOX, Dean and Presbyter in Forfar. 
DAVID GUTIIRIE, Presbyter at Carsebank. 
WILLIAM GRAY, Presbyter of Kirriemuire. 
JOHN RAMSAY, Presbyter at Cortachie. 
FR. CROMBIE, Presbyter at Alyth. 
JA. HILL, Presbyter at Blairgowrie. 
GEORGE INNES, Presbyter at Balgowan. 

Alloa, Oct. 22, 17-44. DONALD ROBERTSON, Presbyter at Ecclefechan, in 

Annandale, adheres. 

Jan. 14, 1745. LAU. DRUMMOXD, Pr. at Perth. 

GEORGE ROBERTSOX, Pr. in Strathtay. 
DUN. CAMERON, Presbyter in Fortingall. 
WILLM. ABERNETHY, Deacon at Nairn and Logic. 

District f Fife. 

ROB. WHITE, Ep. Ffifen., Nov. 17. THO. YOUNG, Presb., Dec. 12. 
ROB. LINDSAY, Presb., Dec. 17. DAVID GORDON, Presb., Dec. 18. 

DA. LYNDESAY, Presb., Nov. 17. ALEX. LIVINGSTON, Pr., Jan. 14. 

District of ItLiD i ay. 

WIL. FALCONAR, Bishop of Murray. 
PATRICK CHALMERS, Presbyter at Huntly. 
Jo. IRVINE, Presbyter at Cairmvhelp. 
JA. WILLOX, Presbyter at Keam. 



236 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

ALEXR. MITCHEL, Presbyter at Belly. 
GEO. INNES, Presbyter at Forres. 
FR. LAY, Presbyter at Inverness. 



Pcterhcad, August 15, 17-1-i. 

Right Reverend Father, We being convcened here by your Reverence s 
Order, and having considered the Copy of Bishop Smith of England his 
Letter, laid before ITS, we find that he, without any just ground or good title, 
attacks the Legislative power of this our independent Church of Scotland, 
and in a manner seems to arrogate to himself a Right and Title of compel 
ling our Bishops and their Clergy to submit to his determinations : an 
attempt so utterly inconsistent with all Catholick Principles, that had we 
not it from such good authority, we could never have imagined it could have 
been made by any who bears the Sacred character of a Bishop. At this his 
conduct we are greatly surprized, as we utterly detest the Erastian Prin 
ciples so flagrant in almost every Paragraph of his Letter ; and take this 
opportunity of assuring your Reverence that, as we are in most solemn 
manner bound, we shall still make it our study to pay all due and Canonical 
Obedience to our lawful Ordinary, and in our station will endeavour, to the 
utmost of our power, to support and maintain the Dignity and Privileges of 
the Episcopate. We heartily bewail the miserable state of this poor 
divided Church, and, firmly resolving never to have any hand in what we 
apprehend may lend in the least to the widening of its present unhappy 
breaches, we earnestly begg of Almighty God to forgive all who have had 
any accession to them, and inspire all concerned with such pacific-It and 
Christian dispositions as may effectually put an end to our differences, and 
establish peace and truth among us upon a sure and solid foundation. We 
beg your paternal Benediction for Ourselves and Flocks, and ever are, 

Right Reverend Father, 
Your most dutiful Sons and obedient Servants. 

WIL. LIVINGSTON, Prcsb. WILL. GUMMING, Presb. 

Jo. JAFFRAY, Presb. W. R. DUNBAR, Ep. 

WILLIAM WALKER, Presb. AND. GERARD, Prcsb. 

ROBERT KILGOUR, Presbr. WIL. MURRAY, Prcsb. 

JNO. SKINNER, Presb. GEO. LAW, Prcsb. 

ALEXR. KEITH, Presb. WIL. SMITH, Prcsb. 

WIL. BROWN, Presb. JAMES ROSE, Presb. 

GEORGE MILNE, Presb. JOHN MORRISON, Presb. 

ALEX. MURRAY, Presb. GEO. WALKER, Presb. 

JOHN HAMILTON, Presb. PATRICK LUNAN, Presb. 

ALEX. MITCHELL, Presb. Ro. MORRICE, Presb. 

ALEX. SMITH, Presb. PATR. LAING, Pbr. 

PUT. William Sctoa, porfar, to the Riylit lice. Bishop Alexander, Allott. 

R. R. Sir, Yours of ye 3d current came to my hands yesterday. I 
am surprized that ye Declaration was not arrived at your hands before ye 
time of your writting. It came safely and in due time to rne, and I immedi- 
atly took it to Mr. Guthry, who made out ano-r Copy y r of; and after we 



liOBEET KEITH. 237 

hade Signed both Copies, we immediatly sent y m to Mr. Ramsay, enclosed 
in your Pastoral Letter, and wrapt up in a line from me to him recommend 
ing dispatch to him. I was told by Mr. Gray that Mr. Ramsay put the 
Papers into his hands in a day after, having Signed y m , and that he in a few 
days sent them to Mr. Cromby ; so that yc delay would be altoge y r unac 
countable, were it not that you desired they should be Subscribed by Messrs. 
Rolton and Cameron ; and as y 1 is no easy access to y m , tis to be presumed 
the stop has been in that quarter of your District. But I hope they have 
reached your hands before this. The Declaration is a well-worded and 
seasonable Paper, in my judg 1 ; and tho it should have no effect in England, 
yet will be of great use to keep us united amongst ourselves, and fortified 
against yc encroachments of forreigners ; for tho Mr. Lyon, my Bro- r, now in 
England, must be supposed to know more of yc Clergy there than any of us, 
yet I (having lately seen a Copy of a Letter from Bishop Smith to Mr. Ffife, 
of Date Novr. 12, with a Copy of ye Proposals for an accomodation, made 
by Bishop Smith and two of his English Colleagues to Bishop Keith, in June 
or July last) despaire of those gentlemen being ever satisfied with fair and 
reasonable proposals. It seems to me it will not be enough that we own 
ourselves to be of ye same Communion with ye Church of England, unless 
you suspend your Canons, and that nine die, and restore Mr. Ffife to ye peace 
of ye Church and his Presbyterial character (things to my seeming both 
indecent and improbable) ; and to testify your being in Communion with 
y m , administer ye B. Sac-ram 1 of ye Eucharist once a year by y r Office, w" h 
Avould be attended with very bad consequences amongst ourselves, and pull 
down faster y" we have been building these twenty years. In his last Letter, 
w ch is an answer to one from ye execrable Mr. Ffife to him, he owns your and 
your Colleagues Consecrations to be good, but expressly charges you all 
with Rebellion and Schism Rebellion in making Canons contrary to, or 
ra y r without the interposition of, the Civil power, and so transgressing yc 
bounds set you before the Rev[olutron ; and Schism in separating from ye 
Presbyters and people who were for adhering to yc old Establishment. He 
vindicates and patronizes all who withdraw and separate from you upon 
these considerations, and advises Mr. Ffife, rather than apply to you for it, 
to admit his people to the Altar without Confirmation. Xow, if Bishop 
Smith is not singular in these extravagances (and it seems by that Letter, 
Signed by him and two of his English Colleagues, that he is not singular), 
what great hope can we entertain from this Declaration, unless it be to unite 
more closely amongst ourselves, and let others see that we are to maintain 
our Independency, which arc goods highly valuable ? But it will be an 
agreeable disappointment to me to find that it has some good effect even in 
England. 

\Yc are in no pain about S. James Lyturgie, being satisfied that we 
shall have our Copies safely transmitted to us. 

May Almighty God support our Sp r ll Fathers under the many dis 
couragements and difficulties with w dl you now struggle. May all of us of 
ye second Order have the benefit of your Prayers, and in a special manner. 

II. II. Sir, 
Your most dutiful Sou and obedient humble Servt., 

Forfar, Deer. 16th, 1744. WIL. SETON. 

I wish you may read this scribble, wrote in a hurry after the fatigues 
of ye day. 



238 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

Nothing of consequence appears to have been done without 
Keith s advice or concurrence, even before lie was raised to the 
Episcopate. His Consecration, however, took place on the 18th 
of June, 1727; the Sacred Office being performed at Edinburgh 
by Bishops Miller, Rattray, and Gadderar. 

Xuinber 18 in J)ixhoj> Forbes 1 Catalogue. 

20. Original Deed of Bishop Robert Keith s Consecration by Bishops 
Millar, Rath-ay, and Gaddcrar, June 18, 1727. Bishop D unbar Consecrated 
at yc same time. 

From this period the influence of his wise and moderate policy, 
in the business of the Church, appears in several happy results to 
which he conducted the counsels of his Brethren. He was openly 
and decidedly hostile to the foolish measures which w r ere pursued 
by some of his Colleagues, who could not all at once throw off 
the Erastian prejudice, that the power of a Religious Society is 
not complete without the co-operation and sanction of the Civil 
Magistrate. He deprecated with much earnestness certain pro 
ceedings which took place in consequence of this very groundless 
opinion ; and, in reference to Ecclesiastical Patronage and 
Preferment at large, he recommended a speedy recurrence to the 
maxims and practice of Primitive times. 

The following Letters are copied from the Originals, which 
were in Mr. Keith s custody. 

Mr. Keith * Fir*t Letter to ]jinhoj> FtiUartmi of Filinbnr;/Ji. 

My Lord, I am desired by those persons of distinction, the honour of 
whose acquaintance you know I have in this place, to signify to your Lord 
ship that they, having seen and considered the case of the Meeting-house of 
Dundee, do offer as their judgment that Bishop Nome s Paper, constituting 
Mr. Ouchterlony Minister thereof, is of a very wild and extravagant nature, 
and a plain contradiction in itself; and, therefore, that you ought to comply 
with the desire of the good people of Dundee, and grant your consent for 
Mr. Eait to remove from his present small Charge to exercise his Ministry 
among them. This, they assure your Lordship, is the only method to 
prevent such a breach and flame in that City and Church as you would be 
glad to have made up and extinguish d when perhaps it may be too late. 

My Lord, I have not courage to say to your Lordship all that these 
worthy persons, in wliose name I write, did order me to say. I am per 
suaded this hint will be sufficient, and that your Lordship will be at no loss 
what to determine. Their concern in that Country, your Lordship knows, 



EGBERT KEITH. 239 

is considerable ; and that person of them who received lately a Letter from 
you, recommending a gentleman of your name to him, and which Letter I 
saw, bids me in particular tell your Lordship, as he entertains a very great 
regard for your person and the Church, would be sorry to find you act in 
this affair otherwise than as he expects. I beg your Lordship s benediction, 
and am, My Lord, 

Your Lordship s most obedient Son and humble Servant, 
(Wants a Date.) E. KEITH. 

Mr. Keith s Second Letter to l>i*]iop FnlUirton of Edinburgh. 

My Lord, The Episcopal Congregation at Dundee having, upon some 
whispering little advantageous to your Lordship, sent a representation of 
the same to several persons of distinction of that Country who reside in this 
City, they do again commissionate me first, to return you thanks in 
their name for the favourable and just Decree you were pleased to make 
with respect to Mr. Eait ; and next, they beg your Lordship to adhere to the 
same judgment against the insinuations of some people who want only to 
tarnish your Lordship s character, and then to make a mock of you when 
they get it done. 

My Lord, it consists with my knowledge that this is not a new thing, 
and since the request of the people of Dundee, and of those persons here, is 
entirely conformable to justice, and tends only to peace and concord, which 
it is visible the contrary party doth not, I beg pardon, as one of your 
Presbyters, to offer my advice to your Lordship to confirm your former Deed, 
if ever any solicitation shall be made in the contrary; or, which will be 
equally available, that you act nothing in contradiction to what you have 
already done. I ask your Lordship s Benediction, and am, my Lord, 
Your Lordship s most obedient Son and humble Servant, 

Aprile 5th, 1727. E. KEITH. 



Eev. Sir, I am let into a story of the Eight Eev. Mr. Norrie, in which 
I take notice of some steps out of the ordinary road. I cannot but take 
notice of one of an extraordinary nature, which is his constituting and 
ordaining Mr. Ouchterlony his Successor by his own authority, and a pre 
tended majority of the house on his side, which is an act of an extraordinary 
nature, if not a contradiction in itself; for which I cannot approve it, but 
rather that Mr. Eait should have that post of Dundee, which will be a mean 
to extinguish that flame which is but too much kindled there already, and 
is of a more canonical healing nature. Please signify my mind in this 
matter to those worthy persons of distinction by whose advice you wrote to 
me.* This is all from Your affectionate Brother, 

(Sic Subscr.) Jo. EDIXBURGEX. 

To the Eev. Mr. Robert Keith, 

Minister of the Gospel at Ed r . 

: : So this is an Answer to Mr. Keith s First Letter. 



Eev. Sir, I find that there are still some things upon the wheel relat 
ing to Mr. Eait s settlement at Dundee, and some endeavours makin"- to 



240 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

perswade me to alter my mind in what I have clone. I hereby declare that 
I firmly adhere to my opinion, and that no insinuation whatsoever shall be 
able to make me revoke what I have already declared in that affair. So I 
desire you to signify so much to the Reverend Clergy and Gentlemen there, 
so as there be not the least suspicion given for altering my mind in that 
business ; which I give as my full and final determination in the settlement 
of that Congregation on the forcsaid Mr. Rait. This, with my Benediction 
to you and all the Reverend Brethren there,* I rest, Revd. Sir, 

Your most affectionate Brother and humble Servant, 
(Irccnhall, Aprile 9th, 1727. (Sic Subscr.) Jo. FULLARTOX. 

To the Rev. Mr. Robert Keith, 

Minister of the Gospel at Ed 1 . 

:;: This in Answer to Mr. Keith s Second Letter to the Bishop. 



Rev. Sir, Last day the Bishop of Edinburgh s Letter to you was 
deliver cl me by the Rev. Mr. James Rait ; he received it from Mr. Carnegy, 
the gentleman of whom I wrote you in my last. The said Letter was open 
when it came to his hands, and lie knows not but it may chance to be of use 
to him, and therefore entreats carefully to preserve it. :;: The Bishop has 
likewise wrote a Letter to Mr. Rait, authorising him to leave his Charge at 
Kirrimuir, and accept of that in this place ; and another to us of the Epis 
copal Congregation, approving of and confirming our Election. Mr. Rait, 
after a formal invitation to residence among us, came in this week, in order 
to begin and perform his Ministry on Sunday next ; since which time he 
produced to Mr. Goldman his authority, and earnestly desired he might 
unite with him as his Colleague ; who answered that he could give him no 
return untill he consulted Mr. Ouehterlony, with whom we humbly think 
that neither Mr. Rait nor we ourselves have any concern. lie has not 
yet got Mr. Goldman s Answer, else should by this time have advised you of 
it. "Meanwhile, we have provided a house where Mr. Rait may perform 
Divine Service to a good number of people, and have the promise of our 
Magistrates that he shall have the same liberty which the other two enjoy, 
altho Mr. Ouchterlony s friends have been at much pains to give them very 
bad impressions of his ministry and principles. This will be delivered you 
by my Son, together with the Bishop of Edinburgh s Letter to you, men- 
ti on d above. Wishing you all happiness, I am with profound respect. 

Rev. Sir, 
Your most affectionate and humble Servant, 

Dundee, 18th March, 1727. CIIA. WHITE. 

To the Rev. Mr. Robert Keith, at his Lodging 
in the Canongatc, Edinburgh. 

* This is the Letter of March 3rd. 



Rev. Sir, I was favour d with yours of the 23d currant. This will be 
delivered you by Mr. Dempster, a young gentleman, and who is a nephew 
of Mr. James Rait. You will find enclosed a Letter to the Bishop of Edin 
burgh, which, after perusal, seal up and return to the said Mr. Dempster. 



ROBERT KEITH. 241 

You are earnestly entreated by the gentlemen who Subscribe that Letter, 
that you would take the trouble of seconding it with one to the Bishop from 
yourself, which Mr. Dempster will likewise take from you : for the substance 
of it we refer you to your own. This second application to the Bishop is 
occasional by some thrcatuings of Mr. J. :iy , which have reached our ears. 
His expression is, that unless Mr. Rait renounce Episcopacy he will bo 
obliged in a very short time to remove from this place ; which plainly 
insinuates that he must have a design in view of imposing upon the good 
Bishop, by putting this affair in some other shape than that in which we 
most ingenuously and faithfully represented it to his Lordship. "We are 
informed that next week he goes for Ed r , where no doubt his utmost efforts 
will be used to effectuate this his unchristian design. I told you in my last 
that Mr. Rait, after presenting to Mr. Goldman the credentials of his Title, 
and earnestly desiring he might unite with him as his Collcgue, that he put 
him off with promise of a reply how soon he had consulted with Mr. Ouch- 
terlony ; but instead of this (finding their first stratagem fail with respect to 
his ministrations), they began to muster up all their objections against the 
Bishop of Edinburgh s authority, by which he is settled, representing Mr. 
Rait a disorderly intruder, and as such threatning all who should counten 
ance or join with him in any of the publick Offices of Divine Service, nor to 
suffer them to enter their meeting. However surprising this their bold 
unprecedented stroke at all Ecclesiastical Discipline and Christian Unity 
may appear to you, it is fact ; for no sooner did they perceive the people of 
their Communion incline to maintain unity, by going one dyet to Mr. Rait s 
Meeting and another to theirs for the benefit of publick Worship, twice every 
Lord s day which they did not before, their Meeting-house not being 
sufficient to contain one-half of the Episcopal Congregation they fell upon 
this unheard of and most unchristian stratagem of frightning the people 
with the guilt of Schism ; tho I perswade myself this will have a greater 
tendency to ruin than promote their interest. I need not give you direc 
tions what cautious use to make of this information. Praying Clod may 
reward all your good offices to us, and me in particular, with a Blessing on 
yourself and family, I am, with sincere respect, 

Rev. Sir, 

Your much obliged and most humble Servant, 
Dundee, March 30, 1727. CIIA. WHITE. 

To the Reverend Mr. Robert Keith, Minister of the Gospel, 
at his Lodgings in the Canongate. 

[In consequence of this request, Mr. Keith wrote his Second Letter to 
the Bishop of Edinburgh ; and the Bishop s Letter of Aprile 9th was in 
answer to it.] 



Rev. Sir, I received your favours of the 14th currant, which gave no 
small satisfaction to the Rev. Mr. Rait s friends in and about this place, 
having thereby removed all those fears they laboured under from the open 
threatnings and secret contrivances of their adversaries. I assure you these 
gentlemen have a very just and gratcfull sense of this and all your former 
good offices, and do heartily wish it may be in their power at any time to 
make a due resentment of them. Meanwhile such is the unhappy temper 
of the chief promoters of all the clamours that have been raised against Mr. 
VOL. n. 2 H 



242 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

Halt s settlement, that they not only give a deaf ear themselves to all terms 
of peace, but disswade others ; and althu there is not the least room to douht 
of yours being a true and genuine Copy of the Bishop of Edinburgh s Letter, 
yet the experience we have of their unfair and disingenuous dealing with 
those whom they have hitherto strangely hoodwink d, gives us reason to 
think that, tho conscious to themselves of the sincerity of your Letter, yet 
they will not scruple to make their people believe that it may be otherwise. 
Wherefore, to prevent this, the Original is earnestly desired, which you may 
either give to Mr. Dempster, who delivcr d you my last, or to my son, cither 
of which will send it under their cover ; tho I much rather it came under 
your own, by which you may perhaps be able to give some account of Mr. 
Ouchtcrlony s negociations, who is now at Edinburgh, and, as some say, 
designs further West. Praying all happiness to you, I am, with much 
respect, Rev. Sir, 

Your obliged and most humble Servant, 
Dundee, Aprile 18, 1727. CIIA. WHITE. 

p.S. Since writing of this, I have a Letter from my brother, who is 
returned from executing a Commission he had in the West Country, which 
I hope will in a very little time not only compose our own differences, but 
likewise contribute to the peace and welfare of the whole Church. I shall 
be able to write you in a short time more freely on that subject. 

To the Reverend Mr. Robert Keith, 

at his Lodgings in the Canougate, Ed 1 . 



Rev. Sir, I received your favourable Letter of the 12th, a Copy of 
which I have this day sent to my brother to be communicate to Dr. Rattray, 
who, I am informed, is at present in the North. This may perhaps retard 
his congratulatory Letter to your Bishop* some longer than if he had been 
in this neighbourhood. Meanwhile, I am persuaded that my brother will 
communicate your Letter to him without loss of time. Mr. Robert Ouch- 
terlony and Mr. Rose, his Clerk, left this place on Thursday last in their 
way home, having carried Dr. Rattray s Election by a great majority of the 
Presbyters of this District ; and I believe both he and the Elect Bishop of 
Murray may be with you in a very short time to be Consecrate, if the Bishop 
of Ed r be disposed to go into such measures as you and other friends 
shall propose to him. Mr. Rait and his friends here have, from your con 
stant and repeated favours, conceived a very just and lively sense of your 
pious concern for the peace and welfare of the Church ; and are no less 
sensible of your prudent conduct in keeping our Letters, for we now plainly 
see our error in that Paragraph of ours, wherein we say that we never yet 
question d Mr. Ouchtcrlony s settlement, which may indeed be constructed 
as if we acknowledged the legality of it. Pray God may prosper your pious 
and assiduous endeavours for peace and order to His afilicted Church, and 
reward your unwearied labours that way with all the blessings of this and 
another life. I remain, with sincere and due respect, 

Rev. Sir, 
Your much obliged and most humble Servant, 

Dundee, 13th May, 1727. CHA. WHITE. 

* This was Bishop Millar, for Bishop Fullarton Died in the end of Aprile. 



BOBEBT KEITH. 213 

p.y. Mr Bait being busied this afternoon, earnestly desired I should 
tender you his service, and begs you ll excuse his not writing till next Post. 

[But as far as Mr. Keith remembers, he received no Letter in all this 
affair from Mr. Bait, nor is he in possession of any.] 

To the Bevercnd Mr. Bobert Keith, 

at his Lodgings in the Canongate, Ed 1 . 

When the Revolution had broken the English Church into 
two Communions, many of the ejected Clergy, and, among the 
rest, the celebrated Dr. Hickes, thinking themselves no longer 
tied down by Parliamentary Decrees in their Sacerdotal Adminis 
trations, wished to revive those Ancient Usages, which they saw 
the English Reformation had begun with in the Eucharistic 
Service, of 1st, Mixing Water with the Wine ; 2d, Commemo 
rating the Faithful departed ; 3d, Consecrating the Elements by 
an express Invocation ; and 4thly, Using the Oblatory Prayer 
before reception, as in the Scotch Episcopal Communion Office. 
Others of them were for adhering to the Office as it stood estab 
lished by Law, and authorized by long Practice, which the 
intended Revival, they said, seemed to condemn. This differ 
ence of sentiment produced Conferences and Writings from both 
sides without any effect, but with no heat on either side as long 
as Bishop Hickes lived, whom, for his piety and judgment, they 
all equally revered. But upon his Death, on the 15th December, 
171-5, Bishop Jeremy Collier, the laborious Church Historian, 
being now- the Senior Bishop in that Succession, and a man of 
much warmth of temper as well as extent of learning, appeared 
keenly at the head of the " USAGERS ;" and, being supported by 
an able party, among whom was .the well-known Dr. Thomas 
Brett, pressed the reception of the " Four Primitive Points" with 
great vigour and strength of argument. At the head of the 
other party was Bishop Nathaniel Spinckes, formerly one of the 
Prebendaries of Sarum, and Rector of S. Martin s, in that 
Diocese, who, with his Followers, chiefly rested their opposition 
on the necessity of keeping close to the Second Book, which 
had received both a Civil and Ecclesiastical Sanction. For 
terminating, if possible, these differences, it was agreed, on both 
sides, to consult the Scottish Bishops, and refer the matter wholly 
to their decision. To this purpose a Mr. Peck [See Scotichroni- 



244 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

con, vol. ii., pp. 118 and 127 1 came down from the " USAGERS" 
in 1718, and made application, both to Bishop Hose and Bishop 
John Falconar, for a Synodical Determination ; which they de 
clined, but were willing to act as Mediators and Friends to both 
sides, recommending peace and forbearance of authority. Bishop 
Spinckcs, too, from the other side, wrote to these two Bishops, 
to engage them in his favour, but met with the same return ; yet, 
to testily their readiness to do what they could for preventing a 
rupture among friends, they employed Dr. Rattray (of Craighall, 
in Perthshire), a man of singular knowledge in Ecclesiastical 
Literature, to draw up "Proposals of Accommodation for recon 
ciling these Differences ; " which, at their request, he did with 
candour and moderation, without entering critically, as he well 
could, into the merits of the Cause, but only wishing both parties 
to condescend so far, for peace s sake, as to Communicate occa 
sionally with one another in Holy Offices, according to the 
respective Form of those whose privilege it was to Officiate at 
the time. This Paper, though approved by Bishop Rose, as 
" being written with much judgment, full of Christian temper, 
and making much for peace," yet, as the Bishop feared, had the 
common fate of all such reconciling schemes, not to give the 
satisfaction intended by it, at the same time that neither party 
could find fault with it. 

The spirit which prevailed in the Church for nearly twenty 
years after the date of the above Transactions, and particularly 
after the Demise of the good Bishop Rose, proves but too clearly 
that the Scottish Prelates, w r ho were originally engaged in the 
question as Mediators and Umpires, soon became deeply inter 
ested as Parties, and eagerly employed themselves in its discus 
sion as individual Controversialists. Picmonstrances, Injunctions, 
and Pastoral Admonitions (the usual resources of Churchmen 
when the more ordinary methods of convincing the understand 
ing are found ineffectual), were issued as well by the " Usagers" 
as by those who opposed the Revival of those Ceremonies. The 
moderation employed by Bishop Keith, in paving the way for a 
final Agreement among the leading men on both sides, is to be 
extolled. 



EGBERT KEITH. 245 

Xionbcr 21 in Jjishop Ivories Catalogue. 

13. In Print (8vo), a Letter, Septemr. 23, 1728, to the Rev. Mr. David 
Ranken, upon the " Usages," by Bishop Keith. 

The accommodation of these unfortunate differences seems 
indeed to have given much satisfaction, even to those persons 
who were known to have made the greatest sacrifices in point of 
opinion and predilection. In a Letter from Bishop Rattray to 
Bishop Keith, the former quotes an expression as used by Bishop 
Gillan, who trusted that "it would not, through God s grace, be 
in the power of men or of devils to disturb that happy Union 
with which he has been pleased to bless us." 

As soon as Bishop Keith was invested with the Episcopal 
Office, 18th June, 1727, as Coadjutor to the then aged Bishop 
Millar, he was intrusted with the Superintendence of the exten 
sive Districts of Caithness, Orkney, and the Isles. As he con 
tinued to reside in Edinburgh, we are not informed in what way 
he discharged the duties incident to these remote Districts, so 
difficult at that time of access. 

Among the numerous Papers preserved in the Episcopal 
Chest of Drawers at Trinity College, Glenalmond, there are two 
Original Deeds certifying the Ordination both to the Diaconate 
(1740, Oct. 21) and Priesthood (1751, Jan. 9) of Mr. James 
Winchester, by Bishop Keith for Orkney, "juxta morcm ccdcsue 
Scoticance," 

Tacked to these Deeds there is an original Letter from some 
gentlemen in Stornoway, a part of the Long Isle, Dated July 22, 
in the year 1738, and addressed to Bishop Keith, in which they 
"thank him most kindly for his care of them, in sending among 
them the Rev. Mr. John Williamson of Sky," cv.c. There is also a 
second Original Letter in the same Repository, from Mr. James 
Taylor at Tlmrso, 12th July, 1757, addressed to Mr. Robert 
Forbes of Leith, afterwards Bishop Forbes, expressing "his 
surprise how any could call in question Bishop Keith being 
acknowledged Bishop of Caithness and Orkney." 

Number 15 in Jlivhop Forbes 1 Catalnr/nc. 
21. (Holographs) Letters from Messrs. James Taylor and William Long- 



246 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

moor, Thurso aud "Wick, Janry. 1-1, 1731, to Bishop Keith, tlint they had a 
Letter from Mr. Seymours, travelling Tutor, at the desire of Bishop Frce- 
baim, to forward a Deed of Flection in favour of Mr. AVm. Harper, Senior, 
to he Bishop of Caithness, &c. ; to which Bishop Keith made return, that 
" since this project was carried on without his knowledge, thu Bishop of 
Caithness, he strictly prohibited them to meddle in that matter ; which put 
a stop to it. Bishop Keith told Mr. Seymours that he was not ignorant of 
the uncanonical step he had been adviseing, &c. Mr. Symmers owned it 
Avas Avrong, and begg d there might be 110 more of it," &c. 

25. Some Original Letters between Bishop Keith and Mr. David Ander 
son, about supplying Orkney Avith Clergymen, and about the Bishops not 
admitting some persons into their number, &c., Feb. 5, &c., 1735. 

Bishop Keith was Preferred to the Superintendence of Fife, 
17th July, 1733. 

liistntmeut <>f Election of the 11. 11. Bixhop Unlert Keith fur the District of F fife. 

"We, the Presbyters of the District of Ffife, being sensible of the loss we 
sustain by the want of a Bishop, to be a principle of unity unto us, and 
having met by virtue of a Mandate directed by the Right Reverend Mr. 
David Ffreebairn, the Primus, and the other Right Reverend Bishops, to the 
Reverend Mr. "William Mylne, at Ffalkland, have unanimously Fleeted the 
Right Reverend Bishop Robert Keith to be our immediate Ordinary, to 
preside over us, and to have the inspection over the Church of God among 
us. And AVG hereby promise him all due and Canonical Obedience, and we 




of this Church, for their Confirmation. In testimony Avliereof, AVC have 
Subscribed these Presents, Avrittcn by Master James Morice, our Clerk, at 
Ffalklaud, the tenth day of July, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Thirty 
Three. 

"WiLL. MYLNE, Moderator. JOHN ALEXANDER. 

J. MACKENZIE. Ro. LYON. 

JA. MORICE, In. Clerk. ALEX. LIVINGSTON. 

JOHN PETRIE. DAVID GORDON. 

Reverend Brethren, I thank you kindly for the confidence you have 
placed in me, and shall endeavour, by the help of God, to discharge the 
duty of my Sacred function among you. 

ROBERT KEITH. 

Right Reverend Brother, "We heartily approve the choice the Presby 
ters of the District of Ffife have made of you, and do hereby Confirm you 
Bishop of that District ; and we pray God may direct and assist you in the 
management thereof. Given at Edinburgh the 17 July, 1733. 

DAVID FFREEBAIRN, Primus. 
Jo. GILLAN, Bishop. 



EGBERT KEITH. 247 

The following are remarkable incidents during his Episcopate 
of Fife :- 

5. of Number 17. Originals and Copies of Letters concerning the 
Ordination of Mr. Nathaniel Spens by Bishop Freebairn, tho living, and 
about to Officiate in Fife, the District of Bishop Keith, particularly the said 
Mr. Spens Holograph Letter of humble submission and acknowledgment to 
Bishop Keith, Aprile 18, 1738, upon which he was instantly pardon d and 
received into favour, &c. 

Bishop Keith issued the following Protest against this irregularity : 

I, Mr. Robert Keith, Bishop of the District of Fife, understanding that 
several of the Presbyters of Edinburgh are now employed, by Order of the 
Bishop of that District, in taking tryal of Mr. Nathaniel Spens, belonging 
to my Jurisdiction, do hereby protest against the uncanonical practice, and 
against you, Mr. Thomas Auchinleck, Mr. Thomas Mowbray, Mr. William 
Harper, Mr. Alex. Robertson, Mr. Alex. Mackenzie, Mr. Patrick, and David 
Rait, and all others, as if named, that shall employ themselves as aforesaid, 
or that recommend the said Mr. Nathaniel Spens to the Bishop of Edin 
burgh, or any other Bishop, for receiving of Holy Orders without my 
consent ; and I do likewise hereby appeal to the Bishops of this Church in their 
first Meeting for redress, if you shall presume to proceed any farther, this my 
Protestation notwithstanding. In Witness whereof, I have Written and 
Signed this Instrument of Protest and Appeal at Edinburgh, the Third Day 
of February, 1738, and have appointed the same to be given in in my name to 
the persons concerned, by Mr. John Mackenzie, my Colleague, one of the 
Presbyters of Edinburgh, who is likewise to do all other things required 
herein. 

(Sic subscr.) ROBERT KEITH. 

18. of Number 14. (Original) Gentlemen in and about Falkland to 
Bishop Keith, Augt. 20, 1739, about providing them in a Clergyman. 

10. of Number 14. Do. to Do., Octor. 24, 1739, requesting to have Mr. 
Young, Chaplain to Logic Drummond, settled at Falkland. 

21. of Number 14. (Holograph) Scotstarvet to Bishop Keith (Febry. 3, 
1741), that ye People of Grail had made choice of Mr. Robt. Lindsay for their 
Pastor, and requested his being settled accordingly. 

30. of Number 14. (Original) Octor. 8, 1744. Address to Bishop Keith 
from the Gentlemen at the Congregation of Down, to have Mr. John Blair 
to be their Pastor, with Mr. Blair s original Letter of Acceptance of same 
Date. 

Keith Resigned the Superintendence of Fife on the 23d of 
August, 1743. 

15 of Number 7. (Original) Bishop Keith s Resignation of Fife, with 
concurrences of the o y r Bishops, Ed r , Augt. 23, 1743. 

It was in 1743 that the Diocese of Edinburgh became 
vacant by the Death of Bishop Rattray, who appears to have 



248 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

been Elected in 1743 by the Clergy of that City: though (as 

**Jv / * O \ 

Bishop Russell says) there is no satisfactory evidence to show 
that he ever entered upon the Episcopal Duties of the Metropolis. 
Upon this event, some intention seems to have been entertained 
of appointing Bishop Keith his Successor ; and the .Resignation 
of Fife by the latter, which took place in the same year, docs 
unquestionably give a certain degree of countenance to the 
rumour which was propagated on this subject. 



P. B. I). B., After wishing you all the compliments of the season, and. 
that this year may ho more favourable to all of us than the last has been, I 
must tell you that I greatly fear our friend A. G. thought it not amiss to 
drop something of what we intended as to the filling the Vacancy of Dun 
blane ; but I ll remonstrate most warmly against it, and I apprehend it will 
cost both you and me all our skill to enducc him. 

I could be content to know what the Clergy of Edinb r arc a doing, and 
if they have any person in view for their Bishop. I wish they were so wise 
as to elect our \l. II. Primus, Bishop Keith. I take him to be the propcrest 
person for the Diocese of Fdin r upon many accounts. His knowledge, 
prudence, experience, and his situation do all point him out for that office ; 
and I have often wondred why the Presbyters did not pitch upon him for 
their Ordinary. For my own part, after I have once and again conversed 
with his keenest opponents, I never could have one good reason for their 
being so averse to a person of Bishop Keith s merit and capacity, unless 
merit, capacity, and modesty be good reasons. It is very true none of them 
come near him in all these respects, for I know he is very much superior to 
any Priest in the Diocese, for his erudition, penetration, and for a great 
many other qualities ; and we know whom envy attends. But I dare 
promise, chuse whom they will, they cannot make a better choice. And, 
therefore, should it happen to come to be talkt of, in any conversation where 
you may be a sharer, what my sentiments arc with respect to the Diocese of 
Fdin r (as you and I know one another s thoughts upon that head, as well as 
on some others), I beg you ll do me the favour (I leave the opportunities to 
your own prudence) to answer in my name that I still look upon Bishop 
Keith, upon many accounts, to be the fittest and propcrest person for being 
Bishop of Edin r ; and wherever I have anything to say he shall have my 
suffrage for it. I hope, if any settlement casts up, you will remember my 
brother, whom I can recommend for his prudence and good behaviour. 

11 t has maul d me most unmercifully for intreating him to dispense 
with the intimation of his sentence at Inverness, where Dr. Colvin has a 
br. and two sisters, and upon that account Mr. Hay is very much afraid to 
venture it. YVill not W. and you, who are the majority in this case, dis 
pense with the order; for I might have applied to W. and you instead of 
writing to Pi., who is intirely under the dominion of his own and some other 
people s passions ; and from his appearing so inflexible on a point of so 



ROBERT KEITH. 249 

small import, and to which I am bound by no terms of Catholick Com 
munion tho he boldly avers I am, to which I only am obliged by Signing 
the Order for its intimation yet he is resolved to keep me bound, as if, 
forsooth, it was solely in his power so to do. I do really think the poor 
gentleman s head is giddy. He makes such a world of clatter about his 
authority, his absolute independent powers, etc., that he puts me in mind of 
some of the old Popes, when they actually frighted folks by their clamour 
and noise to yield to their demands. He does not consider the times in 
which he lives ; he makes 110 allowances for other people s circumstances or 
prejudices ; but rushes on blindly, passionatly, and with not one grain weight 
of prudence, neither minding his own character, nor how far his indiscreet 
behaviour may affect the Church. I shall let him know so much, whither 
he likes it or not, some posts hence. 

Fail not to write me what is a doing, and how the Clergy of Dumblane 
stand affected ; what news from England, and if R or W. Robertson are 
to enter the lists with that doughty champion of novelty, Ja. Dundass. I 
beg your prayers, as you shall always have those, tho unworthy, of, 

R. R. Sir, 
Your affectionate Brother and most humble Servant, 

Elgin, Janry. 11, 17-1-1. ^YIL. FALCONAR. 

Bishop Keith used considerable pains to remove the impression 
which the above report created among his Brethren. In a Letter 
to Mr. Thomas Auchinleck, October Gth, 1744, he makes a 
formal Declaration that he never, in any shape, solicited to be 
Bishop of Edinburgh, but that, on the contrary, he had declined 
the Appointment when actually offered to him. The " Nolo 
Episcopari" has, no doubt, been long regarded as an innocent 
expression of pious insincerity, a phrase which is never meant 
to be interpreted too literally, or remembered too long. Still, in 
circumstances such as those which belong to the "Episcopal 
Church" in these Northern parts, we cannot imagine that a 
man of Bishop Keith s character could be exposed to disappoint 
ment by having his services rejected ; and far less can we believe 
that he would violate truth, even to heal the wounds of mortified 
ambition. 



NARRATIVE OF WHAT PRECEDED THE SYNODICAL MEETING OF THE BISHOPS OF THE 
CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, BEGUN ON TUESDAY THE llTH JULY, 1738. 

(Fi O)ii a sitKtU 4.to JUS. in B aslif>j~i Jolly s Kixt.\ 

Upon Monday or Tuesday after Pentecost, Bishops Rattray and Keith 

went together to visit Bishop Freebairn, who, after some discourse with 

them, expressed his desire that Bishop Rattray might become the happy 

instrument of removing any misunderstandings that had happened amongst 

VOL. u. 2 i 



250 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

the Bishops ; who declared himself ready and willing to use his best en 
deavours towards that good end ; and the next time he waited of Bishop 
Freehairn, gave it as his opinion that a Syiiodicall Meeting of the Bishops 
was the most proper mean for removing all misunderstandings whatsoever. 
Bishop Freebairn was then entirely of the same mind, and desired Bishop 
Rattray to write Bishop Dunbar, that his mind might be also known with 
regard to that General Meeting, which he accordingly did. Eight or ten 
days after writing to Bishop Dunbar, Bishops Rattray and Keith again 
waited of Bishop Freebairn, and all were of opinion that it was not neces 
sary to wait Bishop Dunbar s answer, there being no room to doubt but he 
would heartily approve of the calling of the Synod; and therefore Bishop 
Freebairn, as Primus, did appoint a Synod to be holden at Edinburgh, and 
tin} Form in which Bishop Dunbar was called to that Synod is as follows : 
" Edin r , June 5th, 17o8. Since a Meeting of the Bishops of this Church is 
1 bought requisite, I hereby appoint the Meeting to be on the Eleventh day 
of July next at Edinburgh ; and therefore I earnestly intreat you to be 
present thereat, as Bishop Batttray and Bishop Keith will be, who are here 
with me at writing of this. Signed, DAVID, Bishop of Edinburgh, Primus. 
Directed thus To the Bight Reverend William Dunbar, Bishop of the Dis 
trict of Aberdeen." 

Just as the Primus was going to Sign this, he said to this purpose, "I 
hope, Brethren, you do not desire that Bishop White should be called to 
this Meeting." To which it was answered by Bishop Rattray, " That there 
would be time enough to talk of that matter twixt and the day appointed." 

Soon after the Meeting was thus appointed, Bishop Rattray received 
from. Bishop Dunbar an Answer to that Letter he had wrote him at the 
desire of the Primus, Dated at Peterhead, June the 1st, 1738, in which he 
says, " If I find the return of any tolerable measure of strength and vigour 
of body, which I have little reason to look for in my advanced age, I shall 
not, God willing, fail to be personally present with you on the day appointed 
for your Meeting. But meantime, I earnestly intreat that the Primus will 
agree to what I think I have a just title that I may be present then by 
Proxy. The consideration of my great age and infirmity s, and the great dis 
tance, will, I am confident, incline both him and our other Right Reverend 
Brethren to see the reasonableness of this demand, which, notwithstanding 
my right, I will take as a favour and good omen. If a fit occasion offer 
here for transporting me by sea, I know not but my great desire to see you 
all united in the bond of peace, will give me courage to embrace it." 

Bishop Rattray immediately shewed Bishop Dunbar s Letter to the 
Primus, and said that nothing was demanded by that Bishop but what he 
had unquestionable right to ; and the Primus very readily acknowledged the 
reasonableness of the thing, and declared he would willingly receive a Proxy, 
and wished that Bishop Dunbar would make choice of Bishop Rattray to be 
the person. And in an after communing between these two Bishops, in 
which Bishop Rattray acquainted Bishop Freebairn with every thing that 
then occurred to him which he thought should be done in the Meeting, and 
particularly concerning Bishop White, Bishop Freebairn said that lie him 
self had been much blamed by some persons for having appointed a Meeting, 
which, however, he was resolved to keep. To which Bishop Rattray 
answered to this purpose " That it would seem such as did so wanted to 
raise and keep up faction among the Bishops, to the weakening of that Dis 
cipline, which would be the necessary consequence of their unanimity." 



ROBERT KEITH. 251 

Bishop Free bairn likewise told Bishop Rattray that Bishop Oucliterlony had 
written to him that he had little or no thoughts of attending this Meeting. 

Upon the 10th of July, Bishops Rattray aiid Keith went to Bishop 
Freebairn about mid-day, and desired to know from him the time and place 
of the Synod s Meeting on the eleventh, which he appointed to be precisely 
at eleven of the clock forenoon, within his own Meeting House ; and added 
that he had already given the proper orders for having the door open against 
that hour. These two Bishops enquired also whether Bishop Freebairn had 
heard lately from Bishop Oucliterlony, and if he knew anything of his 
coming to Town at this time ? To which Bishop Frccbairu replyed that ho 
knew not, for that he had not had another Letter from him. 

On that same 10th of July, Bishop Rat tray received a Letter from 
Bishop Freebairn, Dated at ten o clock at night, as Bishop Keith also 
received one that same night, about eleven of the clock, both of them in the 
following words, viz. : 

Right Reverend, Since you were here, Bishop Oucliterlony is come 
to Town [he arrived at 4 afternoon] , and is positive that he will neither 
keep time nor place appointed, till there be a previous Conference amongst 
us ; and if you please to come to this house about ten o clock, you will be 
waited upon by him and your affectionate Brother and Servant, 

(Signed) DAVID FREEBAIRN. 

To which Bishop Rattray returned this Answer next morning : 
Right Reverend, I received a Letter from you, Dated yesterday at ten 
o clock at night, wherein you inform me that Bishop Oucliterlony is come 
to Town ; but what you add does not a little surprise me, that he, a single 
Bishop, should pretend to refuse to keep the time and place of a Synodical 
Meeting appointed by you, as Primus, and agreed to by all the other 
Bishops ; or that he should require a previous Conference amongst the 
Bishops at ten o clock this day, who are to meet within an hour after (at 
eleven), in order to confer together, and determine whatever Ecclesiastical 
matters shall come before them. This appears to me to be so very odd and 
unaccountable a Proposal, that I hope when you reflect upon it, you will 
excuse my not complying Avith it. But I shall not fail, Clod willing, to 
attend you at the time and place you have appointed for our Meeting. I 
am, &c. 

And Bishop Keith s Answer was this: 

R. R. S., I received a Letter from you yesternight, telling me that 
Bishop Oucliterlony was positive he would neither keep time or place of our 
Synodical Meeting, unless he had a previous Conference this day at ten 
o clock (just an hour before that appointed by you for that Meeting). As I 
had an appointment at the same hour this morning, and that I can see no use 
for such a Conference so shortly before the Synodical Meeting, in which we 
may freely treat of any thing in a friendly manner, I desire to be excused 
from waiting on you sooner, and am, R. R. S., 

Your affectionate Brother and Servant, 

Edin r , July llth. ROBERT KEITH. 

On the llth of July, a little before the hour of Meeting, while Bishops 
Rattray and Keith were on the street, ready to enter Bishop Freebairn s 
Meeting House, as they expected, the Reverend Mr. Alexander Robertson 
came to them with a Message from him, that he was under a distress, which 



25-2 DISTRICT 01 FIFE. 

laid hung about liim all tlic day before, and therefore earnestly desired they 
would come to his own Dwelling House. These Bishops answered Mr. 
Robertson They would consider of what he had proposed to them, and 
make a Return to Bishop Freebairn ; and immediately they went into a 
house, and wrote the following Letter, viz. : 

Pi. R. S., We have just now received your Message by Mr. Robertson, 
to which AVC agree, provided you send us a Letter appointing the Synodical 
Meeting to be at your Dwelling House, within half an hour after this Date ; 
and likewise provided the Synod have the command of the door of your 
House, and an empty room next to that wherein the Meeting is to be, so as 
that we may not be overheard ; but otherwise we cannot meet in any place 
where the Synod has not all due freedom. "We expect your Answer by the 
bearer, and arc, R. R. S., 

Your affectionate Brethren and humble Servants, 

T. RATTKAY. ROBERT KEITH. 

Edinburgh, July llth. , after eleven forenoon. 

To which they received this Answer, viz. : 

l\ight Reverend Brethren, I thank you for your Charity towards me, 
when I am not much in a condition to come abroad. You shall have all 
the freedom in Meeting, and shall command a room where none shall hear 
us. I am, R. R., 

Your affectionate Brother and Servant, 

DAVID FREEBAIKN. 
Edinburgh, llth July, half an hour after eleven forenoon. 

Presently after which, the Bishops Rattray and Keith, together with 
the Rev. Mr. Robert Lyon, Presbyter at Craill, Proxy for Bishop Dunbar, 
repaired to Bishop Freebairn s house, where they Avcre met by him and 
Bishop Ouchtcrlony; and after ordinary salutations past, Bishop Rattray 
presented Mr. Lyon as Bishop Dunbar s Proxy, and then desired Bishop 
Freebairn, as Primus, to constitute the Synodical Meeting. But Bishop 
Ouchterlony proposed that there should be a previous Conference amongst 
the Bishops, and was answered, " that all Synodical Meetings being designed 
for conferring, consulting, and determining, concerning the affairs of the 
Church, and the Dyet of the Synod being now come, and all the Bishops 
convened in it, it was certainly most proper to constitute the same by Prayer 
to God. as the likeliest means to procure His blessing upon it, and then to 
enter upon that which was the proper business thereof." But Bishop 
Ouchterlony endeavoured to enforce his proposal by alledging the precedent 
of what was done in December, 1731, for putting an end to the division 
then subsisting among the Bishops of this Church. To which it was replyed, 
that in December, 1731, there was no Synodical Meeting of Bishops. [As 
indeed there neither was nor could then be any Synodical Meeting, in regard 
the division was then so high that not only were there opposite claimants to 
the Bishoprick of Brechin, but also to the District of Edinburgh itself, and 
consequently, as things then stood, to the very power or right of convocating 
such a Meeting. And accordingly, what was done in 1731 was only in the 
way of amicable Conference, begun at first by two Bishops, viz., Gillau and 
Keith, each of different sides ; and altho five Bishops came to be present 
aftenvards in these Conferences, and in some of them a sixth, yet as there 
were then ten Bishops in the Kingdom, so what was concluded and agreed 



EOBEET KEITH. 253 

on in these Conferences was never considered to have received its sanction 
until it was also Signed by the other four Bishops, who were then at their 
respective dwelling places.] 

Then Bishop Oucliterlony objected the precedent of the Meeting in the 
month of June 1733. To which Bishop Keith made answer, that Bishop 
Lumsden, on whose account that Meeting was called, having sickened, and 
being on his deathbed the very time the Synod should have mett, the 
Bishops continued in Town till after his Burial, without any business, and 
so were often in conversation together ; but that no general Conference 
concerning things to be done in the Synod was either required or holden by 
them. [And Bishop Oucliterlony may remember that one very important 
point was never communicated to Bishops Eattray and Keith by the other 
Bishops (tho those other had it some years before in their mind), uutill it 
was proposed in full Synod the very last hour of its sitting. But to what 
purpose was all this insisting on a previous Conference ? Had the Bishops 
happened to differ in their sentiments at such a Conference, would that have 
voided the Meeting ? The Court of Home laboured by all its most refined 
politicks to drive off time both before and after the Council of Trent was 
begun, by proposing of Conferences, &c. ; yet the Pope never ventured to recal 
the Council which himself had appointed, nor to abstract his presence from 
it : this Avas a pitch too high for that great man.] 

Bishop Frecbairn then declared that it was his own opinion that the 
Meeting should be constitute, adding that for his own part he thought any 
thing might be talked of as well after as before it was constitute. 

But Bishop Oucliterlony next objected against admitting Bishop Dun- 
bar s Proxy, as being a thing altogether without precedent in the Church. 
To which it was answered that the precedents were numerous both in 
General and Provincial Councils in the ancient Church. Then he insisted 
there was at least no precedent in the Church of Scotland. In answer to 
which, he was told that if there was no precedent for it, there was none 
against it : and, therefore, whatever Eights belong to the Bishops of the 
Catholick Church, must necessarily belong to every Bishop of the Church of 
Scotland, unless he could show something in the Canons or Constitution of 
that Church to preclude them from the same. [But tho it did not occur at 
that time, and that the answer then given is fully sufficient, yet (notwith 
standing the very few Eecords that are extant) there is at least one most 
clear and evident Document of this Eight being enjoyed by the Scottish 
Bishops, as well as by the Bishops in other parts of the Catholick Church. 
This Document is preserved in that Council recorded in the Chartularics 
both of Aberdeen and Murray, lying in the Lawyers Library at Edinburgh, 
and lately Published by Dr. Wilkins vol. 1st., page 607-608 and is, for 
what is yet known, the only Scottish Council whereof there is any tolerable 
Account remaining; and the first Canon of it concludes thus "Si quis 
vero eorum canonica pra-peditione fuerit impeditus, Procuratorem vice sua 
sufficientem substituat. Non autem veniens personaliter, cum venire possit, 
et noluerit, auctoritate Concilij et arbitrio puniatur." In English thus 
"But if any of them (Bishops) shall be detained from coming to the 
Council through any Canonical impediment, let him constitute a sufficient 
Proxy in his place. And he that does not come in person when he may 
come, but will not, let him undergo an arbitrary punishment by the 
authority of the Council." And with what face can the Proxy of a Bishop 
be objected against, when even the Presbyters of Edinburgh have been 



254 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

allowed to vote by Proxy in their Meetings.] Bishop Freebairu then 
declared again that it was his opinion the Meeting should be constituted. 

And while Bishop Ouchtcrlony was still contending for a previous Con 
ference, even now that the hour of the Synod was come, and labouring thus 
to protract the time by a repetition of the same reasons, and opposing the 
judgment of all the other Bishops, Bishop Freebairn. the Primus, was 
pleased a third time to express himself in these words "Brethren, what I 
said first, I say last, it is my opinion that whatever could be said before, 
may be as well said after constituting the Meeting." Bishops Rattray and 
Keith then urged him to proceed according to his OAVH judgment and theirs 
also, to constitute the Meeting by Prayer to God, for His direction and 
blessing upon their Deliberations and Conferences, as the most likely means 
to bring them to a good issue ; and even required him to do it according to 
his proper Office. There being for it the voices of them two, added to his 
own judgment (the Proxy all that time saying nothing), against the single 
judgment of Bishop Ouchterlony. 

But then Bishop Ouchterlony desired Bishop Freebairn to take notice 
that, if the Meeting were once constituted, there would be three votes against 
two, a very evident majority (said he) ; for he could count his five fingers 
three of which were more than two. [Would the majority have been less 
evident had Bishop Dunbar been there in person ?] 

Bishops Rattray and Keith then observing it to be half an hour after 
twelve o clock, proposed to leave the other two Bishops, offering to return 
at live afternoon, with this express provision, that immediately upon their 
coming back, the Meeting should be constitute. Bishop Ouchterlony said in 
express words, " That is a friendly proposal ;" and so they took leave. 

At live afternoon, they went again to Bishop Freebairn s house, and, 
after much civility, chairs were sett, and he desired the other Bishops would 
sitt down. But it was answered that there was no occasion for sitting down 
till the Meeting was once constitiited by Prayer, which they desired he would 
do immediately. 

Then Bishop Freebairn himself proposed what Bishop Ouchterlony had 
insisted on in the forenoon, viz., that the Bishops should previously talk 
together ; and altho Bishops Rattray and Keith urged him to proceed and 
constitute the Meeting, he continued talking for a pretty large space. And 
when he had done, Bishop Rattray again desired him to constitute the 
Meeting, to which he being averse, and showing a very different countenance 
and humour than in the forenoon alledging now that the Proxy should be 
sett aside, and pretending to have several other things yielded to him, which 
belonged properly to the cognizance of the Synod, before he would proceed 
to constitute it Bishops Rattray, Keith, and the Proxy came away, after 
they had professed their sorrow that he should have so peremptorily refused 
to constitiite that Meeting, which he himself had called, and had all along 
declared he would keep, till that very moment. 

MINUTES 

Of tJie S>/)indicl Meetim/ hold en within the lleetinr/ House in Barrenger s Close, 
TtiMlriu, lllh July, 1738. 

The Bishops Rattray and Keith, and Mr. Lyon, as Proxy for Bishop 
Dunbar, after they had gone both forenoon and afternoon to Bishop Free- 
bairn s Dwelling House, at his own desire, did, upon his refusal to constitute 



EGBERT KEITH. 255 

the Synodical Meeting appointed by him to be held on this day, come to the 
Meeting House in Barrenger s Close (lest any Protest should be taken from 
the day to which the Meeting was called being elapsed), where the Reverend 
Mr. Lyon produced a Proxy from Bishop Dunbar, which was read, and is as 
follows, viz.: "To the Rev. Mr. Robert Lyon, Presbyter at Craill. I, 
William Dunbar, Bishop of the District of Aberdeen forasmuch as a 
Synodical Meeting of the Bishops of this Church is appointed to be holden 
at Edinburgh, upon Tuesday the eleventh day of July next, and that my 
weakness of body renders me unable to be present at it in person, as I would 
most heartily wish to be do therefore, in conformity with Ecclesiastical 
practice on the like occasions in former Ages, hereby constitute and appoint 
you, the Reverend Mr. Robert Lyou, Presbyter at Craill, my Proxy in this 
ensuing Synodical Meeting, giving full power and authority to you, as 
representing me, to sit and vote in my name, as if I myself were personally 
present. Given at Peterhead, the 17th day of June, 1738 years, by WILT . 
DUXBAR, Epis. Ab d ." 

Then, as being the majority of the Bishops, they resolved to constitute 
themselves into a Synodical Meeting, according to the Call and Appointment 
of the Primus to be on this day, which was accordingly done by Bishop 
Rattray, the Senior Bishop. 

After Prayer, the Bishops proceeded to choose a Clerk, and Mr. Lyon 
produced an Instruction from Bishop Dunbar to give his vote for Bishop 
Keith (who was unanimously chosen Clerk), and that Instruction is as 
follows: "Forasmuch as it is to be presumed that the first step after 
constituting a Meeting will be to make choice of a Clerk, for to mark down 
in writing _ every thing that shall pass therein; and since my Right Rev. 
Brother, Bishop Keith, has formerly performed that office, it is my sentiment 
that he be continued Clerk at this time likewise ; and, therefore, I desire 
you, as my Proxy, to give vote in my name accordingly." 

Then Bishop White came, and claimed his right to sit and vote in this 
Synodical Meeting, as being the first that had been holden since his Conse 
cration. The other Bishops present did acknowledge his right, but desired 
him not to insist upon it untill they should see if the other two Bishops 
would come, and concur in the Meeting; to which he (Bishop White) 
condescended. 

Next after this, written Invitations were sent to the Bishops Freebairn 
and Ouchterlony, to come and take their place presently in the Synod, and 
the messenger returned and told he had delivered them. The Invitations 
are as follows : " To the Right Reverend David Freebairn, Bishop of the 
District of Edin r . Whereas a Synodical Meeting of the Bishops of this 
Church was appointed by you, and agreed to by the other Bishops, to be 
holden at Ediu r , this llth day of July, 1738 years ; and the Bishops being 
convened att your Dwelling House, upon your own request, and requiring 
you again and again to constitute the said Meeting by Prayer, and that both 
in the forenoon and in the afternoon, you, notwithstanding, still refused so 
to do : we, therefore, the majority of the Bishops, finding ourselves oblidged 
to keep the said Meeting, have accordingly met within the Meeting House in 
Barrenger s Close; and, the Meeting being constitute by Dr. Thomas 
Rattray, Senior Bishop, do hereby invite and require you, David Freebairn, 
Bishop of the District of Edin r , to come and take your place presently in 
this Synodical Meeting, which you yourself, as Prinms, had called. (Signed) 
T. RATTHAY, ROBERT KEITH, Ro. LYON, Proxy for Bishop William Dunbar." 



25G DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

- To the Eight Rev. John Ouchterlony, Bishop of the District of Brechin. 
Whereas a Synodical Meeting of the Bishops of this Church was appointed 
by David Freebairn, Bishop of the District of Edin 1 , as Primus, to be holden 
at Edin r this llth July, 1738, and the Bishops being convened two different 
times this day, within the Dwelling House of the said Primus, upon his 
desire, and requiring him at both times to constitute the said Meeting, 
which he constantly refused to do, and 3*011 concurred in disswading him 
from it : we, therefore, the majority of the Bishops, finding ourselves 
oblidged to keep the said Meeting, have accordingly met within the Meeting 
House in Barreuger s Close, and the Meeting being constitute by Dr. 
Thomas Rattray, Senior Bishop, do hereby require you, John Ouchterlony, 
Bishop of the District of Brechin (as we have likewise done the Primus) to 
come and take your place presently in this S3~nodical Meeting. Signed as 
above." Then the Bishops adjourned to the next day at twelve o clock. 

W i tliu xiltti/, 12/// Jill /, at Xo/ni. 

The Bishops being met, and Prayers said, Mr. Lyon was sent to 
Bishops Freebairn and Ouchterlony, to give them a second Invitation to 
come and take their place in the Synod. They both acknowledged they 
had received the written Invitations the night before; but said they had 
resolved neither to give any written Answer nor to be present in the 
Meeting. 

After Mr. Lyon had reported this Answer, he then produced an Instruc 
tion from Bishop Dunbar relating to Bishop "White, which is as follows : 
" Whereas the Reverend Mr. Robert White, in consequence of an unanimous 
Address by the Presbyters of the District of Dunblane, referring the Election 
to the Bishops of this Church, was, by the majority of them, chosen Bishop 
of the said District, and that upon the application of the said Majority of 
the Bishops to the Primus, he, instead of concurring with them in the Con 
secration of the said Elect, as he ought to have done, did, together with 
Bishop Ouchteiiony, protest against the same, without offering any Canoni 
cal reasons or exceptions in the contrary ; and that these two Bishops have 
never as yet acknowledged the said Bishop White for Bishop of the said 
District of Dunblane : therefore, if any scruple shall be made at this time 
against his sitting and voting in this Meeting of Bishops, I hereby require 
you, as my Proxy, to give suffrage in my name for his being admitted 
thereto, as having been Canonically Consecrated and appointed Bishop of 
the before-mentioned District, and having thereby equall right with any 
other Bishop of this Church, to this and all other Ecclesiastical Privileges 
competent to them as Bishops thereof." 

And Bishop White was unanimously received, and took his place in the 
Synod. 

Then the Meeting adjourned to four afternoon. 

12//; Juli/, nt Four Afternoon. 

The Bishops being met, and Prayers said, a Proposal was made by Mr. 
Lyon, in name of Bishop Dunbar, for which he produced a particular 
Instruction as follows : 

" Whereas, in the present circumstances of this Church, it is highly 
expedient that in any Meeting of the Bishops thereof, nothing be treated or 
discoursed of but matters purely Ecclesiastical ; that is, such only as con- 



ROBERT KEITH. 257 

cern the pure intrinsic!?- Rights of the Church, as derived from Christ and 
his Apostles, and practised upon in the first Ages, before she came to be 
under any legal Establishment : therefore, I appoint you in my name to 
propose this in the Meeting, and, if need be, to give vote, as my Proxy, that 
it be strictly observed." And the same was unanimously agreed to. 

Then it was proposed that the Concordate of the year 1731 should be 
read, as being the foundation on which the peace and unity of the Church 
was then established, which was produced by the Clerk, and read accord 
ingly ; and the Bishops unanimously approved thereof in all its Articles. 

But in regard the true design and intention of the 4th Article of that 
Concordate has been since called in question (The Article is in these 
words : " That the Bishops of this Church shall, by majority of voices, 
cliuse their Primus, for convocating and presiding only, and that no Bishop 
shall claim jurisdiction without the bounds of his own District") Mr. 
Lyon produced a particular Instruction from Bishop Dunbar, declaring in 
what sense he had always understood that Article, which is as follows : 
AVhereas by the Agreement among the Bishops of this Church in the year 
1731, all claim to metropolitical or vice-metropolitical powers was sett 
aside, and a Primus appointed to be chosen for convocating and presiding 
only : therefore, if any question shall arise at this Meeting concerning the 
extent of these powers of the Primus as I always understood the office 
itself to be designed only temporary, and likewise that he was to act nothing 
therein without the advice and consent of the majority so I require you, as 
my Proxy, to give vote and suffrage in my name, conformable to this my 
declared sentiment ; and particularly, that if the Bishop of Edin r , the present 
Primus, shall pretend either to adjourn or dissolve this ensuing Meeting, 
contrary to the advice and inclination of the majority of Bishops, or shall 
anyways withdraw his presence from it, or not return to it when called upon 
and invited by his Brethren so to do, that then, and in that case, you give 
suffrage in my name that the Bishops may continue to sit and act Synodi- 
cally without him, and require you to sit with them accordingly, and to 
proceed with them to the choice of a new Primus." 

Bishops Rattray and Keith, who had been present, and instrumental in 
framing that Concordate, declared that they had always understood the 4th 
Article in the same sense. 

That the late Bishop Gordon had also so understood it, appeared 
evident not only from his written declinatuje, anno 1734, but also by the 
testimony of those two Bishops (viz., Rattray and Keith), who declared that, 
anno 1733, when Bishop Freebairn was Elected to the District of Edin r , 
Bishop Gillan proposed, in a Meeting of the Bishops on that occasion, that 
another Primus should be then Elected, lest Bishop Freebairn should come 
to lay claim to such powers as had been claimed by his Predecessors. 

The same further appears as to Bishop Gillan, from a Letter wrote by 
the Rev. Mr Robert Douglas, in his own name, and that of the other Pres 
byters in the District of Dunblane, to Bishop Freebairn, of July 15th, 1735, 
in which are these words " We do not enter upon the matter of what is 
understood by your being Primus, or what power and authority is implyed 
therein, it belonging to the Colledge of Bishops to judge in that affair, not 
to us ; only we can well remember that our late worthy Bishop (Gillan) 
often told us that the Primus was so limited, that the occasion of the 
Bishops Meeting was always to be communicated together with the Call." 

VOL. II. 2 K 



258 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

And that Bishop Freebairn himself did then understand the said 4th 
Article in the same sense with his other Brethren, appeared not only from 
the Answer which these two Bishops (Rattray and Keith) declared they 
heard him make to Bishop Gillan s Proposal viz., that he should never 
attempt any tiling of general concern without the consent and concurrence 
of a majority of his Brethren (upon which promise of his Bishop Gillan s 
Proposal was laid aside) hut also by Original Letters under his own hand, 
produced and read in the Synod. In one of which, addressed to Bishop 
Dunbar, and Dated at Edin r , 22d Jan., 1784, he has these words " In short, 
I see no better way to compose our unhappy differences than by a Meeting of 
the Bishops whenever the season of the year will allow it ; for then all parties 
may be impartially heard, and whatever errour they may find in my conduct, 
I shall submit to their censure, even tln i I were Metropolitan, which I will 
never be. I leave that to aspiring humours, who love to command in 
chief." In another Letter, addressed to Bishop Rattray, Dated at Edin r , 3d 
Octr., 1734, and which was the Answer to a Letter Bishop Rattray had 
wrote to him, Dated at Craighall, 17th Augt., 1734, in which Bishop 
Rattray had said "You plainly misconstruct the declinaturc given in to 
you by your Brethren, as if they thereby denyed you that poAver of convo- 
cating, which Avas granted to the Primus by the Articles ; Avhcreas all they 
insist upon is, that that poAver never was intended to be unlimited (AA hich I 
hope you yourself upon reflection will not pretend), notwithstanding its 
being expressed in general terms. One case you may remember Avas 
particularly mentioned, viz., If the rest of the Bishops, or a majority of 
them, should find it necessary to haA e a Meeting, and yet, upon their 
application to the Primus, he should refuse to coirvocate them, might they 
not meet of themselves of common consent ? To which it was replycd, no 
body dissenting, that cases of that nature Avere so plain (viz., from the 
design and intention of the Bishops in framing that Article) that there was 
no need to specify them." And in answer to this part of Bishop Rattray s 
Letter, Bishop Freebairn says, " Xor had I occasion to counteract the one 
thing t .rpn x*!;/ im-ittioitnl, nor can you say that I have claimed any metro- 
politick power, nor do I resolve upon it." And aftenvards, in that same 
Letter, Bishop Freebairn says, "Because the Primus can do nothing, nor 
Avill do nothing, but in conjunction with his Brethren, therefore he calls 
them together to consider such and such exigencies of the Church." 

All which evidence being laid together, and fully considered by the 
Synod, they declare that the design and intendment of the Bishops in this 
4th Article of Agreement in 1731 (Signed by such of them as were present 
upon 20th December) must have been that the Primus was to be ElectiA e 
and temporary only ; that he was to do nothing of general concernment 
but by the concurrence of at least the majority of his Brethren ; and, like 
wise, that if at any time he should refuse to concur with the majority, they 
might meet and act Synodically without him ; and that as Bishop Freebairn 
Avas chosen and appointed Primus only on the 31st day of that same 
December, according to the 4th Article of Agreem 1 (as the original Deed of 
Election shoAvs), so he could have no other powers conferred upon him by 
his Brethren than such as were intended for the Primus by that 4th Article. 
[But such a poAver as Bishop Freebairn has at this time claimed, and, as far 
as he could, exercised viz., to call the other Bishops from remote parts of 
the Kingdom, and then tell them they may go home again, without so much 



HUBERT KEITH. 259 

as constituting the Synod lie had called is so far from being competent to a 
limited Primus, that it is more than any Metropolitan ever pretended to, 
and must appear very absurd at any time, but especially in our present 
situation.] 

And moreover, in conformity to what was done by the Bishops, anno 
1731 who, after they had agreed to a particular division of Districts, added 
these words, viz., "By the aforesaid division of Districts, we do not 
pretend to claim any legal title to Dioceses" this Synod declares that the 
Bishops do not arrogate to themselves any temporal right whatsoever, or 
that the said division and regulations, or any other that has been or may 
be made by them, ought to subsist, in case it shall please Almighty God, in 
the course of His providence, at any time hereafter to restore the Church to 
a legal Establishment ; nor do they thereby in the least intend to encroach 
upon the just rights and priviledges competent to secular powers in 
Ecclesiastical affairs. 

Then the Synod appointed Bishop Eattray and Mr. Lyou to go this 
evening to Bishop Freebairn, and to invite him the third time to come and 
take his place in the Synod the morrow forenoon, and to advertise him that 
if he comes not, they will be oblidged to proceed to the Election of another 
Primus in his room ; and then adjourned till to-morrow r at ten forenoon. 

T/nti sday, 13//< >Tnli/, /it Ten Forenoon. 

The Bishops being met, and Prayers said, Bishop Hattray and Mr. 
Lyon reported that they had been the evening before with Bishop Freebairn, 
and delivered to him the message as directed in the last Session ; and that 
he had declared to them in a very peremptory manner that he would neither 
come to nor any way countenance their Meeting, and that they might do as 
they had a mind, for he would have no regard to it. 

Whereupon the Synod proceeded to the choice of another Primus, and 
the Election fell upon Bishop Eattray, who declared that he did accept the 
office in the sense and import of the 4th Article of the Concordate, as above 
explained. 

The Synod then declared, that thu they are sensible that Bishop Free 
bairn has rendered himself justly obnoxious to censure by his former 
breaches of the Concordate, and especially at this time, by refusing to con 
stitute or to be present in this Synodical Meeting, which he himself had 
called ; yet, out of a tender regard to his great age and infirmities, they are 
not only willing to forbear any proceeding ag l him at this time, but even 
to allow him to take his place as Primus in the next Synod, provided 
he shall conform himself to the Concordate, and particularly to the 4th 
Article, according to the true design and intendment thereof. And Bishop 
Eattray, the new Primus, has declared that in that case he shall most 
willingly resign the Chair to him. 

The Synod likewise declares, that tho Bishop Ouchterlony has in like 
manner rendered himself justly lyable to Censure, for disswading and 
hindering Bishop Freebairn from constituting the present Meeting, when 
he had declared again and again that he was willing so to do, as well as for 
refusing to come himself to the Synod, when twice invited to come to the 
second of which Invitations, he not only gave a peremptory answer that he 
would not come, but also added that he was to leave the City next morning 



200 DISTIUCT OF FIFE. 

(viz., the morning of this very clay), which supersedes any further Invitation 
as to him yet, since they have thought fit not to proceed against Bishop 
Frecbairn, they have likewise condescended to forbear any proceeding ag l 
the said Mr. Ouchterlouy at this time. 

The Synod taking next under their consideration, that if it were not 
timeously prevented, the proper Documents and Vouchers of the Episcopal 
Succession in the Church might come to perish, ordered Bishop Keith to 
make a Register of the Consecrations of all the Bishops thereof since the 
year 1088, as far as they can be recovered; and that he keep the same, 
together with all other Papers relating to Church affairs that shall come 
into his hands, in a particular Chest by themselves, with a direction, that in 
case of his death, it may be scaled up and delivered to the surviving Bishops ; 
and it is recommended to all the Bishops to be assisting to him in collecting 
this Register. 

It was next proposed in the Synod that some further Catechetical 
Instructions than arc contained in the Liturgy might be proper for the use 
of such adult persons as come to be confirmed ; which Proposal the Bishops 
approved of, and recommended it to the present Primus to draw up some 
such Instructions, and to lay them before the next Synod. Then adjourned 
till to-morrow at four afternoon. 



The Bishops being met, and Prayers said, Bishop White represented to 
the Synod that Mr. John Graeme, in Southcrtoun, had desired that since 
Bishop Piattray had quit any claim to him as a Presbyter of his District, 
and that he had thereupon promised Canonical Obedience to Bishop White, 
as one of the Presbyters of Dunblane, his case should be laid before the first 
Synodical Meeting of the Bishops, that he might have their determination 
concerning it. To which Bishop Piattray said that, altho Mr. Gneme s 
personal residence, and the place of his Meeting for Publick Worship, was 
within his District, yet, inasmuch as by far the greatest part of his Congre 
gation is within the District of Dunblane, and that he had always joyned 
with the Presbyters of that District, and never with those of Dunkcld, 
therefore he, the said Bishop Eattray, neither doth, nor ever did, claim Mr. 
Gramae as one of his Presbyters. Whereupon the Synod does determine 
that the said Mr. John Gromie, in Southertoun, shall belong to the District 
of Dunblane, as one of the Presbyters thereof; and adjourned to Monday 
17th, at four afternoon. 

Mviiditi/, 17t/i Jill;/, nl Fn\ir Aj tcnuxm. 

The Bishops being met, and Prayers said, the Minutes of all the former 
Sessions were read and considered, and it was judged proper that a Narrative 
of all that had passed relative to this Synodical Meeting, and preceding the 
constituting the same, should be prefixed to the present Minutes; and 
accordingly Bishops Eattray and Keith were appointed by the Synod to draw 
up the said Narrative, and the Clerk to have a fair Copy written out both 
of the Narrative and Minutes, to be Subscribed by all the Bishops, and like 
wise a Copy of them for each Bishop, to be attested by his Subscription 
only ; and then adjourned to Friday the 28th instant, at four o clock after 
noon, against which time they presumed the Copys before-mentioned would 
be ready. 



EOBEET KEITH. 



The Bishops being met, and Prayers said, they read and carefully 
compared this Copy of their Minutes and Narrative prefixed, consisting 
of this and the foregoing pages, which was given in to them by Bishop 
Keith, their Clerk, according to the appointment of the former Session ; and 
upon finding it to be an exact Copy (the Copies for the Bishops not being 
yet ready), they appointed the Clerk to get Extracts from it for each 
particular Bishop finished, and transmitted to them with all convenient 
speed ; and then agreed that this Copy be Subscribed by all the Bishops 
present, and by Bishop Duribar s Proxy, and every page Subscribed by the 
Primus, to remain in the hands of the Clerk, as an authcntick Piecord of 
what hath been transacted in the several Sessions of this Meeting ; and that 
the Synod be then, and accordingly it is hereby, dissolved by the Primus. 

(Sic Subscr.) 

At the Consecration of a Successor to Bishop Rattray in the 
Diocese of Dunkeld, which was performed at Edinburgh by the 
Bishops Keith, Falconar, White, and Rait, it was resolved by 
these Fathers that they should constitute themselves into a 
Regular Synod for transacting the public business of the Church ; 
on which occasion Mr. Keith was unanimously chosen Primus, 
and Mr. Alexander, the new Bishop, was appointed Clerk. 
Availing themselves of the Ecclesiastical knowledge and matured 
experience of the late Primus (Rattray), the Bishops, being thus 
met together, proceeded to take into consideration the draught of 
certain Canons which he had bequeathed to them, for the more 
formal exercise of their authority in the Government of their 
Districts ; and, after a deliberate Conference, they succeeded as 
well by making suitable alterations on those with which they 
were thus furnished, as by drawing up several new ones in pro 
ducing a Set of Rules which gained at once the universal 
acceptance of the Clergy, and also proved of considerable use in 
promoting uniformity of sentiment as well as of practice in almost 
all the professional matters concerning which they had been 
formerly divided. The Rules are given in Skinner s Ecclesias 
tical History, vol. ii., pp. 655-GCO; in Stephen s History of the 
Church of Scotland, vol. iv., pp. 295-298 ; and in Grub s 
Ecclesiastical History of Scotland, vol. iv., pp. 14-17. 

Bishop Keith s Deputation to Bi$Jio}> Alexander for the Ordination of 
Mr. Robertson. 

E. E. Br., Our Eeverend Brother, Mr. Alexander Hunter, of this 



262 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

City, having delivered to me a Letter from you to him, by w c you desire y l 
application may be made to me in behalf of Mr. liobcrtson, AY!IO is in 
expectation of being emplo t yed in c Holy Ministry in c vacant District of 
Glasgow, the charge of which pertains to me as Primus, and appointed as 
such to have the inspection of all e vacant Districts within this National 
Church I hereby declare y I am willing y l you, in whose District the young 
man has formerly resided, may proceed in the usual form to take Trial of 
him, and, if found duely qualified, to confer Holy Orders, y he may be 
collated to that Charge which is intended for him. This I write in con 
formity to your own Proposal contained in your Letter, and am, D. S., 

Your most affectionate Brother and humble Servant, 
Ed 1 , March 20, 1711. KOBERT KEITH. 

The following is written on the opposite page of the above Letter : 

E. 11. Sir, "What is on the o v r page will, I hope, be sufficient for 
your being so good as to hasten Mr. liobertsou s Trials, for which you 
have Bishop Keith s desire, and the more so that I have a Letter from one 
of the gentlemen this day, wherein he tells me that he, with o y rs concerned, 
have finished their Subscription, and are desirous to have Mr. Piobertson putt 
in Orders as soon as possible, being recommended to em by c Viscount of 
Stcrmont. They are very sensible of the loss they have sustained so long, 
and arc well satisfied w l the agreeable character they have gott of c young 
man from that Nobleman, who is so good a judge. I wish you many 
returns of the happy festival past, and am, w l respect, 

11. II. Sir, 
Your most humble and obedient Servant, 

Ed r , March 21), 1711. ALEXR. HUNTER. 

It is a trite observation that the man who most conscien 
tiously does his duty is not always rewarded with the first burst 
of popular praise ; and we find accordingly that Bishop Keith 
was by no means beloved by the Presbyters of Edinburgh, among 
whom he had been so many years resident. He was seldom 
asked by any of them to perform in their Congregations the 
Offices peculiar to his Order; and if we were to judge from a 
variety of Addresses, Remonstrances, and Replies, which are 
still on record, we should say that his intercourse with the 
"inferior" Clergy was almost entirely confined to Disputes about 
the limits of Episcopal Jurisdiction, and the Privileges of the 
Priesthood. 

The Presbyters of Edinburgh, who, at the period in question, 
used to Elect a Moderator, and assume considerable powers as a 
regular and standing Presbytery, were extremely jealous of any 
higher authority in the Church ; whilst the Bishops, on the other 



ROBERT KEITH. 208 

hand regulating their proceedings by a regard to abstract 
principle and ancient usage, rather than by a due consideration 
of the circumstances in which late events had placed their Com 
munion, and still less by views of mere expediency appear, on 
several occasions, to have aimed at the possession of a degree of 
power, the exercise of which would inevitably have sunk the 
Second Order of Ministers into absolute insignificance. The 
enactment of Canons in 1743, as Laws regulating the Practice 
and defining the Obedience of the whole Church, without de 
siring the advice or concurrence of any of the Presbyters, was a 
stretch of prerogative which could not prove agreeable to the 
latter description of Clergy ; and although the Bishops might 
have no difficulty in proving that they had not on this occasion 
exceeded the limits of the authority inherent in their Order, and 
which had been frequently exercised by the Rulers of the Church 
in the purest times of Christianity, they would yet have attained 
their object more effectually by conceding a little to the spirit of 
the age and the wishes of their Brethren. 



21. (Holograph Original) Bishop Keith to Bishop Rattray, Aprilo C, 
1741, containing an Account of said K. his Conference w a certain Factor 
"No Bishop in the world could do such a thing as promote W. II." 
Such a thing (said Factor) should have been told sooner, and not suffer it 
to lie in the shape of Disobedience. Well (continued he) it is desired to 
receive R. B." "It was contrary to the scheme, that nominating should 
proceed from the Bishops ; nay, that they were empowered to bring in 
whom they thought fitt," Ac. 

23. Holograph of Bishop Keith, June 12, 1742, after the Death of 
Bishop Ouchterlonie, for information of, &"c. ; how matters now stand, &c. ; 
and what happened upon this is well known ; but the death of Bishop 
Rattray the year following put a stop to what was intended, &c. 



5. Original of Concordate, or Articles of Agreement, Decemr. 20 and 
31, 1731, in ye Handwritings of Bishops Keith and Gillan, and Subscribed 
by nine Bishops. 

0. Two Originals of Canons, June, 1733, the one in the Handwriting of 
Bishop Rattray, the other in y l of Bishop Keith, and both without any Date, 
tho Subscribed by all ye Bishops. 

7. Original Declaration, w l out any Date, of Bishops Rattray, Dunbar, 
Keith, and White, w ye adherence of Bishops Falconar, Rait, and Alexander 
and that of Mr. George Hay, Elect of Murray and Ross, who Died before he 



2G4 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

was Consecrated ; not to assume any into y r Order without ye consent and 
approbation of the majority of said Order, and y l all matters Ecclesiastical 
shall be determined by the same majority. 

8. First (Original) Synod, 1788 ; Mr. Eobt. Lyon Subscribing as Proxy 
for Bishop Dunbar. 

9. Second (Original) Synod, 1788, containing Bishop Dunbar s Confirma 
tion ; and in which arc contained the folding loose Papers, viz. : Two 
Copies of Bishop Freebairn s Narrative, or Account of what passed at the 
intended, but not kept, Meeting of the Bishops in 1788 ; Original Letter of 
Proxy, Bishop ])unbar to Mr. Piobert Lyon, 1788; Original and additional 
Instructions by Do. to ])o., 1788; and two Original Letters, Bishop Free- 
bairn to Bishops ItaUray and Keith, declining, in name of himself and of 
Bishop Ouclitcrlonie, meeting at said Synod without previous Conference. 
Ed 1 , Monday night. 

11. (Original Holograph) Mr. Robert Lyon to Bishop Ouchterlonie, 
particularly as to what passed between them in the house of Bishop Free- 
bairn on July 11, 1788, about recommending to a third person, persons fit 
for the Episcopate, as Mr. "William Harper, senior, was not thus properly 
recommended, as Bishop Ouchterlonie acknowledged, which he had also 
declared to Mr. Thomas Ruddiman ; likewise about Bishop White s Conse 
cration, &c., w out any Date. 

1 2. (Original) Resolve or Declaration (17-15) of Bishops Keith, Dunbar, 
Fnlconar, and Alexander, not to assume any into y r Order without previous 
Subscription to ye Minutes of Synodical Meetings from 1788 to 1745. 

20. (Copy) Bishop Keith to Bishop Raitt, in Bishop Keith s shorthand, 
Octor. 10, 1718, apologetic of his translating of some of the Addresses to ye 
Virgin. Mary in his Preface to Vol. 2d of ye Select Pieces of Thomas a 
Kempis, translated into English ; and upon ye same half sheet (Copy) 
Bishop Keith to Bishop "White, in Keith s shorthand, Sept. 10, 1748, con 
cerning the Clergy of Edin 1 , their not Publishing the Deposition of Mr. D. 
Fife, &c.; and the opinion of Bishop Smith when in Ed r , that the, said 
Fife deserved well all he had mett with, yet he wished suspension had been 
first tried, and that, upon Mr. Fife s submission and acknowledgment, 
Bishop Smith had proposed a relaxation of the Deposition ; and prayed his 
opinion might be communicated to all ye Bishops. 

21. (Holograph) Viscount of Arbuthuot to Bishop Keith, Octor. 10, 
1743, about his not promulgating in his Chapel ye sentence of Deposition 
against Mr. Fife, together w ; Copy of Bishop Keith s Answer to the same, in 
his own shorthand, Octor. 21, 1748. 

22. Three Duplicates and seven Originals of the Declaration, Subscribed 
by the Bishops and Presbyters of Scotland, 1744, against ye usurped 
authority of Bishop Smith of England over the Church of Scotland, of 
which four attested Copies were sent into England in 1745 viz., one to 
each of the three Bishops, Smith, Gordoun, and Mawman, and one to Mr. 
Robt. Lyon. 

23. Two Copies of a List of the several Synodical Meetings of the 
Bishops, and of the several Canons enacted thereat, since the Revolution, 
and an excellent vindication of the Bishops for their thus enacting. One of 
these Copies is Holograph of Bishop Keith, and seems to be the jiriiiia cum 
of the other. Nine Meetings in all, viz., (1) May 5, 1720, herein Copy of 
Canons then enacted ; (2) Febry., 1723 ; (8) July, 1724 ; (4) Decemr., 1731 ; 



ROBERT KEITH. 2G5 

(5) June, 1733; (G) July, 1738; (7) Augt., 1743; (8) that in 1727 is pur 
posely omitted, because then there was another set of Bishops (i.e., at large), 
who did not concur "No Presbyter was present, or claimed to be present, 
nor did any Presbyters ever complain of their not being called to any of the 
foregoing Synods or Meetings of the Bishops, in each of which some Canons 
or Regulations were constantly enacted, according as circumstances required; 
and no want of authority was ever pretended till 1743, and then only by a 
few," tho the Canon of Exemption so loudly cried out ag l had been enacted 
at Alloa ; (0) Septemr. 10, 1741, which may serve to bring the Meetings or 
Synods of Bishops up to the number, nine. 

24. (Copy) Dialogue between E. and S. (i.e., I suppose, England and 
Scotland) about ye Synod in Augt., 1743, in which it is represented that no 
such thing as a National Synod or General Assembly the most classical 
name was held in Scotland from 1GG3 to 1680 : a curious Paper, authenti 
cated by the manual corrections of Bishop Keith, in 18 pages 4to. 

25. (Original) Letter to Bishop Keith from the other Bishops, in 
timating the Consecration of Mr. Andrew Gerard to ye Episcopate, Cupar of 
Fife, July 17. 1747. 

Xmnler 8. 

11. (Original) July 14, 1735, sent to Bishop Keith " To the R. R. 
Dr. Thomas Rattray of Craighall, Mr. William Dunbar, and Mr. Robert 
Keith, Bishops, the Admonition and Remonstrance of Mr. David Freebairn, 
Bishop of Ed r , Primus," in 35 pages folio. 

12. An excellent Memorial, in ye Handwriting of Bishop Rattray, 
without any Date, of Church affairs, from the Concordate in 1731 to 1740, 
in which particularly, that Mr. Robert Freebairn, in procuring Nominations 
in 1733, acted without any colour of commission from the Bishops his own 
father not excepted who, by the by, had renounced all metropolitical 
powers. N.B.- It is very proper this Paper should be deposited beside, or 
tacked to, Bishop Freebairn s Admonition and Remonstrance in 1735. In 
this Memorial is deposited Original of Bishop Keith, in his own short 
hand, to Bishops Rattray and Dunbar, June 12, 1741, exhorting and 
requesting such another Memorial to be drawn up, to be sent to a particular 
friend ; and some sketch is given of one, &c. 

13. (Copy) Bishop Rattray s Answer to Bishop Freebairn s Admonition, 
&c., Augt. 1, 1735. 

14. (Two Copies) Bishop Keith s Answer to Bishop Freebairn s Ad 
monition, &c., Augt. 20, 1735 the second Copy being authenticated by 
Bishop Keith s own Subscription, and containing somewhat not in the other 
Copy. 

15. Mr. Robert Freebairn s Original Anonymous Letter of Septemr. 25, 
1735, to Bishop Keith, on his seeing his Answer to said Admonition, &c. 
Bishop Keith took no notice of this Letter. 

1G. Bishop Dunbar s Answer (Copy) to said Admonition, &c., Septemr. 
G, 1735. 

17. Prima Cura of Bishop Keith, in his own shorthand, Decemr. 5, 
1743, to Mr. Thomas Auchiuleck, to convocate his Brethren for Election of 
a Dean, &c., and informing of Transactions of Synod, 1743. 

18. An Extract of a Copy of the first Address, Jamy. 17, 1744 " To 
ye R. R. the Bishops of all the Churches in Scotland, the Presbyters of ye 
Diocese of Edin r send greeting." 

VOL. II. 2 L 



2 .(i DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

19. Copies of two sets of Queries, w out Date, in answer to the said 
first Address. 

20. (Original) Survey of said Queries, without Date, wrapt up in a 
blank cover, sealed and backed thus -A Letter to lie left at Mr. Keith s 
Vestry. 

21. (Copy) Bishop "White to Bishop Keith, Febry. 3d, 17-14, upon said 
first Address, about which Bishop Eaitt (Copy on the same bit of paper, 
Febry. 25, 1741) to Bishop White says He detests and abhors their 
insolence, and condemns their claim to a decisive vote in Synods." 

22. Priina Cura of Bishop Keith to Bishop Alexander, Febry. 20, 1744 ; 
concise and strong on said first Address. 

23. Two Copies of an Answer, Janry. 28, 1744, Bishop Dunbar to the 
Presbyters of Edin r , on their said first Address. 

21. (Copy) Fi bry. 22. 1711, Mr. Andrew Gerard to Mr. Alexr. Hunter; 
strong and pointed as to ve unseasonableness and improprietv of said first 

411 i-J.. 

Address. 

25. (Holograph Original) Bishop Alexander s Answer, May 10, 1744, to 
said first Address; full and home to ye purpose, with much sincerity and 
plainness. 

20. (Copy) Second Address of the Presbyters of Edin r to the Bishops, 
July 27. 174 1, with suitable marginal notes. This Address was directed, by 
way of missive, to Bishop Keith, who received it on Friday, July 27, at 8 iii 
ye evening; in the Handwriting of Mr. Alexr. Robcrtsonc, to whom Bishop 
Keith sent it back next morning, without any Answer by word or writ, and 
without taking a Copy of it. 

27. (Original) Third Address of the Presbyters of Edin r to the Bishops, 
Deer. 2, 1744. N.B. This is ye Paper which Mr. Robert Forbes, in the 
Meeting, when forced to give his real opinion of it, called " The Lamb and 
the Tyger," from the Frenchified smoothness of ye Preface, drawn up by Mr. 
Patrick Gordon, and the snarling teeth of the Articles, drawn up by Mr. 
Alexr. Robertson. 

28. (Copy) Bishop Dunbar s short and substantial Answer, Febry. 1745, 
to said third Address. 

29. (Copy) Presbyters of Dunkeld to Bishop Alexander, Febry. 1, 1744, 
declaring their abhorrence of the first Address from the Presbyters of Ed r to 
the Bishops. 

30. (Copy) Bishop Keith s Answer to the third Address of the Pres 
byters of Edin r , Janry. 25, 1745, addressed thus on the top " To Messrs. 
Jas. M Kenzie, William Harper, Jo. Mackenzie, Alexr. Mackenzie, Alexr. 
Robertson, David Rae, Pa. Gordon, Presbyters in Ed r , and William Law, 
Presbyter in Leith, and authenticated by Bishop Keith s own Subscription." 

31. (Original and Copy) Febry. 7, 1745, Answer of the above eight 
Brethren to Bishop Keith s said Return of Janry. 25, 1745. N.B. This 
may be called the fourth Address. 

82. (Copy) Bishop Keith s long and general Reply, Augt. 27, 1745, to 
all the Papers and Addresses of the Presbyters of Edin r , authenticated by 
Bishop Keith s own Subscription the Original having been wrapt up in a 
Letter, and sent to the R. Mr. James Mackenzie, the then Moderator. This 
is a very strong and pointed Paper, never yet attempted to be answered. 

33. (Prima Cura) Bishop Keith to Mr. Thomas Auchinleck, in Mr. 
Keith s own hand, Octor. 0, 1744, inclosing a Note declarative of Bishop 
Keith s having never solicited in any shape to be Bishop of Ed r ; but, on the 



ROBERT KEITH. 207 

contrary, that lie had declined to be Bishop of Ed 1 when it was in his 
offer. 

8-1. (Prima Cura) Do. to Do.. Dccenir. 5. 1711. in Bishop Keith s own 
hand, in which was enclosed Copy of a Disclamation of Bishop Smith s 
encroachments, to be offered to the Presbytery of Edin r for their Subscriptions 
to it ; which they, two or three excepted. refused to do. 

85. (Copy) Absalom, or Remarks on ye Admonition and Remonstrance, 
falsely ascribed to Bishop Freebairn, without any Date. 

A tniil>c> 15. 

0. (Holograph Original) Bishop Keith s common Form of Baptizing 
Children ; in his own Handwriting. 

28. Originals and Copies of Letters between Bishop Keith and Mr. John 
M Kenzie in 1711. Herein the true meaning of " One Bishop in one City" 
fairly represented. X.B. Some Differences had arisen twixt them about 
Emoluments, &c. Bishop Keith having told J. M. that he was no moneyed 
man, and that therefore he needed somewhat more than an c<[ual dividend, 
and that if his circumstances did not require it, he would not have asked it ; 
but J. M. would not listen to any other division than that of an equal share 
to each. But behold the upshot of all ! Bishop Keith, a married man, and 
having children, Died worth only 150 Sterling at most ; and J. M., a 
Bachelor, Died (j>r<>h dolor . ) worth about X 3000 Sterling, and left not a Single 
Earthing to ye poor suffering Clergy ! 

Bishop Keith had his own share in the trials of his age. His 
local situation as being resident in the Metropolis, his official 
station as Primus, and, above all, perhaps, his personal influence 
as a man of business as well as of letters, will account for the 
prominent part he acted as the Representative and Advocate of 
the Episcopal Synod. But the events of 1745 and of the follow 
ing year engaged the Country, and especially the Church over 
which Bishop Keith presided, in a struggle of a different 
character ; the result of which, and the consequences which 
attended that result in reference to Scottish Episcopacy, are too 
important to be detailed in a Biographical outline, and have been 
already laid before the world in a variety of Publications. 

The pressure of the Penal Laws inflicted by the Government 
in 1746 and 1748, seems to have silenced even the voice of Con 
troversy. About the 3*ear 1752, Bishop Keith left his usual 
residence in the Canongate, and fixed his abode in the neighbour 
hood of Leith, on a small property called Bonnyhaugh, which 
afterwards descended by inheritance to his daughter and grand 
daughter. 



20* DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

The Literary labours of Bishop Keith are well known to every 
Scholar and Antiquary. His greatest Work, " The History of 
tho Affairs of Church and State in Scotland, from the be^innino- 

O O 

of the Reformation in the Reign of King James V., to the Retreat 
of Queen Mary into England," is chiefly esteemed for the im 
mense Collection of authentic Documents with which he con 
trived to enrich it. 

The Rev. J. Parker Lawson, in the Biographical Sketch of 
Keith, prefixed to the Spottiswoode Edition of the History, says : 

It appeared in Folio, and was Printed 1>y the celebrated Scholars, 
Thomas jaid Walter Piuddiman, for George Stewart and Alexander Symmer, 
who arc described as Undcrf/iforx" and " sold by them and Gavin Hamil 
ton, Bookseller." It was Published by Subscription, and was Dedicated to 
Lady Jane Douglas, the only daughter of James, second Marquis, and sister 
of Archibald, third Marquis, created Duke of Douglas in 1703. The 
Marriage of this Lady in 1710, when in the forty- eighth year of her age, to 
Colonel, afterwards Sir John Stewart, Bart., of Cirandtully, originated the 
celebrated ])<i<il* Came. Bishop Keith, by his grandmother, who was a 
daughter of Gavin Douglas of Easter Ban-as, claimed relationship to "the 
Dukes of Douglas and Hamilton, and to all the brandies of these most 
honourable Families." The " List of Subscribers" is remarkably curious, 
comprising the Library of the Faculty of Advocates at Edinburgh, the 
Society of Writers there, the Society of Writers at Stirling, the Scottish 
College at Paris, and ittU individuals, many of whom were persons of the 
first rank in the Kingdom. The List has been designated a: kind of 
MII <!< ) Unit" of the principal Jacobite Xobility and Gentry of Scotland at 
the time; but this, as is subsequently noticed, is incorrect; and an examina 
tion of it proves that many of them were staunch supporters of the House of 
Hanover, such as the celebrated Duncan Forbes of Culloden, afterwards 
Lord President of the Court of Session ; Sir William Nairn of Dunsiiman ; 
He\v Dalrymple of Drummorc, a Judge in the Supreme Court by the Title of 
Lord Druumiore ; Sir James Dalrymple of Hailes, Bart. ; Erskine of Dun, 
Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto, and Sir Alexander Ogilvic of Forglen three 
gentlemen who were also Judges ; and several of the Xobility, who had no 
connection with the Enterprizes of 171-"> and 1745. Among the names 
occurs that of the famous Hob Ixoy, who is designated "Robert Macgregor, 
"/m.s Rob Pioy," and who figures after his relative, Macgregor of Gleiigyle. 
It would be interesting to ascertain what induced Rob Hoy to appear in 
the character of an encourager of Literature ; but it is not likely that he ever 
read the Work, as he Died during the year after its Publication, and his 
well-known avocations had no connection with Historical Researches. 
Another name is that of the " Rev. Mr. Robert Blair," who is considered to 
be the well-known Author of " The Grave," and who was the Established 
Presbyterian Minister of the Parish of Athelstaneford in Haddingtonshire. 

Keith s Work is one of the great sources from which Dr. 
George Cook derived his "History of the Reformation in Scot- 



U013EUT KEITH. 201) 

land," Published at Edinburgh in three Volumes in 1811. To it 
the Rev. John Skinner was greatly indebted for materials in his 
"Ecclesiastical History of Scotland," Published at London in 
two Volumes in 1788 ; and the obligations of Principal Robert- 
son and Mr. Tytler are equally due to the industry of Bishop 
Keith. 

" Such a Book," says the Xonjuring Bishop Smith, Keith s 
Correspondent and Antagonist, "will stand the test of ages, and 
will always be valued, because no fact is related but upon the best 
authority." The Author (Bishop Russell says) has not escaped 
the charge of partiality in his views, and of a certain bias in his 
reasonings, but he has always been allowed the merit of a full 
and candid statement of events, whatever might be their effect 
upon his own conclusions, and has never been taxed, even by the 
most uncharitable adversaries, with mutilating Records, either 
to screen the reputation of a friend, or to impeach the motives of 
an enemy. His stately Volumes, therefore, will never cease to 
occupy a respectable place in the Library of the Historian ; and 
every Reader who is desirous to have an intimate acquaintance 
with the Annals of Scotland during the troubled and afflicted 
times which followed upon the Death of our Fifth James, will 
regret that Bishop Keith did not live to complete his arduous 
undertaking. It appears that he left at his Death a few Sheets 
of the second Volume. These, with certain other Manuscripts, 
must have passed into the hands of his daughter s family ; but 
all the inquiry that I have made respecting them, has only 
satisfied me that they are no longer in existence. 

Bishop Keith s private Copy of his "History," with his own 
annotations, corrections, and additions, is said to have been 
acquired by Sir Walter Scott, Bart., and to be in the Library 
of Abbotsford. 

The Catalogue oj Scottixlt ]>is]ioj>x was given to the world in 
1755. It was Dedicated to the celebrated Marshal Keith, at 
that time in the service of the Prussian Monarch ; and a Copy 
of it was sent to Berlin, accompanied with the following Letter, 
which, together with the Answer, is here inserted for the amuse 
ment of the Reader : 



270 DibTUlCT OF FIFE. 



///.s E 



eiicy 



[Sir, This comes l>y Hubert Koith, my grand-nephew, and son to 
Alexander Keith of Urns, who was your servant at the time I had the 
honour to he preceptor to you and your brother, the Earl. This lad s elder 
brother, Alexander, was at Paris last year; and as he was bred a sailor, the 
Earl was pleased to take particular care of him, and to provide for him 
according to his education. 

Your Excellency will see how I have been employed of late, from the 
Book herewith sent ; three Copies of which come to your hands one for the 
King of Prussia, a second for the Earl, and a third for yourself by this 
same young man. whom hereby I beg to recommend to your patronage and 
friendship ; and as he inclines to be bred to the sea, he may perhaps turn 
out to be useful to the King of Prussia ; for the boy is abundantly smart, 
and has a good genius, lie will likewise put into your Excellency s hands 
a Copy of the genealogy of his forefathers, to which I was prompted by the 
pretensions of another, as you will see. :: 

About a year ago, at the particular desire of the Earl, 1 transmitted to 
you by Post a Tree of the Family ; and I would be glad to know if it came 
safe to your Excellency s hands. 

I heartily wish you all happiness : and most respectfully am, Sir. 
Your Excellency s most obedient humble Servant, 

ROBERT KEITH. 
Boimyhaugh, near Leith, Oct. (!, 17-")5. 



(Sir, 1 am infinitely obliged to you for the present yoii have made me 
of the Book, but much more so for that of your nephew, who is one of the 
prettiest liveliest boys I ever saw, and, according to all appearance, will 
very well deserve, and perfectly answer the best education I can give him 
in which I shall spare nothing that I think necessary for his future advance 
ment. As I see that he has no tincture of Latin, I think it now too late to 
begin him to it : and, therefore, shall endeavour to make up that luss to him 
by the living languages. French and German he will learn by custom here, 
where these two are equally spoken, and I shall give him a master for 
Italian. As to the sciences, Avhich are most useful to one designed for a 
military life (and that is the only one by which he can think to succeed here), 
1 have already begun to make ! teach him geography and drawing, in both 
which he makes extraordinary progress : and in a short time, I hope, he will 
be in a condition to begin a course of geometry and fortification, after which 
he shall study history, but more particularly modern, from about the time 
of Charles Y. This is the plan I have laid down to myself for his education ; 
for the which I have still four years (if I live so long) before his age permits 
him to enter into the army. As yet I find not any fault in his natural 
disposition. YVith the greatest vivacity, he is surprisingly tractable ; and I 
can safely say I never saw a more promising boy. But, poor child ! I pity 



* The Genealogy here alluded to is the Controversial Tract noticed in a former 
part of this Memoir. 

| A French manner of expression. 



EGBERT KEITH. 271 

him, since my age, which you know is near sixty,* can hardly give me any 
reasonable hope of seeing him far enough advanced before my death to be 
able to push his fortune afterwards. But you may depend on it that, both 
on your account and his own, I shall do all that lies in my power for his 
advantage. 

As the King does not understand English, and has no Books of that 
language in his private libraries, I have put the one addressed to him in the 
public one at Berlin, for which he thanks you ; and the other, which is 
designed for my brother, I shall send to him to Xeufchatel by the first sure 
occasion. 

As I have been always persuaded that you preserve your ancient friend 
ship for me, I know it will not be disagreeable to you to know that, after 
having been troubled for four years with an asthma, I am now perfectly 
cured of it, by the waters of Carlsbad, which I drank last summer, and am 
now as well as ever I was in my life. I shall always be glad to hear of the 
continuation of your health ; for, believe me, nobody is with more friendship 
and regard. Sir, 

Your most humble and most obedient Servant, 
Potsdam, March !$. 17-">(>. JAMES KEITH. 

The good Bishop appears to have been not a little gratified 
by the attention of his illustrious Relative and ancient Pupil, the 
Field-Marshal. We accordingly find that, in the course of the 
same month in which the above Reply was written, he addressed 
to him another Epistle, in the following terms : 

May it please your Excellency, I am honoured with your extraordinary 
Favour of the 13th instant ; for your Excellency s Letter is a real cordial in 
my old age, and has cheered my heart not a little, especially as it brings me 
the refreshing account of your being so well pleased with Bob Keith, who is 
certainly a fine boy, and is happy in a remarkable sweetness of temper. I 
am much pleased with the plan of education you have laid down for him, 
and do most sincerely return my hearty thanks for the kind reception your 
Excellency has honoured him with, and for that remarkable care you are 
pleased to take of him. I hope you shall have much satisfaction in him, 
and that he will answer all your expectations. 

In a late Trial | before our Court of Justiciary, my Book was called for, 
and plentiful use was made of it by Lawyers on both sides ; so that your 
Excellency s Name has made its appearance at that Bar. I am particularly 
honoured by his Majesty of Prussia in condescending to thank me for a Copy 
of my Book, which meets with approbation from the Public, particularly 



He was killed in Battle in 17. "A at the age of <i:> : for, by an Extract from the 
Baptism liegister of St. Fergus, it appears that M. Keith was Baptixed by the name 
of James Francis Edward, at Invorugio. the principal Seat of the ancient Family of 
Marischal, on the 15th June, Ki .Mi, which was the next day after he was Born. 

f The Case of Mr. Hugh Mncdonald. brother to the Laird of Morar, of the Clan- 
ranald Family, his being banished forth out of Scotland for being a Popish Bishop. 
[See Scots Ufayaziiiefor 175(>, />. 100.1 



272 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

among the Curious ; and the more so as it bears your Excellency s Name, 
with which some persons are particularly delighted, both in Scotland and in 
England. 

I am just now drinking, in a glass of Claret, all health and happiness 
to your Excellency, and all your Connexions, whom may God long preserve. 
I am entered upon the 70th year of my age, and am obliged to use the hand 
of another in writing ; but I thank God I keep health surprisingly well for 
my age, though I am much failed in my feet. 

I am much plonked that your Excellency is recovered of your asthma; 
and I hope you shall count more years than I have done yet. I have the 
honour to Subscribe myself, Sir, 

Your Excellency s very much obliged and most humble Servant, 

lior.TCfiT KKITH. 
Bonnyhaugh, near Leith. March BO, 17-">(>. 

To his Excellency Yelt-Marechal Keith, Berlin. 

P.S. I am to send, in a present to your Excellency, a Copy of my 
" History of the Affairs of Scotland," &c., put up in a box, and addressed to 
the care of Mr. Stevens, to whom it sb;ill he sent by some Hamburg vessel. 
As Bob Keith is to study History, it will not be amiss that he should look 
into my History, especially as it relates to the Troubles and Distresses of 
the much-injured Mary, Queen of Scots. Do me the honour to let me know 
when the said Copy of my History comes to your Excellency s hand; for I 
intend to dispatch it by the first Ship that offers. A DIKU. 

This Epistle betrays, no doubt, in one or two passages, the 
garrulity of age, as well, perhaps, as some portion of that inno 
cent self-complacency in which even a wise man may indulge 
after Dinner, whilst drinking in Claret the health of a Noble 
Correspondent, and contemplating the rapid increase of his own 
Literary fame. 

Dr. Michael Russell, in 1824, Edited Bishop Keith s Cata 
logue. His Researches are incorporated here. He says in his 
Preface,- " All the materials which have been used I had to 
seek amidst the casual notices of Literary Journals or of public 
Obituaries ; and it happened in this case, as in many others, that 
where most was expected least was obtained. It is but right, 
however, to observe, that the amount of the means or of the 
labour employed in antiquarian research, is not always to be 
measured by the simple effect that is produced. The cramp and 
interminable Reading in which such pursuits involve the most 
expert Archaeologist, may be compared to a Voyage of Discovery 
in unknown seas, where the toil and anxiety are equally great 
whether the explorer succeed or whether he fail in his endeavours; 



EOBEET KEITH. 273 

whether he make a valuable addition to the knowledge of his 
Contemporaries, or only ascertain that there is nothing to be 
found. Nearly all the Notes contained in the Appendix, the most 
accomplished Antiquary, Lieutenant- General Hutton, supplied. 

" My thanks are due to William Gordon of Fyvie, Esq., for 
the loan of a valuable Copy of Keith s Catalogue, now in his 
possession, and formerly, as I have understood, the property of 
David Macpherson, the Editor of Wi/iitouii s Chronicle. I have 
a similar acknowledgment to make to Robert Graham, Esq. of 
Eskbank, for his polite attention in allowing me to peruse the 
Notes contained in his Copy of the same Work, and inserted, 
as it would seem, by the Bishops Alexander and Forbes. I 
am particularly grateful to Patrick Fraser Tytler, Esq., for 
his goodness in sending to me, unsolicited, the Copy of Keith 
which belonged to his father, the late Lord Woodhouselee, and 
which bears ample evidence of having passed through the hands 
of so able a Scholar and Antiquary." 

Bishop Keith in the Advertisement to the Reader of his Work, 
says : 

In making up the following LIST OF BISHOPS, I was greatly assisted by 
Papers belonging to the Family of PAXMURE, which I received from a late 
Noble Eepresentative of that Family, reckoned to have been the best Anti 
quary in his time. 

Another person to whom I am much obliged, is the Honourable WALTER 
MACFARLAXE, Chief of that Name, universally acknowledged to be the first 
Antiquary in this Kingdom. The Readers will easily perceive how much I 
owe all along to this learned and knowing Gentleman. 

A third person, whose assistance I gratefully acknowledge, is Mr. 
WALTER GOODALL, in the Advocates Library, particularly for his acciirate 
Account of the Culdees, &c. 

" . . . It adds considerably to the value of a very useful 
Book to know that Bishop Keith was in communication with 
Father Innes, and derived from his information and Notes much 
of what he has Published in his History of the Scotch Bishops." 
[Preface lij Cosmo Innes, Reg. Epis. Glasguensis, p. yii."! 

" Five Vols. of Notes of Father Innes, are now in the pos 
session of Mr. Laing, Secretary to the Bannatyne Club ; and a 
careful collation of them, with Keith s Work, has left no doubt 
of the fact above stated. Some of the Documents quoted at 

VOL. II. 2 M 



274 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

length by Keith are from the Records of Glasgow, and could 
only be obtained from the Scots College." \Note to said Preface.! 

" In reference to the Catalogue of Scottish Bishops, which was 
not Published till eleven years after the Death of Inncs, the 
Editor of the Chartulary of the Church of Glasgow (Cosmo 
limes) was the first, so far as I am aware, to point out how 
much Keith was indebted to his learned Countryman." "Gnib x 
Preface, ]>. xvii., (<> June* Ciril ami Ecclesiastical History of Scot 
land. Printed for the Spaldimj Clith, 1853. 

As I conserve every written Scrap of Ecclesiastical News 
which I get hold of, all ready for seasonable discharge, unless 
a ul slijillo coufessioiiis, I now make known that I had the pleasure 
of the following Correspondence, among others, from the late 
Venerable Thomas Stephen, Author of the History of the 
Church of Scotland," "Book of the Constitution," &c., and who 
for many years Edited the " Episcopal Magazine." He was the 
son of the Episcopal Clergyman at Cruden, Aberdeenshire, and 
Died this year in his daughter s house, 2 Prince of Wales 
Terrace, Scarborough, aged 80 years. 

. . . . Your Chronicle and Monasticon for Scotland will be both 
useful to the Church and interesting to the Public generally. I may men 
tion that the late Rev. Charles Fyvie, of Inverness, in a conversation that I 
had with him, expressed great regret that Dr. Russell had not made known 
his intention of Re-publishing Keith s Catalogue, as he could have supplied 
him with a Quarto Edition, with a multitude of MS. Notes on the Margins, 
by the late Bishop M Farlane, his father-in-law. If you can trace his 
widow, perhaps that Copy might be recovered. I gave some Tracts, both 
bound and loose, to Trinity College, Glenalmond, chiefly respecting the 
Persecution which the Church sustained at and after the Revolution. I 
dare say Dr. Hannay would lend them to you : my object was to be of use 
to future Historians. 

In my time, while resident in Glasgow, they used to call your Church 
" The \Vhistlin Kirk," owing to the Organ. 

You have given me no Address, but I suppose you will be Kc 



Mr. Stephen s Copy of "Keith" (which I possess), excepting 
one or two corrected Dates, contains nought besides the Type. 

I wrote to Mrs. Fyvie, now in her dotage, about her father s 
Copy of " Keith," who kindly referred me to Messrs. George and 
Peter Anderson, Writers, Inverness, who are known Antiquaries, 
and who were cognizant about the fate of Dean Fyvie s Books. 



ROBERT KEITH. 275 

I wrote to them tlicrcanent, but no manner of Reply was ever 
vouchsafed ; so Bishop M Farlane s Gatherings must find an alili. 
Bishop Jolly evidently did not care much for often con 
sulting Keith s Catalogue, as his Copy is very clean. On the 
Top of the Title Page is inscribed " Alexander Jolly. The 
Gift of good Bishop Pctrie." Probably, being a Han of Peace, 
the interminable Battles of his Brothers of Office generally 
fiery, plucky Hen of War frightened him from opening his 
"Keith," in case of explosive mines. Mr. Andrew Jervise, 
Brechin, purchased Bishop Russell s Copy of "Keith," and 
kindly offered to me its perusal; but the jottings were both few 
and unimportant. Lord Lindsay most courteously allowed me 
the use of his Copy of "Keith," with Riddle s MS. Notes, 
which I have generally embodied. His Lordship has engaged 
to bequeath the Papers and Books of the late John Riddle, 
Esq., Advocate, to the Advocates Library, Edinburgh. Mr. 
Joseph Irving, Dumbarton, has now the late Rev. Dr. John 
Lee s Copy : his MS. Remarks have also been cared for.- To 
the Rev. G. Gr. Milne am I indebted for his interleaved Copy. 
The Rev. Arthur Ranken, Deer, kindly allowed me the 
loan of his Annotated Copy, which chiefly contains a List 
of the Episcopal Clergy at the Revolution, opposite the 
Parishes. I have been enabled since to render this List 
nearly complete, and also to give the "Ministers, Exhorters, 
and Readers" immediately after the Reformation, downwards. 
I applied in October 1865 to Mr. John Stuart, of the General 
Register Office, Edinburgh, for his valuable aid ; but I was 
disappointed at this discomfiture " I do not recollect of any 
jottings which I could give you suitable for Keith." 

Professor Cosmo Innes courteously indulged me with the 
following sane counsel and permissive Note : 

I think you can hardly be aware what a work you propose to undertake 
in a new Edition of " Keith." All the Authorities of the Original were in 
MS. These are all now Printed, and every reference should he verified. 
But there are ten times more than Keith knew, all now accessible ; and our 
modern taste for accuracy requires that all Charters, Records, and Registers 
should he used and compared. Do you think you have strength and courage 
for such a labour? It would take many years. It requires the worker to 



270 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

be among the Records that is, in Edinburgh for a long time. It requires 
him to be a Record Scholar, familiar with llecords, knowing how to read 
them and to draw the information they afford 

You ask me if I find any defects in Russell s Edition. It is full of 
them ; every page has errors and deficiencies 

You are very welcome to use my Prefaces with or without acknow 
ledgment. C. LNXES. 
In Court, 10th November, 180-1. 

I have also received the following Notanda from the respec 
tive Correspondents, and attended to their suggestions : 

I think you might make a new Edition of Keith s Catalogue very inter 
esting. All that Avas thought fit or proper to be Published of my father s 
Papers is given in Ncale s Life. I have a good many Letters Avhich are 
interesting, but they Avould not do to see the light in the present day. I 
have no doubt there are several things in Milne s interleaved Copy that are 
valuable. You should ask him to lend it to you, as he is an old friend. . . 
. . Why not imitate Keith in giving somewhat of the origin and previous 
occupation (where Bishop Russell has omitted it) of the Post-Revolution 
Bishops. Altho the origin of some of them Avas low, that is not derogatory 
to them or their elevation, but rather the reA erse. "Wolsey, the greatest 
man in England next to the King, Avas, AVC kuoAV, the son of a butcher, AA ho 
AATote his name I Vu!> ij. J. TOERY. 

St. Aniie s, Coupar-Angus, Nov. 12, 18G-4. 



I should be happy to give assistance in your projected Work on the 
Scottish Bishops, but I never Avas in the Avay of making Notes upon Keith, 
and unless it Avcre some special point, I haA e no time for minute investiga 
tions. ... D. LAING. 
Signet Library, Edinburgh, Dec. 29th, 1801. 



I have to ask your indulgence for having alloAved your Letter to lie so 
long unansAvercd. It came I think on a Saturday, AA T hen I do not Avrite 
Letters if I can help it ; and then it for a time escaped me. 

I Avould most willingly supply to you any information AA T hich might be 
useful or interesting for your Work IIOAV in progress, if I kneAV IIOAV. I haA T e 
a large number of Letters of the late Primus, but I have never examined 
them Avith a A iew to making any public use of them ; and indeed there are 
among them not a feAV Avhich it is just as Avell that the public should know 
nntliini/ (ili/ntt . and some of these I haA e thought it best to put into the fire. 
Others there are AA hich are A*ery interesting, and do credit to the Waiters ; 
but I do not know that they contain much that is valuable in a Historical 
point of AieAV. 

Should I find a little more leisure, as I hope I may after Xmas, I will 
look into the Old Trunk again (my house is so small that I haA r e been 
obliged to keep them in a trunk in a loft), or if I find anything that Avould 
interest or, more especially, do f/ood, I will send it you. Perhaps I should 
succeed better, if you could tell me to what Period, and to which of our 
Bishops, you Avould like me to direct my attention. The Correspondence is 



HUBERT KEITH. 277 

mostly confined to the period of his own Episcopate : earlier Documents 
you will iind, I presume, in the Episcopal Chest. I hear Mrs. Fyvie is not 
now able to be of much use to you. Her memory is, I believe, a good deal 
impaired. I return her Xote as you desire. 

All Saints, Woodhead, St. Thomas, 1S6L 1). WILSON. 

P.S. You are getting a great "luminary" from our Parish to the elite 
Presbyterians of Glasgow. The simple folks here understand that he is 
going to set up a new kind of Religion something between the Presbyterian 
and the Episcopalian ways. 



I am glad to find that you are preparing a new Edition of Keith s 
Bishops. It is a Work which admits of much correction and enlargement, 
and the Clubs have by their Publications provided large supplies for this 
purpose. If I can afford you any assistance, from my acquaintance with 
Scotch matters, I shall be very happy to lend my humble aid. 

I may mention to you a Work which lately came to my hand, and is 
a Look of extreme importance towards your object, namely, " Thciner s 
Vet era Monumenta Hibernorum ct Scotorum Historian! illustrantia. 
Konuc, 1861. Price, Two Guineas." It is a Eolio, in Double Columns, of 
624 closely-printed Pages, and is confined to the Vatican Records connected 
with Ireland and Scotland, from 1216 to 1547. It is a Book of immense 
interest, and will no doubt be a fountain of new light to all Writers on the 
History of the two Countries. It may not yet have found its way to Scot- 
laud ; but it is to be had at Bernard Kelly s, Bookseller in Grafton Street, 
Dublin. For your purpose it is of extreme value. Documents of all kinds 

- Episcopal, Monastic, and Culdean occur in it You are 

welcome to make what use you please of my Culdce Compilation. 

The Library, Armagh, Jan. 25, 186o. WM. REEVES. 



It is a great pity that Theiuer s Book is Edited in such a loose and 
incorrect manner, as it greatly impairs the reliance which one can place 
upon his renderings, especially in names of men and places. Still it is a 
Work of value for our Kingdoms. 

Wishing you every success in your most important Literary under 
taking, I remain, &c., 

The Library, Armagh, Jan. 20, 1866. WM. REEVES. 



I am afraid you will find very little in my contributions to that Work 
[" History of the Upper Ward of Lanarkshire"] which is not a Compila 
tion of what has been already Printed. I recollect that I noticed one of the 
early Douglasses, who was Bishop of Moray, gave some details as to George 
Shoreswood, who was first Parson of Culter and afterwards Bishop of 
Brechiii (I quote from memory), and Chancellor of Scotland. Indeed, I 
suspect that myself and my cousin, Chancellor of Shieldhill, derive a part of 
our blood from an illegitimate son of this Bishop. I also think that there 
are some passing allusions to some other Bishops, but nothing of any 
importance. 

The subject of the Succession of the Scottish Bishops appears to be one 
which at present excites a very great interest. A few days ago the Editor 



278 DIST1UCT OF FIFE. 

of Notes and Queries" brought me an Article on it by (of all persons!) an 
Officer in India, which will appear in the Number of next Saturday. 

I am at present engaged in Editing the most extraordinary Collection 
of the Duke of Lauderdalc s Private and Public Correspondence, preserved 
in the British Museum, which consists of about 50 Yols., many of them 
containing 400 MSS. Among them are many of the returns to the t oin/f 
/r clirx of our Scotch Bishops, several of which have escaped Keith s 
notice. There arc also most numerous Letters relating to them. E.>: 
i/ret/r, to-day, I came across a most interesting Petition of Anne, Widow 
of Walter Whitefoord, Prc-Piestoration Bishop of Brcchin. I have not 
yet finally arranged as to the Publishing of these valuable Documents ; 
but I may say that they will be produced in a very cheap form, ranging 
with Bohn s Antiquarian Library, at o.< a Volume. I cannot under 
take to rccopy for you the Documents connected with the Bishops, which 
arc widely scattered, until they are in Type, when I may be able, as the 
Work goes on, to let you have the Slip Proofs after correction. 

GEORGE VERE IRVIXG. 

5 St. Mark s Crescent, Piegent s Park, London, N.W. 
5th January, 18(55. 



. . . . I have begun to entertain the greatest doubts whether the 
Trcr, Bird, and Fi*h in the Arms of the See of Glasgow have their origin 
in the Legends of S. Mungo at all ; that in fact they refer to the territorial 
rights of Free Forestry and Fishing belonging to the Bishops. 1 am well 
aware that the Legend occurs in Jocelinc of Furness, before Armorial 
Bearings were introduced generally in Scotland ; but I suspect that we have 
here an instance of the well known fallacy / Vs7 hoc, )>ro],tei- li<><\ 

17th February, 1808. GEORGE VERE IRVING. 



I am sorry to be obliged to confess a profound ignorance of Keith. I 
have, it is true, more than once looked into it, and been awed by its extreme 
dryncss, and dismissed it from my imagination. If you can enliven it, we 
shall have reason to be grateful to you. 

I was not Editor of the " S. E. J." in 51, and can therefore furnish no 
better clue to the Correspondent whose name you seek [in regard to Bishop 
Forbes Journal] than to refer you to Mr. Walker of Bowland, then Editor. 

I understand Mr. Grub is engaged in the same Literary undertaking. 
It will go hard with the sale, if the two Editions come forward at the same 
time, and the public will be disappointed that the labours of the two parties 
were not combined. ... H. G. W. AUBREY. 

Parsonage, Galashiels, Dec. 2, 1864. 



I am afraid I am in the same position as Mr. Robertson, and that I 
shall not be able to give you any aid in your Literary work. So far as 
Names and Dates go, you will find very full and, I think, accurate informa 
tion in my History. . . . You are misinformed about my Editing 
Keith. . . . GEORGE GRUB. 

Aberdeen, 22nd Dec., 1864. 



ROBERT KEITH. 279 

I can tell you where you are most likely to get information regarding 
Bp. Petrie, if any exist, and that is from Mr. Cheyne. He, more than any 
man I know, is well acquainted with the minute details of the History of the 
Church and of her more remarkable Clergy since the Revolution, especially 
in the Aberdeen Diocese. I have no doubt he will be able also to tell you 
something about Blairdaff and Auchindoir. 

I had never understood that Mr. Grieve had been a pupil of Bishop 
Petrie. At any rate, I very seldom heard him speak of him, and I have 
come upon no Papers which would throw any light on his History. 

St. Marv s, Inverurv, 18th Nov., 180-1. ALEX. HARPER. 



1 should have been very happy to have helped you in your interesting 
task, but I am now in very indifferent health, and unable to get through my 
own work. Besides, History has never been my line, and I am utterly 
ignorant of the lately Printed Cartularies and other Original Documents, 
which, I believe, have thrown much light On Scotch History. 

I should think it must be a very difficult task to give a faithful Account 
of recent events, and that it would be better to leave out at least the last 30 
years. Have you applied to Mr. Bell of West Lint on ? I know few persons 
better acquainted with the History of our Scotch Church. . . . Can you 
give me any information about old Copies of the Scotch Communion Office, 
and whether Bishop Abcrnethy Drummond s Edition was used in Glasgow? 
Burntisland, 4th May, 1865. G. H. FORBES. 



I think you would find it worth while to spend a day or two 
amongst the MSS. in the Episcopal Library. Scarcely any one goes there. 
The front gate of S. Andrew s Hall, in Leith Wynd, is now locked, and the 
windows all boarded up : but there is an entry through one of the closes (I 
think it is called Trunk Close) by which you can gain admittance when you 
have found the way. Your best plan would be to write M Lachlan a Note, 
and ask him to meet you. or send the key of the room. His address is 
" Glenalmond Cottage, Sciennes Hill." Bishop Forbes (of Caithness) 
Journal is very interesting, and might be inserted in your Book. ... 
West Linton, Edinburgh, May 22, 18C55. WALTER BELL. 



I am delighted to know that you are grappling with Keith. The time 
has long come for a better Edition than it was possible for Dr. Russell to 
turn out. You have equal knowledge of the subject, a greater wealth of 
materials at command, and, above all, the proper enthusiasm. 

I fear you have heard an exaggerated account of my stores. I have 
noted down occasionally for many years, in the margins of my Copy, such 
notalilia as chanced to come across me in the course of my reading. I 
shall be delighted to transmit to you, from time to time, whatever occurs to 
me as likely to be useful. Xo doubt, you have already put yourself in com 
munication with our Historian, Dr. George Grub ; and, above all, with Dr. 
Joseph Robertson, Mr. Cosmo Innes, Mr. John Stuart, &c. You might also 
enlist Mr. Cheyne, who used to have stores of information on these subjects. 
The Episcopal Chest, too, at Glenalmond, is fuller and richer than it was 
when the last Edition of Keith came out. 



280 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

If you mean to write a History of the present Bishops, you will have 
some queer Stories to tell ; but you are the very man to bring out of your 
treasures things new and old. 

Aberdeen, July 3, 1805. II. I). 

From a casual notice, contained in a Letter addressed to 
Bishop Rait, there is reason to believe that Bishop Keith 
Published, about the year 1743, some " Select Pieces of Thomas 
a Keinpis," Translated into English. In his Preface to the 
Second Volume of these Pieces, he has introduced some Ad 
dresses to the Virgin Mary ; for which imprudence (as it was 
deemed in those evil days of calumny and reproach) he thought 
it necessary to enter into some explanation with his more scrupu 
lous Brethren. 

Grub, in his "Ecclesiastical History of Scotland," vol. iv., 
p. 47, Note, says : 

This is substantially correct, though the circumstances are inaccurately 
related by Dr. Russell and Mr. Lawson. In 1721, there was Published at 
Edinburgh the Second Volume of " Select Pieces of the Reverend and Pious 
Thomas a Kempis, in which are contained two Books, viz., I. The Valley of 
Lilies; II. The Soliloquy of the Soul." In the Preface by "the Publisher 
to the English Reader," which undoubtedly was written by Keith while a 
Presbyter in Edinburgh, it is stated that the Addresses to the Blessed Virgin 
are omitted, " as being most stumbling to the generality of English 
Readers." In some places, however, passages occur as objectionable as 
direct Addresses to the Virgin. And for this Bishop Keith afterwards 
apologized in a Letter written by him to Bishop Rait, Dated 19th October, 
1743, a Copy of which is among the Papers of the Episcopal Church in 
Scotland. [See 20 of Xo. 7 in the Catalogue. Scotichronicon, f>J. ii., j>. 204.] 

Keith, while a Student at Aberdeen, at the request of Dr. George 
Garden, Translated into Latin the last seven years of Dr. John Forbes 
Diary, for the Amsterdam Edition of the Works of that Divine. 

Besides the Works we have mentioned, it appears that the 
Bishop had at least projected others at an advanced period of his 
life. There was found among his Posthumous Manuscripts, a 
"Treatise on Mystical Divinity," drawn up in the form of 
"Letters addressed to a Lady," as also a " Scheme of Religion 
derived solely from the Scriptures," and intended, it was thought, 
for the use of his own Family. This statement is given on the 
authority of Bishop Alexander of Alloa, who appears to have 
consulted Mrs. Keith after the Death of her husband, and even 



ROBERT KEITH. 281 

to have inspected all the Literary Papers committed to her 
custody. Bishop Alexander made this enquiry in order to answer 
a question put to him by an "English Clergyman," who was 
desirous to know whether Bishop Keith "had left any Posthu 
mous Works behind him." 

Nor does it appear that he confined his attention to History 
and Divinity. He was a lover of Archaeology in all its branches. 
The two following Letters, which are Copied from the Originals 
preserved in Marischal College, Aberdeen, will show that he had 
directed his thoughts with much success to "the study of our 
Ancient Coins, and to the progressive improvement of the Euro 
pean Mint": 

Dear Sir, Two or three weeks ago, I desired our brother, Mr Alex 
ander, to deliver the Silver Penny I formerly mentioned to a gentleman of 
your Town, that he might put it into your hands, with orders for you to 
retain it in your custody till I should write you, which I hope the gentleman 
has honestly done. The Penny, you see, is very fair and entire. The 
Inscription on the King s side, "David Dei Gra. Rex Scotorum ;" the 
Legend on the Reverse, "Dns. P.tector ms. et Lib.ator rns.," which you 
know is for " Dominus Protector meus et Liberator meus ;" and within the 
inner circle, " Villa Aberdon." Now, this Penny I ask the favour of you to 
present from me to the Library of the Marischal College, in testimony of 
my having been some time a Student there. 

And I ask the same favour, Sir, with respect to this old Draught of the 
two Cities, and Aijcr Alerdoneii. The Author of it is well known by his 
other performances of this same kind ; and as I never chanced to see 
another Copy of this, and it has evidently been a Copy that has been sent 
from Holland to receive the corrections of the Author, which we discern 
upon it, all written with his own hand, he probably has chanced to die in 
the meantime, and so the Design has not been followed forth, otherwise tis 
impossible but some Copies would appear. But as none that I know of 
have been seen, this I hope will render it the more acceptable in the fore- 
mentioned Repository. With my kind service to yourself and the gentlemen 
of the Marischal College, I remain, Dear Sir, 

Your affectionate Brother and humble Servant, 
Edinburgh, April 7, 1750. ROBERT KEITH. 

To the Right Rev. Mr. Andrew Gerard, Aberdeen. 



Sir, I received your Letter of the 18th, containing thanks from your 
self and the Society you represent for the Silver Coins, &c., deposited in 
your Marischal College by me and two of my Brethren. As several of these 
Coins are already become, through length of time, exceeding rare, and 
seldom to be seen at all, and the rest will come to be so in a proportionable 
run of time, we thought it was doing some service to our native Country to 
deposit those few in our Ahna Mater, for the satisfaction of curious persons 

VOL. II. 2 N 



282 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

after we shall be dead and gone ; and we are pleased enough that your 
Society has put a mark of esteem on them, as to take all possible precaution 
to preserving them from being lost or dissipated. How coarsely soever our 
Scottish Coins may appear to have been wrought, yet I think I can assure 
you that, by inspecting those of the neighbouring Nations at the different 
Periods, our own are not much inferior. 

I return you, Sir, my personal thanks for your polite Letter, and for 
having been pleased to impart to me the alteration you have already made 
in the fabric of the College, which I remember very well how it formerly 
stood ; and the alteration you are intending to make in the future Education 
of your Students. I thank you also for a Letter you gave me about a year 
and a half ago, to which I was diverted from giving a Return at the time by 
some incidents, and beg you will be so good as to receive this excuse now, 
from. Sir, Your most humble and obliged Servant, 

Edinburgh, 28th Nov., 1752. ROBERT KEITH. 

To Principal T. Blackwell, Mar. Col. 

When the great Douglas Cause was being litigated, the 
following interesting Certificate of Marriage was produced by 
Lady Stewart : 

I, Mr. Robert Keith, Minister of the Gospel, do hereby declare that on 
the 4th day of the month of August, 1740, I Married the two following 
persons together as Man and Wife, according to the Lethurgy [*/>] of the 
Church of England, viz., John Stewart, Esq., brother-german to Sir George 
Stewart of Grandtully, and the Lady Jane Douglas, sister lawful to Archi 
bald, the present Duke of Douglas. In testimony of which, I have written 
this Declaration, with my own hand, at Edinburgh, and have Subscribed 
the same in presence of Archibald Bothwell, Esq., Master of the Mint in 
Scotland, and the Reverend Mr. John Alexander, residing in Alloa, this 
19th day of February, 1752 years. 

ROBERT KEITH. 
A. Bothwell, ir//c.s-,v. 
John Alexander, ir/ /m.s.s-. 

The Bishop Married a Lady named Stewart, by whom he had 
only one child, a daughter, named Clementina Stewartina, who 
married Mr. Carmichael of Leitli. The offspring of this Marriage 
was also a daughter, who became the first wife of Mr. Douglas, 
Merchant in Leitli. Several children were the issue of this 
Marriage, one of whom SteAvart Douglas, Esq., also Merchant 
in Leith was the father of the Rev. Archibald Douglas, who was 
Curate to the Venerable Dr. Bayley, Archdeacon of Stow, in the 
Diocese of Lincoln, at the Date of that gentleman s Death in 
August, 1844, and who is the great-great-grandson of Bishop 
Keith. \Laicson, from Information l>y Bishop Russell.] 



ROBE11T KEITH. 288 



Will and Settlement oj r>is?ip Keith, licijinlcr 

Edinburgh. 

21st April, 1757. Walter Lord Torpliiclicu, Judge ; John Gibson, Pro 
curator ; John Thomson, Writer in Edinburgh, gave in the Disposition and 
Assignation aftonvrittcn to be registered, whereof the tenor follows : 

I, Mr. Piobcrt Keith, Minister of the Gospel at Edinburgh, considering 
that by the Marriage Settlement, Dated the day of last, 

betwixt Stewart Carmichael, Merchant in Edinburgh, and Catharine Keith, 
my only daughter, I have provided the said Catharine Keith with a suitable 
provision, and stand bound to pay the same to the said Stewart Carmichael, 
at the terms therein mentioned : And also considering that Isobell Cameron, 
my beloved spouse, is nowise provided for by me in the event of my Decease : 
therefore, and for the love, favour, and affection which I have and bear to 
her, the said Isobell Cameron, I hereby, with and under the Burden, Pro 
vision, and [Reservation aftermcntioned, Assign, Convey, and Make over to 
and in favour of her and her Heirs and Assignees, whatsoever all and sundry 
Debts and Sums of Money, Principal Interest, and Penalties due and ad- 
debted to me, or which shall be due and addebted to me by Bond, Bill, 
Promise, Faction, Accompt, or otherwise any manner of way, by person or 
persons, together with the said Bonds, Bills, Accompts, or other Vouchers, 
and all Actions, Instance, and Execution competent thereon ; as also all 
Gold and Money (coined and uncoined), Medalls, Books, Pictures, House 
hold Furniture of all kinds, and all Goods and Gear whatever, of any 
kind or denomination, presently belonging to me, or which are in my 
custody, or which shall belong to me or be in my custody at the time of my 
Death, dispensing with the generality hereof, and declaring, That these 
Presents shall be as effectual to my said spouse as if every particular sum 
and subject had been herein specially named. And for rendering this my 
Assignation more effectual, I hereby Nominate and Appoint the said Isobell 
Cameron my Sole Executor and Universal Lcgator, with full power to her, 
immediately after my Decease, to meddle and intromitt with, sell, use, 
uplift, and discharge the same and subjects before conveyed, and, if needful, 
to obtain herself Dccerned and Confirmed Executor foresaid to me before the 
proper Commissaries, and to do every other thing anent the Premises that 
shall be thought proper for making the said subjects effectual to her : Pro 
vided always, as it is hereby expressly Provided and Declared, That the said 
Isobell Cameron shall be bounded and obliged to content and pay the whole 
just and lawful Debts that shall be resting and owing by me at the time of 
my Decease, to whatever person or persons, and the Expenses of my Funeral ; 
and reserving also to me not only my liferent of the foresaid Sums and 
Subjects during all the days of my lifetime, but also full poAver and liberty 
to use the same as I shall think proper, without the advice or consent of my 
said spouse, and to alter these Presents, in whole or in part, as to me shall 
seem meet : But declaring, if I make no alterations by an express Writing 
under my hand, that then, and in that case, these Presents, tlio found in my 
custody or of any other person at my Death, shall be valid and effectual to 
my said spouse as if the same had been delivered by me to her in my own 
lifetime ; and with the not-delivery q r of I hereby dispense and consent to the 
Registration hereof in the Books of Council and Session, or of any other 
proper Court, therein to remain for preservation ; and for that effect I con- 



281 DISTKICT OF FIFE. 

stitute Jo. Gibson my Procurator. In Witness whereof, these Presents, 
written on this and the preceding page of Stampt Paper by Andrew Buck- 
ney, Clerk to James Kobertson Barclay, Clerk to the Signet, are Subscribed 
by me at Bonytouu, the Twenty-fifth Day of November, Jaivij and Fifty two 
Years, before these Witnesses, John Mitchclson, Writer in Edin r , and the 
said Andrew Buckney. 

(Signed) ROBERT KEITH. 

John Mitchelsou, Wiinc.. 
Andrew Buckney, U7/m .s.v. 

It lias been already stated that the Bishop passed several of 
the last years of his life at his Villa of Bonnyhangli a retired 
and pleasant situation on the banks of the Water of Leith. 
There he enjoyed the society of his daughter s family, which was 
settled in that neighbourhood, diverted the languor of old age by 
Study and Religious Meditation, and prepared his mind and his 
household for that important change, for which it had been the 
business of his life to prepare others. He Died at Bonny haugh 
on the 20th January, 1757, between seven and eight o clock in 
the morning, in the 7Gth year of his age. He was confined to 
bed only one day before his Death the only day that he had 
been so confined during G4 years, though he had, as long as he 
lived in Edinburgh, been constantly afflicted with a nervous 
headache. He was Interred in the Canongate Churchyard, and 
the spot where his Remains are deposited is indicated by a 
simple square Pedestal about 4 feet in height, surmounted by 
an Urn, near the South-west corner of the ground, and is thus 
Inscribed : 

Bishop Keith died 

1750. :: 

Stewartiua, Catharina, 
Carmichael, Wife of 

William Douglas, 
died 20th April, 1793. 

William Douglas, 

Merch*. m Leith, died llth 

July, 1814. 

: : Tliis Date is evidently wrong, as it was in the beginning of 1757 that he Died. 



irr WHITE. 285 



LVI. EGBERT WHITE, A.D. 1743-61, (No Seal) 

Had the charge of the Flock in Cupar-Fifc until his Death 
on the 16th August, 1761. In common with the other "Epis 
copal Chapels" at the time, his was visited at the " 45" by the 
Duke of Cumberland. The Mob kicked and burned in the streets 
the Altar, Service Books, Pulpit, Seats, &c., amid oaths and 
ribald jokes. He was Consecrated in the "Meeting House" of 
the Rev. David Guthrie, at Carsebank, about a mile to the east 
ward of Forfar, upon Tuesday the 24th June, 1735 being the 
Festival of the Nativity of S. John the Baptist and succeeded 
Bishop Gillan as Bishop of Dunblane. Upon Bishop Keith s 
Resignation of the "District of Fife," the Clergy therein Elected 
him as their "Ordinary," on the 26th October, 1743; and he 
Resigned the oversight of Dunblane, 24th January, 1744. When 
Bishop Keith Died, the Episcopal College consisted of Bishops 
White, William Falconar, Raitt, Alexander, and Gerard. White 
succeeded as Primus in 1757. 

It appears to have been an understood arrangement among 
the Prelates, that whoever they Elected Primus should ex ojjicio 
become JJishop of Edinburgh which accounts for that Diocese 
being kept for so many years without a Bishop, or, as the Clergy 
reasonably murmured, in a "state of orphancy." The Edin 
burgh Clergy in 1759 Elected the Rev. Alexander Robertson as 
their interim Bishop, and sent the Deed of Election to Bishop 
White, who, after four months silence, w T rote an angry Letter 
to Mr. Robertson, objecting against his Election. Bishop White 
stood upon his Office of Primus, and considered himself the 
immediate Ordinary of Edinburgh. The College of Bishops 
supported his view, and refused to Confirm the Election. [MS. 
Memoirs of the Episcopal Church of Scotland.] 

A lengthy Epistle, written by Bishop White to his Corres 
pondent, the Rev. David Lindsay, at Dunning, on Latitudinarian- 
ism and Schism, appeared in Stephen s "Episcopal Magazine," 
December 1835, vol. hi., pp. 358-361 ; as also in his "History 
of the Church of Scotland," vol. iv., pp. 373-376. The Original 
was in the possession of Bishop Low at Pittenweem. 



286 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

Xiuiibi r 11 /// i /tc C. iilnlnr/itc. 

7. (Holograph) Letter of Thanks in name of Mr. Raitt s friends, Mr. 
Charles White to Mr. Robert Keith, Aprilc 18, 1727, for his good offices, &c. 

10. Two Originals, March 18, 1735, Presbyters of Dunblane, then- 
Address or Letter to all the Bishops, requesting to appoint a Bishop over 
them. Herein are deposited Letters, Originals, and Copies of all the 
Bishops to one another, relative to ye Consecration of Bishop White, at 

20. (Copy) In the Handwriting of Bishop White, Collation of Mr. 
David Lindsay to St. Andrews, Jaury. 2. 1712. 

80. Extract of the Deed of Election, Octor. 20, 17-13, Presbyters of 
Fife for Bishop Robert White. 

31. (Copy) Bishop White s Letter of Acceptance, Novr. 5, 17-13. 

32. (Holograph) Bishop White s Resignation of Dunblane, Jan. 21, 17-14. 

The following Letters are copied from the Originals, and were 
never Printed until now : 

I. From. ]}txfto/> I! /lift: lu tin lii/jht Her. Dr. T/tonum Jliittrai/ of (. raii/hall. 

R. R. D. Sir, Your obliging L r of the 18 Deer, came to my hand on 
Sunday last. When I ask d your fi riendship for procuring a Bursary from 
Sir Al. Ramsey to my son, as I wanted your advice how to apply him, so I 
was resolved to follow it ; and you may be sure what you think will be most 
effectual will be most acceptable to me. What made me propose ad 
dressing him soon, was that there might be a vacancy next Term of present 
ing, and others might be beforehand with me for it. But tis equal to me, if 
it can be procured so as to commence the Term after that this being only 
my son s 3d year at the College ; and I can let him stay out his full Course 
or not, as the grant of Sir Alexander s flavour requires. You propose the 
thing I wished for your personal application : the making of which I leave 
to your convcnicncy, and hope there shall be no danger in delaying for the 
time you mention. 

It pleases me that your thoughts of Mr. Conachar s affair jumps so 
with mine. When I sent Mr. Bell the Suspension to be executed, I desired 
him to Officiate in his Meeting : IIouse some Sunday after the execution, and 
suggested to him that he should influence his people to address for taking 
oft the Sentence, and that Mr C- r should come to me with that in his 
pocket, and then I should consider of relaxing him. I wrote nothing of this 
to Mr. K. or you, having left it open (this notwithstanding) to follow your 
advice as to continuing or taking off the Suspension ; and I required Mr. 
Bell to act this as of himself, and not let my name be heard in it. I know 
not what to think of my not hearing of this since I sent up the Suspension, 
the middle of Novr. ; but begin to think Mr. Bell has put off the execution 
till the Christmass Ffestival should be over. At the same time, I desired 
Mr. Bell to make enquiry if there s any hazard of a criminal pursute. 

I bless God I have my health as w T ell as ever, have recovered my 
strength, and very near (I think) my lost fflesh, and find no odds but that 
the cold weather makes some more impression on me than it had wont, 
which obliges me to guard better against it. This I impute to being so 



EOBEET WHITE. 2R7 

long coiifin cl to a warm room. I return my hearty thanks for your concern 
both for my person and interest ; and praying God this may be a happy 
year to you and ffamily, and that He may long preserve you to us for the 
good of His Church, I am, 

E. II. J). Sir, 

Your affectionate Brother and most humble Servant, 
Cupar, Jan. 2d, 1730. Eon. WHITE. 

II. To tlic llii/Jit Her. 7V. Tliui/nis litittrni/ <>f Cnt ujhaU. 

E. E. D. Sir, Having the occasion of one going for Perth, I reckon an 
Ace* of Mr. Conachar s affair, as it now stands, will not be unacceptable to 
you. K. wrote me on the 5th of this, of a complaining L r he had from him, 
and extenuating his ffault, intimating that the most part of his retainers 
being within ye Diocese of Glasgow, he might disregard my Sentence, and 
continue w 1 them under the inspection of F. But that he would not move 
a step without K. s advice, which it seems allarm d him (as it would not 
have done me), and occasioned my getting a longer I/ than ordinary, urging 
me (but modestly) to remit the Sentence. Tis ten to one but I had been 
more backward to this, had I known of C- r s hearkning so far to such a 
suggestion as to consult it. But, as Providence would have it, an Address 
from a dozen of his principal retainers came to me Post express ; in answer 
to which my Eelaxation was returned by the same hand on the 4th. They 
show a great regard for linn", and satisfaction in his administration, extenu 
ate his ffault, urge the loss they re at, the difficulty nay, the impracticable- 
ness of supplying his place, and submissively plead the restoring him to ye 
exercise of his Sacerdotal powers. I suppose the suggestion I made to Mr. 
Bell when I sent him the Suspension to be executed (of which I wrote you 
in my last) has produced this effect. I expected C- r (as I also suggested) 
should have been the bearer of that Paper. Xot knowing what I do now, I 
put the best construction on his not comming ; but commiting the Eelaxa 
tion to Mr. Bell, enjoyn d him not to deliver it till he had a L r -of Penitence 
and fair promises from him write to me, to be sent up. I have not a 
scrape from that quarter since I sent up the Suspension, save the Address ; 
and impatiently wait Mr. Bell s Ace 1 of the reception of the Eelaxation, 
which I hope puts an end to this affair, and to the fine project of some rest 
less troublcrs of our peace, who wait all catches, even such as ordinary men 
would not dream of. 

Mr. Mylne, at Faulklaiid, was Buried on Tuesday last ; where, in a 
meeting of his retainers, 011 being urged to recommend, I tabled Dr. 
Barclay, now at Ed r , and, by commission, wrote him to know if he would 
accept their Call ; but do not expect his Answer before to-morrow at 
soonest, nor his compliance, he being fallen in with Harper and his Club, 
who are a projecting his Settlement there. F. s Meeting House was the 
first project ; now they re on putting him in with Mr. Eae. His taking up 
with them is imputable to his circumstances ; but they may mistake their 
man. 

Let me use the ffreedom with you to entreat your seeing Sir Al. 
Eamsey as soon as your conveniency will allow, which will be a singular 
favour done, E. E. D. Sir, 

Your affectionate Brother and humble Servant, 
Cupar, Jan. 15, 1739. BOB. WHITE. 



288 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

III. To the Put/Jit Pier. 7V. Thomax Pmtiratj of 

E. E. D. Sir, My son being now done Avith liis Course at St. And., 
has taken the Degree, and come home to me. I wrote you twice lately 
once before you left Ed r , and again by Mr. William Falconar to know 
wbat I might expect of Sir Alexr. Piamsey for him, but have got no return. 
Having trusted to your interest with Sir Alexander, and to the word you 
sent me last year by Mr. Lyon, I have made no other application to him. 
Now tis high time I should; and would have waited on him before now, but 
that I have not a scrape under cither your hand or his (nothing but hearsay) 
to insist on with him. Tho I doubt not of your having his promise, as Mr. 
Lyon said, yet I m afl raid from his not being kept in mind of it, and from 
my not appearing, he may conclude me indifferent, and bestow the flavour 
otherwise, which, no doubt, he ll have solicitations for. This makes me 
earnestly intreat yoii ll lose no time in writing Sir Alexander, on account of 
my son s situation and mine, of the difficulty I m under for his further 
Education ; and you may venture to tell that he has come oft with a good 
character from the place he has left. I do not mention how far you re to 
insist with him on his promise, because I know not yet how far you can. 
Let me also as earnestly intreat you may not delay writing me, so as that 
your I/ may be an introduction to my addressing Sir Alexander, and a 
ground of pleading with him, for I design soon to visit him, and to be at a 
point with this. I hope the necessity I am under, of giving you this trouble, 
will plead an excuse for, 11. Pi. Sir, 

Your affectionate Brother and most humble Servant, 
Cupar, June 17, 1710. PIOB. WIIITK. 

IV. To t/ic Hii/ht ltd . Mr. John Afc.cantlt r <tt AUon. 

B. R. D. Sir, On receiving yours of March 5th (which gave me no 
small concern), I wrote K., expressing my fear that the obstruction comming 
in the manor might occasion a misunderstanding, proceeding from suspicion 
that the project Avas design dly baulk d, especially if there was no more done 
to bring D. and G. to our hand, and proposed that an application to them 
should be made by us for obtaining this ; but have not a scrape from K. 
since. I have endeavour d this by myself, and, I bless God, with success. 
Last Post brought me a L r from (!., with D. s to me, inclosed open. D. 
had, on receipt of mine, wrote G. that himself had altered his mind, that he 
had Subscrib d the Mandate, that he knew he would be the Elect, and 
encourages him, very Christianly, to accept. He sets down a Copy of that 
L r under his Answer to me, all written with his own hand ; and, not 
doubting of the Election, expresses to me his earnest desire that the Conse 
cration may not be delayed. G. writes me, as fully as I would expect or 
desire, his Eesolution to be passive, and succumb in compliance with the 
judgment and design of for him. I hope tis res Intetp-a in Domino, and, 
this Hub being now removed, that you ll renew your diligence and keeness 
to gratify D. in his desire, which I heartily joyn and second. If tis 
frustrated now, G. will justly think it an affront to him, and it will not fail 
of raising such jealousy as Avill break our unitie, in Avhich you justly reckon 
our safety lies. The risquing of this is not to be laid in the balance with any 
dread of Ed r clamour. Let us endeaA our the strengthning ourselves (with- 
out regard to that), which I trust the bringing this design to bear will be a 



ROBEET WHITE. 289 

mean of, and tend to our comfort and the benefite of this afflicted Church. 
Good D. is hopefull that the storm will How over, and adds, " The honest 
Labourer must be doing, and trust God with the Season." God succeed 
our endeavours, and grant that our trials may be found unto Praise, 
Honour, and Glory. I am, Dear Sir, 

Your affectionate Brother and most humble Servant, 
Cupar, April loth, 1744. ROB. WHITE. 

V. To the Jl ujlit Rev. Mr. John Alexander, at Alloa. 

R. R. D. Sir, Mr Livingston in his L r , along with Mr. William 
Abernethie, pleads with me to refer him to you for Trials and receiving the 
Order of Deacon : the gentleman himself desires this. Both of them agree 
in asking it, on account of the distance and trouble it would be to him to 
travel and attend here. I am loath to put any hardship on him, and there 
fore remit him to you to order his Trials and confer that dignity upon him. 
By ye short conversation I have had with him, I am persuaded your 
character of him is just, and your hopes of him right founded. 

I hope my L r , giving you an Account of Bishop Dunbar s being desirous 
of Mr. G d s promotion, and his yielding to accept, is come to your 
hands, and shall not doubt of your exerting yourself to have it expcded. 
Mr G. may take it as an affront if tis baulk d now, and I think I would 
share with him in it. K. writes me that Mr. Bell is to be brought to Blair 
and Hunter s House. I wish he do not change his mind on this. However, 

K. thinks himself secure of him, and is only afraid of Messrs D ss and 

C r. Pray bestir yourself to secure them. D ss, B ly, and 

E n, have L" from me on the subject. I shall be anxious to know how 

matters stand with respect to this. 

My wife and son tender their humble duty and good wishes to you ; 
and I am, Dear Sir, 

Your most affectionate Brother and humble Servant, 
Cupar, April 15, 1744. ROB. WHITE. 



the. IVijltt Her. Mr. John Alexander, at Alloa. 

R. R. D. Sir, You have very just thoughts of Bishop Smith s extrava 
gant L r , and of my resolution to withstand all attempts and incroachments 
of that nature, thu all his Brethren in England should second him. I was 
at Dundee last week burying my nephew s wife. Mr. Raitt, however he s 
fretted, will stand united with us against both Smith s and Ed r s attacks. I 
proposed a Meeting of us ffoure, which he goes in with, at Kiughorn, Kenno- 
way, Ffalkland, or Cupar, of which I am to write Bishop Keith, who has 
twice mov d it to me that our Meeting would be proper ; and tells me that 
he wrote Bishop Smith, promising me a Copy of what he wrote, but tis not 
yet come to hand. I wish he had advis d us before he wrote, for tho I doubt 
not of his saying right things, pi it* rident ocidi, &c. Till I see what he has 
said I cannot say what s farther to be done. Your two Ordinations are 
acceptable to me, as it will be to see Mr. Abernathy here. I beg of you 

push for Mr. G d s Election, without regard to his pleading a delay. If 

this is effected, it will be a great strengthening of our Union ; if not, I cannot 
secure against wrong constructions and jealousies impairing it. 

Yesterday all our Efife Presbyters were with me. We had no business 

VOL. II. 2 O 



292 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

for establishing uniformitie betwixt the 2 Churches. Archbishop Laud 
and his Brethren, and all our then Bishops, thought it did so. Why 
should we not think w l them, rather than with Bishop Smith ? His 2 Dis 
courses for showing that the English Liturgy Blesseth and Offereth, &c., by 
ye very design of them, arc an encomium on ours ; and, more, prove it 
preferable to the English, than make out what he intended in favour of it. 
If there arc any political views in this proposal, I shall judge of them when 
let into them ; but I neither act by these nor am soon startled with them. 
It seems he has found a party here for suppressing our Liturgy, and has 
done enough already to spirit them up. If he persists, it must be con 
structed a heading of them. Should any of us, nay, all of us, joyn in this, 
a party much stronger would soon appear, and justly too ; and instead of a 
better, would put us in a Avorse and more divided situation than ever since 

another Re than the Reformation. But I m not aifraid of this taking 

with any Brother. 

B. K. writes mo I shall have my Confirmation of this District in fibrin, 
so soon as I resign Dumblauc. But since I promised to hold both, and 
obliged myself to resign at the desire of the majoritie, I think it proper I 
should be iirst Confirmed in this, to save my being cast loose ; and then, as 
soon as shall be thought fit, require my resignation by ye majoritie, whose 
doing so will supersede my asking acceptance of my resignation, and so 

save some trouble and time. I am of B. K. s mind, that ye sooner D n 

is right supplied the better, and am glad he hopes it may fall to Mr. G. 

I have inclosed a L r to Mr. Douglass, and another to Mr. Conachar, to 
be used by B. K. and you as shall be thought fit. Mr. Lyon sent me some 
time ago ;-} Copies of the Printed Proposals for Publishing Lit. Jnc<>!>., with 
a Commission, I suppose, of ye same nature w yours. I Avish Ave succeed 
in getting Subscriptions: Avc ll easily agree about the Remittance. 

I have put oft this ffortnight past the giving you a Return, in expecta 
tion of my son s returning from Mcarns and Angus, and of some Ace 1 of 
Bishop Rait by him ; but the one is not arrived, and ye other is yet silent. 
My Avife Avas glad to hear of your Avelfare, and returns you ye tender of her 
respects. I pray all happiness to you, and am, 

Dear Sir, 

Your affectionate Brother and most humble Servant, 
November 28. ROB. WHITE. 

P.S. Pray let me have an authentick Copic of our last Synod s 
Transactions. 

LVII. HENRY EDGAR. A.D. 1759, Coaclj. A.D. 1761-65. 

His name is sometimes Printed as Harry, and Harie ; but 
Mr. Andrew Jervise settles the doubt in the following Baptismal 
Entry in the Brechin Records, given in his "Land of the Lind 
says, " p. 271 (Note) :- 

April 2, 1G98. David Edgar of Keythick, husband to Elizabeth 
Guthrie, had a son Baptized named Hendrie. "Witnesses, Hendrie Maull of 
Kellie, Hendrie Graham of Menorgan, Hendrie Guthrie. 



HEXRY EDGAR. 293 

This batch of Huidrics would now-a-days bo despoiled of the 
letter //, and have ic changed into //. 

The Bishop was of the Edgars of Wadderlie. According to 
the "MS. Memoirs of the Episcopal Church of Scotland," it is 
stated that, before Bishop Edgar s appointment as Coadjutor, 
Bishop White, the Primus, wrote to a Clergyman living in 
Dumfries, soliciting his Vote for Mr. Harry Edgar, to be Conse 
crated Hisho}) of Glasfjow ; but the Clergyman gave no answer. 
Mr. Edgar was not Elected by any Presbyters. Notwithstand 
ing, his Consecration, as Coadjutor to Bishop White, took place 
at Cupar-Eifc on S. Luke s Day, the 18th October, 1759. The 
Primus was Consecrator, assisted by Bishops Ealconar, Raitt, 
and Alexander. 

The Lands of Keithock (or Keithick), in the neighbourhood 
of Brechin, belonged to the Lindsays, who were forced to mort 
gage their property. 

Oil tlic sale of Kcithock by the Lindsays, a younger son of the old 
Family of Edgar of "Wadderlie became proprietor. David Edgar of Keith 
ock, who bought the property from his cousin Thomas (the father of John of 
Poland), had a large family, among whom were John and James, who bore 
prominent parts during the Rebellion of 1715. The former Died a prisoner 
in Stirling Castle, and the latter, escaping to Italy, became the well known 
Private Secretary of the Chevalier, and Died at Rome in September 17G2, 
where "he was Buried by a Protestant Clergyman, according to the Pdtes 
of the Church of England. He was a person of great worth, and, as 
appears not only by the Letters of the Chevalier and his son Prince Charles, 
but by those of the fugitive Nobles, was one in whom all had the most 
implicit confidence. His fidelity to the cause of his exiled master was un 
impeachable, as the following anecdote by his great-grand-niece amply 
illustrates: "Some considerable time after the Fifteen, the British 
Government had reason to believe that another attempt was to be made for 
the exiled family. Sir Robert Walpolc directed his spies to learn who was 
most in King James confidence, and what were the character and circum 
stances of the individual. He was told that the King s private Secretary 
was the younger son of a Scotch Laird of small fortune ; that he was of a 
generous, hospitable turn, fond of entertaining his Countrymen when at 
Rome ; and that he had but a small salary. This was just what Sir Robert 
wanted, and he wrote to Edgar, offering a handsome sum if he would betray 
the intentions of his master. Edgar put the Letter into the fire, and 
returned 110 answer. Several other Epistles bearing advanced offers met 
the same fate. Sir Robert thinking he had not yet come up to the Secre 
tary s price, then wrote (and this time without making any conditions) that 
he had placed 10,000 in the Bank of Venice in the name of Mr. Edgar. 
The Secretary then consulted his master, and, after a brief interval, returned 



291 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

for answer that lie had received Sir Robert s Letter, lie thanked him for 
the i 10,000, which he had lost no time in drawing from the Bank, and had 
just laid at the feet of his 11 oval master, who had the best title to gold that 
came, as this had done, from England." 

Alexander, the penultimate Laird of Keithock, Died about 17GK, and 
was succeeded by his son John, who, like his uncles, was a staunch sup 
porter of the Stuarts, and joined their Cause at the age of nineteen. Ho 
lied to France on the final defeat of the Rebels at Culloden, and served under 
Lord Ogilvy until the passing of the Act of Indemnity in 1750, when he 
returned to Scotland, lie Married a daughter of Mr. Ogilvy, Minister of 
Tannadice, and, down to his latest breath, when quaffing the goblet of wine 
or ale, he indulged in the rather equivocal toast of drinking " T<> lh< Kimj 
o er ill,- inili-r!" Keithock being greatly mortgaged at the time of John s 
Succession, it was sold in 17SK) (two years after his Death) ; and although 
the Family lias passed from the District of Brechin, numerous descendants 
survive in America and various parts of Great Britain. [./crr/V.s J.lcex of 
the Linihuijx, ]>. 270.] 

For much of this information, Mr. Jcrvisc is indebted to Miss 
Watson (daughter of the late Bishop Watson of Dunkeld), 
through the courtesy of William Baillie, Esq., Edinburgh. both 
great-grand-children of Alexander Edgar of Keithock. 

Bishop Edgar was brother of Mr. Edgar, Titular Earl of 
Alford, Secretary to the Chevalier, whose eldest brother, the 
above Alexander, succeeded to the Estate of Keithock. Henry, 
younger brother, fourth Bishop of Fife, was for 3G years Pastor 
of the Episcopal Church in Arbroath, where he Died (as intimated 
by his Tombstone in the Abbey Burial-ground), on the 21st of 
August 1705, in the CTtli year of his age. 

The following Correspondence was found in Bishop Jolly s 
Kist, copied in Bishop Alexander s handwriting : 

I. To tlie llii/Iit Her. Mr. John Alexander, at Alloa, can of Mr. Ditcitl Xecai/, 
Merchant, Kdiubiti ijh. Prosecution (ti/ftinst Mr. ] i il//nr, Arhroath. 

R. 11. D. Sir, I was much conccrn d that I could not have the pleasure 
of seeing you when at Ed r , being oblig d to wait there (for Captain George 
Lindsay, whom I had not seen for 1G years) till my time was run out. 
Before I return d to Angus, there was a most unlucky affair happened at 
Arbroath with Mr. Edgar. It was this : some of the Military had been 
there for some time, and differed with the Magistrates, which is given for 
the reason of Mr. Edgar s trouble. The way they took to ensnare him was 
most subtile : they sent a soldier to his house, who earnestly importun d 
Mr. Edgar for Prayers, who was so easy as to yield to his request. It 
seems he thought (viz., the soldier) that Mr. Edgar exceeded the Numbers, 
went directly to the Officer and informed. Upon which the Officer wrote to 
General Churchhill, who sent the information to London, which was 



HENEY EDGAR. 295 

returned V peremptory Orders to prosecute the Clergyman forthwith. 
Accordingly lie was tried at Forfar on the 3rd, hefore Carsgownie. The 
Witnesses adduced on the trial were the soldier who had heen the hearer, 
an old Chelsea pensioner, and a common man in Arhroath in all, three. 
The Lyhel ran in these terms : " That whereas Mr. Edgar had officiate in 
his on house on the 9th Scptr., or one or other of the Sundays of said 
inoneth, to more than 4 w l his family, and not prayed in express words : 
therefore he ought to he punished according to Law, and the hearers fined 
of 5 each." It was objected by Mr. Edgar s Procutor, that as the Lybel was 
in vague terms, and not confined to a precise day, that neither he nor the 
hearers could easily exculpate themselves by proving alilii ; so, with some 
difficulty, both the informer and the Fiscal yielded that point, and fixed on 
the 9th of Septr. None of the Witnesses except the soldier swore to the 
Lybel ; upon which the Sheriff assolized Mr. Edgar w a caution to be on 
his guard for the future ; for had the Lybel been proven, the Judge behoved 
to have condemned ye Pannel. This has given no small uneasiness to all 
of us here. Messrs. Seton and Cruthrie are both strictly coufiu d to the 
Number, by advice, as the soldiers at Forfar are on the catch. For myself, 
I use some more freedom, as being at a distance from these Civil, I had 
almost said uncivil, neighbours, none of them being nearer than Kirremuir. 
I thought proper to inform you of this, in case none else had done. It is 
the substance of the whole affair, which we have reason to be thankful 
turn d out so lucky for Mr. Edgar ; for had he been brought in, it s a 
question where it would have ended. As I have near finished my paper, I 
shall only beg your paternal benediction, and remain, as ever, most respect 
fully, 11. 11. D. Sir, 

Your obedient son and most humble Servant, 
Mcmus, Novr. IGth, 1750. JOHN RAMSAY. 

II. To Ijixlioj) Wliit< , an llie atj ftir of the Application, (tn<l tlie dain/er of it. 

R. R. D. Sir, The occasion of my writing to you at present gives me 
no small uneasiness, both upon your own ace and that of this poor afflicted 
Church, in the preservation of which we have all an equal concern. After 
what I wrote you in my last, of Feb. 13th, how was I amazed to find by a 
L r from Gr., that you had made use of my name to perswade him to agree to 
your project for procuring a Nomination for R , by saying that I had 
cordially gone in w it ! I am at a loss how to ace* for this, and shall abstain 
from making harsh or unkind reflections upon it. Only desire that in your 
next L r to him, you ll set him right in this matter, by barely telling him the 
truth, or sending my L r to him, that he may judge for himself. He very wisely 
and justly lays before me the danger and ruin that must attend such a step 
upon a discovery, which it seems impossible to avoid ; and I think I could 
not have declared my dissent from it in more express terms than I did to 
you. I spoke, indeed, with all due respect of R - and H. E.; and, thu I 
declined being active, told you I should be determined by a majority of my 
Brethren in every point of Discipline ; but gave it as my opinion that things 
at Ed r should be allowed to rest in the way they had been in for many 
years, and 110 motion made to raise new dust. And, particularly, as to the 
Application, I declared I would not concur in it, for reasons which might 
have been obvious to you, as they were to me, but I chose not then to insist 
upon. You know very well, my dear sir, how much such practices were 



296 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

exclaimed ag l in former times, and by none more than yourself, for the 
perils and confusions they involved us in ; and surely the reasons ag them 
are not^ less, but much more, cogent now than they were then. Our late 
calamities were chiefly owing to the notion our enemies had conceived of us, 
that AVC were all Nominees, and kept up an illicito correspondence ; and any 
respite we have since enjoyed, proceeds from their having been undeceived 
in this respect, and assured that none of our number are such. You are not 
to think that the inhibition w regard to Ed r is any secret to them ; and if 
it is taken off, and y< See filled, the consequence" is clear ; and they will 
easily conclude by what means, tlm there Avere no other way of coming at 
the truth, as there are but too many. I cannot, therefore, imagine what 
could be your motive to precipitate our destruction by so temerarious an 
action, especially as it cannot answer your end, nor serve the person you in 
tend it should, who, I dare say, is wiser than to thank you for it. Moreover, 
you know that when we Elected you our Primus, it was in the forms of our 
Canons, which, if you ll consult, you ll iind do not entitle you to act by your 
self alone, especially in matters of so much consequence to our Society as 
this is. I wish then, if it is yet in your power, that you would countermand 
these iatal dispatches, and henceforth cease perplexing us Avith further 
schemes, and sutler us to live and die in peace. As to Promotions, I have 
said from the beginning that I saw no immediate necessity of proceeding to 
any, as, thanks to God, we are not so few as should make us dread any 
imminent danger of the Succession failing; and I hope we may rely upon 
His goodness that 3 of us will not drop off at once. As likewise there is no 
appearance of that unanimity that were to be wished for in our choice of 
Candidates, and the person you have all along pointed at has shown so 
much rashness and imprudence in promoting this conceit of yours, as gives 
just ground to some of us to doubt whether he would be so proper a person 
to be assumed as we were otherwise Avilling to believe ; on these considera 
tions^ I say I am for laying aside all thoughts of this at present, and 
referring the decision entirely to Providence, by the Election of the Clergy 
of the District that first becomes vacant, Avhiciris the only warrantable Avay, 
being determined for my OAVH part to abstract further meddling in publick 
affairs, unless I find I can lie the instrument of doing some great good, or 
preventing some evident hurt to our dear Mother, the Church ; and confine 
myself solely to the business of my particular Charge. And this being my 
firm resolution, there will be no occasion for the visit I intended you "after 
Easter; but that shall not diminish the regard I have always had of you, 
nor hinder me from continuing 

Your affectionate Brother and most humble Servant, 
Alloa, March 17, 1750. JOHN ALEXANDER. 

HI- To nishoji WDI. Fii/contn; in Iu }>li/ to an ant/ri/ Letter about II. E., tfc. 

B. B. D. Sir, I received yours of the 27th, with one from the Presb y 
inclosed, by last week s carrier. It did not so much affect me with sur 
prize, as I am HOAV hardened with ill usage, as with sorrow and pity for 
our state. However, I immediately wrote to G., who is equally concerned; 
and, Avhen I hear from him, shall give the Primus an Answer. This is no 
affected delay, but a regular way of proceeding, as I chuse not to do any 
thing without common concurrence, or in a clandestine way. The good 
Primus charges me either with disingenuity or inconsistency, and with 



HENEY EDGAE. 297 

bringing E. F. upon the carpet : all which I deny and defy him to prove 
from anything in my Protest. You bring still heavier charges against me, 
which I shall consider by and by, and only observe at present that this is 
not the most engaging way of asking a favour. 

I am entirely satisfied that W. should have a Coadjutor he needs it 
much and that H. E. should be the person. I esteem him highly, and 
shall, God willing, assist at his Consecration, when called in the terms of 
the Protest. But you see no reason, you say, for insisting on the Eoss 
Clergy at the same time. I cannot help that; but am sure I have given 
many in my last and former Letters to you, none of which have yet been 
answered. I shall now add one more, which is That truly it is no such 
easy matter for one of my age to make long journeys every day, nor is it so 
safe for us to have frequent Meetings of that kind, and, therefore, as much 
should be dispatched at once as we can. Another good reason your Letter 
before me suggests. As you seem to dread danger from the Juntoe s 
influence in Eoss, I judge the best way to prevent it is to provide them in 
time, and even to gratify them in their first choice would be the readiest 
means to keep them steady to the interests of the Church ; besides that it 
would cordially unite us all, and keep the Succession, in all humane views, 
out of danger of failing, at least for some time. And would our Brethren 
drop their opposition, without which I would not be for having him 
appointed, I think it would be the luckiest thing that could happen to us ; 
besides that it would give the Primus the comfort to be cordially united 
with all his Brethren, and leave the Society in a peaceful and united state. 
And I confess all the objections I have yet heard laid against him, are not 
enough to balance these good effects in my poor opinion. Whether he would 
comply I cannot say, as I never corresponded with him on that subject, 
except that lately he told me you had proposed his settling at Inverness, 
and taking up that Charge ; which I said, if he inclined, I should not be 
against. But I am apt to think, if we should unite in urging him, he might 
be brought to comply, and then we might proceed to both without delay. 

I now come to the blustering harsher part of your Epistle. You tell 
me my last gave you great pain ; and I say that indeed it could not give you 
greater in reading than it did me in writing. But was there not a cause ? 
I chuse not to rip up sores ; but consult your own heart coolly, and perhaps 
it may suggest to you that, instead of an accusation, I might have looked for 
an acknowledgment, which, since you do not deign to make to me, I shall 
to you. I own then, that the coining in of your Letters at the critical time 
they did, threw me a little off my guard ; and since you think I used a 
sarcasm, whether I intended so or not, I stand corrected, and retract that 
expression, and shall not use it again. I said nothing else but what I think 
not only defensible but highly becoming. Tis true, you allege, in a pom 
pous and swelling strain, that I fulminated ingeminated woes and execra 
tions against my Brethren. But where is this to be found ? In your own 
imagination, not in my Letter; which, had you been possessed of that 
meekness which you task me so severely with the want of, you would not 
rashly have put so uncharitable a construction upon my words. The son of 
Croesus, thu dumb before, broke silence when he saw the blow impending to 
take away his father s life ; and my zeal to avert the danger wherewith I 
beheld my dearest Mother threatened, moved me to make use of these words 
of Him who never spoke in vain. But I mentioned no names. You who 

VOL. II. 2 P 



298 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

make the Application are accountable for that : the Denunciation is general 
and indefinite. When the offence is given, the woe must follow ; hut, 
thanks to kind Providence, and Mr. Edgar s wisdom, which prevented it. 
You next call me stiff, and imperious, and what not. Had you answered 
my reasons, it would have done much hotter than thus to load me with 
reflections. As to stiffness, when in a good cause, I may at least say you 
miscall it. Steadiness is the word; and steadiness in the cause of truth 
and justice is a manly virtue. However, I take this much better than if you 
had called me a changeling, tossed to and fro with every blast, and never to 
be found where you left me. As to imperiousness, I disclaim it as utterly 
inconsistent with my temper. I have a title to offer advice in what concerns 
the publick weal ; but counsel is no command, and if I can answer for my 
self, I would not take upon me to answer for others by compelling them, thu 
I had the power. And now to your last and heaviest charge that I 
threaten a fatal breach, Arc. How you come to discover this, I confess I am 
to seek. Peace must doubtless be a very precious jewel, since they who are 
enemies or strangers to the thing affect the name. That I had no such 
intention is plain from my Protest, which, tho I thought myself bound to 
enter for my own vindication of being accessory to an irregular measure, it 
never entered into my mind to make a breach with my Brethren. Tis 
true, indeed, a breach there- would have been, if that affair had taken place, 
but it would have been made by others, and not by me. You know well 
enough our Canons are the basis and bond of our peace. You need not be 
told who made the first infringement upon them, from whence all our dis 
orders have since flowed; and should they be given up, as has been aimed 
at oftcuer than once since, I tremble to think what ruin and confusion must 
follow, when every one is left to do what seems right in his own eyes. To 
conclude, whoever thinks to establish peace upon the ruins of truth, justice, 
and honour, will find a false and deceitful delusion, and must soon lose them 
all, and inward peace to boot. Let me not, therefore, be again upbraided 
with this ; for so long as I stand to rule and order, I am sure I stand 
upright, and shall not be afraid of the censure of man. God help us all to 
continue stedfast in the Unity of the Spirit, and the Bond of Peace and 
Righteousness of Life, and to lay aside all our little bickerings and quarrels, 
and make it our study to love Him and one another. I am, &c., 

JOHN ALEXANDER. 

IV. To Uix/iiiji WiUinin Fdlcitiinf. <(f Bixhnii White auil Mr. Etljur. 

Pi. E. D. Sir, I wrote you a fortnight ago a hint of what concerned 
you more fully to know, but it seems by your abstractedness in not writing, 
you affect an indifferency in our affairs. However, that the Church may 
not suffer thro my default, I here subjoin (for your own use allenerly) a 
Copy of a Letter that I have this day sent to W., which will make a fuller 
discovery of certain practices, which I neither think justifiable in them 
selves, nor carried on in a fair manner. I leave you to take such measures 
upon it as you shall judge most proper. I opposed your scheme of the Sus 
pension, because I thought myself bound in honour and conscience so to 
do ; and for the same reason I have opposed this, as exposing our Society 
to utter extinction. Our Brother is prolifick in projects. If he goes on at 
this rate, he will not rest till he ruins us. He writes me you have been 
urging him to hasten H. E. s Consecration. I have not opposed it till now 



HENRY EDGAR. 200 

that 1 think I have some reason ; but if you concur, my opposing will be of 
no consequence, and I shall give myself no farther trouble, only I wish you 
may consider ripely what it may produce. If you keep aloof, you may 
depend upon being supported by G. and me. Whether you can do so by 
the others supposing the matter to be indifferent, I leave yourself to judge. 
The balance is in your hand, and I pray God direct you right. If you 
incline to concert measures, and come to an eclaircissement of the whole 
plot, I am to be at Dimfermline, on Thursday, April Gth ; and if you 
can steal away early, you may be at the old place by 2, and, if needful, 
return the same night. No one needs to know that you are out of Town. I 
wait your answer, and am. &c.. 

JOHN ALKXANDKK. 

V. ]>ix/ii> Ali ,ni>nl/ r In Mr. J^/li/nr, enclosini/ </ (/"/ // // A/.v L/ thr to t/ir 
l. i iuiiix, /ni/1 xititiit/i A/.s inability In In ]>i < xrnt /it In* Consecration. 

R. I). Sir, I had a Letter last Post from our Primus, inviting me to 
assist at your Consecration on S. Barth. s Day ; and it gives me the deepest 
concern that I cannot be present, chiefly on your account, for whom I have 
long had a real high esteem, and whose Promotion in a regular way I have 
long hoped and looked for. My reasons of dissent I have this day drawn 
out, and sent in a Letter to the Primus, of which a Copy follows : 

" R. R. D. Sir, I received your Letter of the 18th current by the last 
Post, inviting me to Cupar to assist at the Consecration of my worthy 
friend, Mr. Edgar. As he is a person whom I highly esteem, and for whose 
merit I have a, just regard, I should have attended with the greatest 
pleasure, which I m sorry the indiscretion that has appeared in the manage 
ment of that affair deprives me of. By this you will perceive that I have no 
intention to object against the Candidate, but the manner of his Promotion, 
which I always hoped would have been in an honourable and orderly way. 
We arc environed with enemies of various kinds, who watch for our halting, 
and will not fail to make advantage of every false step we take, and even 
industriously labour to create discord and division amongst us ; so that now, 
if ever, AVC should proceed with union and circumspection, and avoid giving 
the least handle for those who hate and malign us to vex us, especially as 
there appears not the least necessity for doing so. To do a thing irregularly, 
which may be done in a regular and unexceptionable manner, is at least, I 
may be allowed to say, not the wisest way of proceeding, and I cannot pre 
vail with myself to join in it for the following reasons : 1st, This is directly 
contrary to S. Paul s Canons, Let every thing be done to edification, and 
let everything be done decently and in order. These are of universal 
obligation, and stand in need of no comment. 2ndly. It is against our own 
Canons, which provide that every Bishop shall be chosen by the Clergy of 
the District he is to inspect, and revolving into the old Utopian Scheme of 
Bishops at large, which some years ago was exploded by our best and wisest 
men, and condemned by us also. Srdly. Whereas you say that the majority 
have sustained one officiating Clergyman s Letter of Petition as sufficient to 
proceed upon, this shows at least that the majority is not always in the 
right, since it is absurd to say that any majority can make one to be a 
number, and so capable of Electing in the sense of our Canons. Indeed, 
it looks like making a jest of so serious a matter, and must expose us to the 
derision of all who hear it. 4thly. There are 2 actual Presbyters in the Dis- 



800 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

trict pointed at, and tho one of them be not now officiating, nor famed for 
his worth and regularity, yet he is under no censure ; nay, he was actually 
applied to in the present case ; and had he given his vote as desired, no 
doubt it would have been sustained. But, as I am well informed, he not 
only refused, but has used threateniugs which may be of dangerous con 
sequence to us all. So that here is Mr. Lothian s - from Mr. Lyon s -f , and 
the remnant is 0. Sthly. Even Mr. Lyon s Petition was not a regular and 
voluntary Deed there was no Mandate from the Bishops and, as he owned 
to me himself, it was extorted from him by solicitation and authority. 
These are such practices as ought not to be used or allowed, else there is an 
end of all Discipline and Order in the Church. Had you given for a reason 
only your care for continuing our Succession, I should have had less to say 
against it, tho even that would not have been altogether unexceptionable; 
because (Othly) a body of regular Clergy, who have each of them a portio 
fircffis, and amongst them a large extent of Country under their Charges, and 
have been but too long neglected and overlooked by us, have in a regular 
way, laid down to them by ourselves, for some time past applied to us for a 
Mandate to elect a Bishop for themselves, whose residence in these parts 
every considering person must evidently see the advantage of to this Church, 
and whose Promotion would have been a fair and happy means of increasing 
our number and strengthening our union ; and yet this has been most unjusti 
fiably, I think, refused, or for a tract of time delayed by you. these 
reasons have such weight with me, that I cannot be at "freedom to approve 
of or concur in the present measure ; but find myself obliged, for my own 
exoneration of being accessory to so rash and illegal doings, to protest, as 
with a sad and sorrowful heart I hereby do protest against it, as unwar 
rantable, divisive, and unjust, and an instance of partiality scarce to be 
paralleled ; and desire that this Letter may be recorded as a testimony of 
my dissent, and that I wash my hands of all the evil consequences that may 
ensue upon it. The above considerations might, I think, have some weight 
even with you and my other Brethren, unless you are determined, in the 
strength of your majority, to go on arbitrarily and with a high hand. God 
knows, I have, to the best of my knowledge, all along endeavoured to serve 
His Church, and avert any danger wherewith I saw it threatened; and now, 
to prevent farther noise, and keep us firmly united in this perilous con 
juncture, I would still propose a short delay till these Northern Clergy have 
made out their Election, which may yet be done before winter, and then 
let both go on together for strengthening the Succession ; and I shall then 
readily be present with the first. This overture I made to Bishop Falcoiiar 
some months ago. Whether he communicated it I know not. But, sure I 
am, had it been gone into, this affair would have been over long before now. 
I cordially salute my Brethren who are to be with you, and, praying God to 
direct us all into the ways of peace and order, am, &c." 

The above goes along with this by this day s Post. What effect it may 
have on others I will not say, but I hope it may have some on you, who, I 
trust, would not chuse to be admitted in an irregular way, and be the 
cause of division, when, by a very little patience, you may come in with 
honour and applause, and be a cement of union amongst us, which, God 
grant, may never be broke, for our dear Redeemer s sake. I pray God to 
bless and adorn you with all the lovely graces of our Religion, and am, &c., 

JOHN ALEXANDER. 



HENRY EDGAE. 301 

VI. Bishop White to Her. IT///. l j^l;ijne. Relatiii i to Mr. 1 ^bjnr n Promotion. 

E. D. Sir, The majority of the Bishops is now determined to have Mr. 
Hary Edgar soon promoted to the Episcopate. A District is in view for 
him, but yours were more eligible so at least F., E 1 , and I are of opinion. 
It were surely desirable that your destitution were supplied by a proper 
Bishop, a principle of unity, and a visible Ecclesiastical head, a symbol of 
J. ^ C., the invisible One. He who now performs Episcopal Offices among 
you, cannot lay claim to the making up of this defect, nor to exercise the 
several powers that would appertain to your fixed Bishop. Now, you have 
a fair opportunity of having this supplied by making Mr. Edgar your choice, 
which, if you do, you need not apply for a Mandate, but, without delay, send 
me up an Address or Petition signifying that you arc satisfied with his Con 
secration taking place, and that in the event of it, you will receive him as 
your proper and fixed Bishop. Dear Sir, I intreat that, laying aside all 
other attachments, you would bestir yourself to induce your two Brethren 
to unite in gratifying us in what we are so desirous of, and taking this 
occasion to do service to this distressed Church, the like to which, perhaps, 
you may not again have in your power. I only add that, to do it to the 
best purpose, your and Brethren s favourable return should be at my hands 
in two weeks from the Date of this. I pray God direct you, and incline 
you and your Brethren to do what is judged desirable for you, and am, 
Your affectionate Brother and most humble Servant, 

(Signed) BOB. WHITE. 

Cupar, 14th Aug., 1759. 

P.S. My thoughts and words above are Avritten in my son s hand, for 
giving ease to my eyes. I hope you ll excuse this. 

TIL Her. William J rsk//)u x Ileji/i/ In t/ie abitre. 

E. E. Sir, Your Letter of the 14th instant, inclosed in one from 
Bishop Falconar of the IGth, came to my hands only yesternight, acquaint 
ing me that a majority of the Bishops are now determined to have Mr. 
Edgar soon promoted to the Episcopate, and that there is a District in view 
for him, but that Bishops F., B , and you, would think ours more eligible ; 
and, for this end, desiring that I would bestir myself with my 2 Brethren to 
induce them to unite in petitioning you for his Consecration, and engage 
ourselves to receive him as our Bishop. And at the same time you tell me 
that to do this to the best purpose, our Address should be at your hands in 
2 weeks from the Date of yours that is, against the 28th, which is Tuesday, 
and this is Friday. How, Sir, is this possible, even supposing us in concert 
with you, and as willing as you could wish ? I can say nothing on this 
subject in name of my Brethren, tho, for myself, I beg leave to say, as the 
proposal is new to me, I should like to have more than four days to think 
of the expediency of this step, before I gave my own consent. But as my 
Congregation would likewise be interested in this measure, I should think 
myself very much to blame, as no doubt they would, not to pay a proper 
regard to their sentiments in a matter which so nearly concerns them and 
me. Besides, Sir, I take it for granted from your fixing a precise time for 
our Answer, I should rather say our Deed of Election, that you and the 
other 2 Bishops (permit me to say, by the by, that I hope you do not mean 
exclusively of the other 2 Bishops) have agreed on a day for Mr. Edgar s 



802 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

Consecration, in consequence of the Election of the Presbyters of that other 
District which you say is in view for him, in which case our interfering 
would not be altogether becoming. You may freely command me in any 
thing within my power that concerns myself only ; but in this affair I can be 
of no use to you, for the reasons I have given. I beg leave to offer my kind 
compliments to your Secretary, and, begging your Benediction, am, &c., 

(Signed) "Wn,. ERSKYXK. 

2itli August, 1750. 

VIII. J>i*lio/i l- iilnnifii- In !!< /-. ll llliiiiii J-j xI.-i/nr. f >/ M i\ J ^li/n r n 1 nnnntiou. 

1!. 1). Sir, Inclosed you have a Letter from the Primus, which, if the 
purport of it pleases you, and if it can be done in the manner he desires, 
would give him great satisfaction. The time, you see, is very short for 
going about what lie desires you to do ; and, therefore, if the plan is agree 
able to you, you ll set about putting it in practice forthwith. I have been 
all this summer in a very bad state of health, and am just now at some 
small distance from Town for the sake of good air. You ll direct your 
Letter for me to the care of Mr. AVilliam Bell, in Dickson s Close. I can 
not write much, being still but in a weakly condition. I wish you and all 
your concerns everything that is good and agreeable, and am, with sincere 
regard and affection, 

Your most humble Servant, 

(Signed) AViL. FALCOXAR. 

Cleland s Yards, Aug. 10, 1759. 



IX. lli- 

11. 11. Sir, I am extremely sorry to know by yours of the 10th that 
you arc distressed, and most sincerely wish you a speedy and perfect 
recovery. You will see, by the inclosed, part of my sentiments concerning 
the proposal made me by the Primus, tho my compassion for the age and 
infirmities of the good man have kept me from being altogether so cxplicite 
as I might otherwise have been, considering the style of his Letter, which is 
more than enough to alarm me, who am so solicitous for harmony and 
unanimity amongst you Bishops ; and did not doubt of it till now, that he 
so earnestly desires me to take this occasion to do service to this distressed 
Church, "the like to which, perhaps, I may not have again in my power." 
I am absolutely at a loss what to make of this. I have for several years 
looked upon you as thoroughly united, and was thankful for it. The Pres 
byters, as far as I know, are entirely devoted to you, except a few seditious 
firebrands, who yet can do you no real hurt while you do not divide among 
yourselves. But perhaps I am afraid where no fear is, which I had much 
rather was the case, tho this application of his, both as to the thing and 
manner of it, surprizes me. What occasion have we for a Bishop, so long 
as Mr. Alexander is so good as perform Episcopal Acts among us, which 
he can do without any great addition to his expense of travelling, as he lias 
Mr. Grrerne s Bounds and mine to ride through before he reach his own 
District ? If there was any occasion for our having a Bishop, he is the 
person we would make choice of, as upon all accounts the fittest ; and our 
people, from their acquaintance with him, having so much regard for him 
that the bare proposal of another would give them offence ; and I truly 
think it for our common credit that this affair should not be so much as 



HENEY EDGAE. 803 

hinted to them no more it shall. While writing is troublesome to you, 
if you have anything farther to say to me 011 this subject, you know a 
discreet Lay friend of mine who can be trusted, who, when you go to Town, 
will not grudge to write for you, and who mentions you frequently, knowing 
that it gives me a sensible pleasure. I beg your Benediction, and am, Ac., 
Muthil, Aug. 21, ITol). (Signed) "NYu,. EESKYXE. 



X. Bishop Ali: i n i/(l< / t<> Jjisltoji ] (ilc(nitir. Ht lntiiuj to Mr. l <l</<// i x Atfidi . 

II. II. I). Sir, Your Letter of the 7th came safe, and next Post brought 
me one from A. II., inviting me to meet you and him at the Ferry, to which 
I have made no Answer, nor do I intend it ; but, if you please, yoii may 
give my service to him, and tell him from me that I wish him very well, but 
chuse not to enter upon a new negotiation with him, either by Conference or 
writing. To yourself, I say I repent I ever did, as it is now clearer to me 
than light itself, that they have no other intention in these than to worm 
something out of us that may serve them for a handle to expose and abuse 
us. As to your overture of my going to Cupar, I am sorry I can t close 
with it in the manner you propose. I hope my Brethren are all men of 
probity and virtue, which makes me suspect my own judgment when it 
differs from theirs ; yet its dictates must be my rule till I am otherways 
convinced. I ask then, why all this hurry to advance H. E. ? Surely to 
keep up the Succession is but a vain pretence ; for, had the same zeal 
appeared since the first application of the Northern Clergy, that might have 
been done, and even he advanced before this time. The Succession lyes 
as near my heart as it can do yours many an anxious thought and waking 
hour it gives me : and to keep up our Order is a duty incumbent upon us 
all. But then it should be done in an orderly way. You talk of a call of 
Providence, and, no doubt, Providence calls us to do our duty at all times ; 
but it never calls us to do a thing of the legality of which we do but doubt. 
Such may be a temptation, and not a call from Heaven. Consider, Sir, you 
reject the call of Providence, which is manifestly on the side of these Clergy 
whom \ou despise. There we see a sett of regular Clergymen, who have a 
considerable i/i/rt/o i/r<>//ix, a large extent of Country under their Charge, who 
have long been destitute and neglected by us, addressing us in a Canonical 
way a way laid down to them by ourselves to have a Bishop set over 
them ; and many excellent ends such a settlement would serve. So that I 
think, instead of upbraiding them for not doing this sooner, and therefore 
slighting their suit, we should have been thankful to God, who, by His grace, 
had now put it into their minds, and in His good Providence had thereby 
given us so fair and so happy an opportunity of continuing our Order in a 
lawful way. YVe ought to have met them more than halfway, and done 
everything to encourage them. Had the same circumstances appeared in 
the affair of H. 1 ]., I should have been the first to have assisted; but, on the 
reverse, we there discern every contrary symptom, so that they must be 
blind indeed, who cannot here behold partiality and injustice in the highest 
degree. [Here your Letter of the llth, with its inclosed from the Primus, 
conies in, takes off the veil, and makes a new and unexpected discovery.] 
Alas, for our poor Mother ! but woe, woe to that man by whom the offence 
cometh ! Pardon this extasy, which I was not able to restrain. But to 
return. Our Canons, in 81 and 48, provide that every Election shall be 
made by the Clergy of the District ; but our wise majority, it seems, have 



804 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

found out and sustained one to be a number. These Canons say that a 
Mandate shall be issued from the Primus and all the Bishops, impowering 
to Elect ; but here the Primus, or rather the Primus son, elicites a Letter 
of Petition from one, and would palm it upon our understanding as a Deed 
of Election from many. I have not now time to enumerate the absurdities 
with which this scheme is pregnant, as the Post hurries, and I must hasten 
to conclude. Perhaps more of them may meet you at Cupar, if this scheme 
go on. But I hope for better things of H. E., and that he will not, for want 
of a little patience, by so apparent an <nnl>itii*, give Pi. E., upon the compari 
son, so great an advantage over him ; and that my Brethren will think 
better before they make the fatal breach, especially as it may be so easily 
prevented, and the thing yet perfected in due time before winter, by doing 
justice to the Northern Clergy. Eor tlu"> you say they will adhere to their 
old Church, and not clmsc one of themselves, that you cannot be certain of 
till the experiment is made, which may soon be done, and the Schism 
prevented ; for, if they are obstinate not to chuse another, it will still be 
time enough for this measure to take place, and we then can do it at least 
with more show of consistency and justice. Meantime, if this pleases, I 
shall write to (r. to advise them either immediately to Elect one of them 
selves, or refer the Election to us. And I am assured by those that know 
them, that both Taylor and Stewart are sufficient men, and either of them, 
being on the spot, can do more service than they who live at a remote dis 
tance ; for I take doing service in his station ought as much to be con 
sidered in making a Bishop, as barely keeping up an Order of Drones, who 
have nothing to do but continue themselves ; and this was the opinion of our 
best men not many years ago, not to say of ourselves. You are pleased to 
desire I may not alter my good opinion of you. I answer that indeed 
entirely depends upon yourself, and that so long as you act a consistent 
part, I shall not fail to continue, II. l\. 1). Sir, yours, &c., 

Friday, August 17. JOHN ALEXANDER. 

P.S. Notwithstanding all the haste I could make, the Friday s Post 
was gone before this could reach the Office, to which I shall make no other 
addition than to observe that in one of your Letters I think you make too 
light of the Boss Election when you say, " Let the Primus and these gentle 
men discuss the matter betwixt them ;" for you and every one of us have as 
much concern in that matter as the Primus. And if he is negligent in his 
Office, it is provided by our Canons, I think, that you, as next senior, do 
issue a Mandate, to be Signed by the other Bishops, for their Meeting to 
Elect ; which therefore, if he refuses, I desire you may do with all expedition. 
Once more, I would have you look again before you leap, and think what a 
precipice this young phaeton is like to drive you upon. And if you appre 
hend your change to be so near, what a sad legacy you are like to leave to 
this poor Church! what a glorious monument to yourself! All this in 
friendship ; perhaps I may never be so free again. 

This Letter has had a strange luck. The Post now brings in yours of 
the 18th, to which I can say no more, but refer you to the above. 

Monday, August 20. 

XI. Of Bishop Edi/ar s Consecration. Wlmt passed at it about the Ross Affair. 

D. Sir, Receive your Papers for a new supply. What follows is a 

succinct detail of what has past with regard to H. Edgar s Consecration. 



HENRY EDGAR. sor, 

The Pr. wrote me, of Septr. 18th, his design of inviting that Brother to be 
his Coadjutor, and desiring my concurrence in case he accepted. It was 
Post day, the 28th, that I received it, when I immediately wrote to G. for 
advice ; which was "you need, in my opinion, have no difficulty nor make 
any struggle in gratifying the Pr., &c. " P.S., he says, "the only objection 
we could make would he that the Northern s should be first served ; but 
that, I suppose, would be overruled." On this I wrote to the Pr., 8th Oct., 
telling him I had wrote to G. for his opinion, and we were both ready to 
concur with the design of H. E. s being his Coadjutor, as I hoped he would 
be in doing justice to the Kossians. Of the same Date the Pr. writes me 
again that he had made the above offer to- II. E., which he supposed he 
would embrace, tho he said nothing ; and when the day was fixed he hoped 
I would attend. Before I answered this, I had another from G., of October 
12th, expressing great uneasiness lest his last should have inclined me to 
follow the rash, unadvised counsel he had then given ; for by Letters to him 
from both the Pr. and F., it was now evident to him that the Pr. would 
"quickly accomplish all his designs." I could not, however, now draw 
back ; only told the Pr. in my Answer to him, that it was not for me to 
make such a journey at this season of the year upon a bare supposal ; and 
therefore, before I set out, wanted, by a written Certificate from both, that 
the one had given and the other accepted the Coadjutorship, as I would not, 
tliu on the spot, join in Consecrating a Bishop at large. Before mine could 
reach him, there comes another from the Pr.. of October inth, appointing 
All Saints for the day of Consecration. By this time I understood that G., 
in his Answer to the Pr., had refused his concurrence with the scheme, and 
in some sort protested against, unless a Mandate, were issued to the Eoss 
Brethren. I therefore, in my Answer to AY., of October 11), told him that I 
thought it most reasonable he should be gratitied in this so just a demand ; 
that I was resolved not to desert him, nor would I join in hiving m y hands 
upon any person till such Mandate was first agreed to ; and that I waited 
his Answer to this before I set out, as there was time enough for it. In his 
Return, which was sent open to F., and inclosed by him. after urging me 
strongly to attend, he says " Concerning the Mandate to Boss, I entertain 
such scruples as I cannot get over, and therefore must defer saying anything 
of it till we have the happiness of meeting." lie also assured me that he 
was to be Coadjutor, and no Bishop at large. F. says- "I have suggested 
to the Pr. the wrong of keeping back a Mandate. I hope we shall prevail 
with our Brethren, and am persuaded that Mr. Edgar will be a means of 
making us all agree ;" and in a posterior Letter pressed me most earnestly 
with fair promises, &c. In my Answer to which, I told him my resolution 
was fixed not to desert G., who had wrote me of the 2; : d that he was fully 
resolved never to countenance or consent to any more Consecrations in 
whatever shape, till a Mandate be issued of justice done to those hitherto so 
neglected and provoked Northern Presbyters : and I mentioned to him, 
according to your proposal, his making a bold stand, and threatening to 
withdraw if this was refused. 

Thus matters stood when I set out, October 31, for Cupar, where I 
found all Chapterly convened. After some general conversation, I called F. 
aside, and asked him what progress he had made, or how matters stood with 
the Brethren. lie said they would listen to nothing, nor hear of a Mandate. 
Then, said I, you have brought me into this snare and betrayed me ; but it 
VOL. IT. 2 o 



804 DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

found out and sustained one to bo a number. These Canons say that a 
Mandate shall be issued from the Primus and all the Bishops, impowering 
to Elect ; but here the Primus, or rather the Primus son, elicites a Letter 
of Petition from one, and would palm it upon our understanding as a Deed 
of Election from many. I have not now time to enumerate theabsurdities 
with which this scheme is pregnant, as the Post hurries, and I must hasten 
to conclude. Perhaps more of them may meet you at Cupar, if this scheme 
go on. But I hope for better things of II. E., and that he will not, for want 
of a little patience, by so apparent an <iin!>ihi*, give E. F., upon the compari 
son, so groat an advantage over him ; and that my Brethren will think 
better before they make the fatal breach, especially as it may be so easily 
prevented, and the thing yet perfected in due time before winter, by doing 
justice to the Northern Clergy. For thu you say they Avill adhere to their 
old Church, and not chusc one of themselves, that you cannot be certain of 
till the experiment is made, which may soon be done, and the Schism 
prevented ; for, if they are obstinate not to chusc another, it will still be 
time enough for this measure to take place, and we then can do it at least 
with more show of consistency and justice. Meantime, if this pleases, I 
shall write to Cr. to advise them either immediately to Elect one of them 
selves, or refer the Election to us. And I am assured by those that know 
them, that both Taylor and Stewart are sufficient men, and either of them, 
being on the spot, can do more service than they who live at a remote dis 
tance ; for I take doing service in his station "ought as much to be con 
sidered in making a Bishop, as barely keeping up an Order of Drones, Avho 
have nothing to do but continue themselves ; and this was the opinion of our 
best men not many years ago, not to say of ourselves. You are pleased to 
desire I may not alter my good opinion of you. I answer that indeed 
entirely depends upon yourself, and that so long as you act a consistent 
part, I shall not fail to continue, II. II. 1). Sir, yours, &c., 

Friday, August 17. JOHN ALEXANDER. 

P. S. Notwithstanding all the haste 1 could make, the Friday s Post 
was gone before this could reach the Office, to which I shall make no other 
addition than to observe that in one of your Letters I think you make too 
light of the Pioss Election when you say, "Let the Primus and these gentle 
men discuss the matter betwixt them ; " for you and every one of us have as 
much concern in that matter as the Primus. And if he is negligent in his 
Office, it is provided by our Canons, I think, that you, as next senior, do 
issue a Mandate, to be Signed by the other Bishops, for their Meeting to 
Elect ; which therefore, if he refuses, I desire you may do with all expedition. 
Once more, I would have you look again before you leap, and think what a 
precipice this young phaeton is like to drive you upon. And if you appre 
hend your change to be so near, what a sad legacy you are like to leave to 
this poor Church! Avhat a glorious monument to yourself! All this in 
friendship ; perhaps I may never be so free again. 

This Letter has had a strange luck. The Post now brings in yours of 
the 18th, to which I can say no more, but refer you to the above. 

Monday, August 20. 

XI. Of /J/.sVii^ Edijar s Consecration. Wltat paused at it about the Ross Affair. 

D. Sir, Pieceive your Papers for a new supply. What follows is a 

succinct detail of what has past with regard to H. Edgar s Consecration. 



HENRY EDGAR. CO/5 

The Pr. wrote me, of Septr. 18th, his design of inviting that Brother to be 
his Coadjutor, and desiring my concurrence in case he accepted. It was 
Post day, the 28th, that I received it, when I immediately wrote to G. for 
advice ; which was "you need, in my opinion, have no difficulty nor make 
any struggle in gratifying the Pr., <tc." P.S., he says, "the only objection 
we could, make would be that the Northern s should be first served ; but 
that, I suppose, would be overruled." On this I wrote to the Pr., 8th Oct., 
telling him I had wrote to G. for his opinion, and we were both ready to 
concur with the design of II. E. s being his Coadjutor, as I hoped he would 
be in doing justice to the Rossians. Of the same Date the Pr. writes me 
again that he had made the above offer to- II. E., which he supposed he 
would embrace, tho he said nothing; and when the day was fixed he hoped 
I would attend. P>eforc I answered this, I had another from G., of October 
12th, expressing great uneasiness lest his last should have inclined me to 
follow the rash, unadvised counsel he had then given ; for by Letters to him 
from both the Pr. and I\, it was now evident to him that the Pr. would 
"quickly accomplish all his designs." I could not, however, now draw 
back ; only told the Pr. in my Answer to him, that it was not for me to 
make such a journey at this season of tho year upon a bare supposal ; and 
therefore, before I set out, wanted, by a written Certificate from both, that 
the one had given and the other accepted the Coadjutorship, as I would not, 
tin") on the .spot, join in Consecrating a P>ishop at large. Before mine could 
reach him, there comes another from the Pr.. of October loth, appointing 
All Saints for the day of Consecration. By this time I understood that G., 
in his Answer to the Pr., had refused his concurrence with the scheme, and 
in some sort protested against, unless a Mandate, were issued to the Ross 
Brethren. I therefore, in my Answer to "\V., of October 10, told him that I 
thought it most reasonable he should bo gratified in this so just a demand; 
that I was resolved not to desert him, nor would I join in laying my hands 
upon any person till such Mandate was first agreed to; and that I waited 
his Answer to this before I set out, as there was time enough for it. In his 
Return, which was sent open to E., and inclosed by him, after urging me 
strongly to attend, he says " Concerning the Mandate to Ross, I entertain 
such scruples as I cannot get over, and therefore must defer saying anything 
of it till we have the happiness of meeting." lie also assured me that he 
was to be Coadjutor, and no Bishop at large. E. says "I have suggested 
to the Pr. the wrong of keeping back a Mandate. I hope we shall prevail 
with our Brethren, and am persuaded that Mr. Edgar will be a means of 
making us all agree ;" and in a posterior Letter pressed me most earnestly 
with fair promises, &c. In my Answer to which, I told him my resolution 
was fixed not to desert G., who had wrote me of the 2; ; U1 that he was fully 
resolved never to countenance or consent to any more Consecrations in 
whatever shape, till a Mandate be issued of justice done to those hitherto so 
neglected and provoked Northern Presbyters ; and I mentioned to him, 
according to your proposal, his making a bold stand, and threatening to 
withdraw if this was refused. 

Thus matters stood when I set out, October 31, for Cupar, where I 
found all Chapterly convened. After some general conversation, I called F. 
aside, and asked him what progress he had made, or how matters stood with 
the Brethren. lie said they would listen to nothing, nor hear of a Mandate. 
Then, said I, you have brought me into this snare and betrayed me ; but it 
VOL. IT. 2 Q 



30G DISTRICT OF FIFE. 

shall not avail, for, bo the consequence as it will, if the Mandate is not 
granted, I set out to-morrow morning in my return to whence I came. He 
used all the persuasion he was master of to make me drop insisting, but 
in vain. I desired him to call in Mr. E. ; but he was in the same time, and 
to my no small surprize, in the whole conversation, showed an unbecoming 
vehemence, which I thought savoured too much of the ainbiittv which a wise 
man would rather have striven to conceal ; insomuch that I was obliged to 
give him a gcnile check " Mr. E., how come you to express such keenness ? 
I expected you was to be a reconciler; sure you have no vote in our consul- 
.tations as yet? lie stood a little abashed at this, and attempted an 
apology, an I indeed seemed more moderate, at least was more silent 
after. You may judge what a trial I underwent with the other 2, who 
like tygers set upon me, and I was soundly catechised. How came I to 
dictate ? "What connexion had. the Mandate with the end of the Meeting? 
Why at this time? Why (1. prompt the Northern s? &e. Many " whys" 
I got, but little room to speak for noise ; but stuck to my point. At last the 
old Tvrani began to charge me as if I had been guilty of some crime, upon 
which I arose in warmth and went up to him. Now, Sir, you accuse me 
my Brethren, &c., of something you will not speak out; but I insist 
you shall, that I may have opportunity either to vindicate myself or submit 
to censure, as your proof comes out ; for I will not sit with such abuse." 
lie was something perplexed at this, and his heart failed him. He would 
tell niG bei ore we parted. "No, Sir, now is the time, and the accusation 
was public." And what was the great affair when it came out ? Why 
because they said I would not promote the Election for Dunblane. I durst 
not give the true reason, but told them I would not push a thing which I 
well knew would not only be in vain but perhaps might be dangerous ; for 
they well enough knew the Laity in these parts was not to be meddled with. 
" Well, but why not advise the Clergy ?" I said I had proposed it to them, 
but they would do nothing without the Laity s consent, and that they would 
not venture to ask. I might have added that the Candidate was far from 
being their choice ; that he, who was once connected to some, and Puiit to 
others, might be presumed to have more weight with them than I : why 
then should I bear the blame ? But since this was all, I dropt it, as not 
worth contending about, and returned to the Mandate, insisting that as F. 
and I had never seen the Address for it, it should be produced. James was 
sent to seek it once and again, but it could not be found. 1 persisted, and 
at last it comes out a very becoming, well-worded Paper. Then the Date 
is examined September 7th, 1758. "Why, says I, has the Mandate not 
been granted before this, 11 months being near elapsed? He said he had 
some scruples which he could not satisfy himself about. But why then did 
you not communicate them to your Brethren, and take their advice, who were 
equally concerned ? This could admit of no answer. But what, asked I, 
are those scruples ? or why after so long delay should they now be refused ? 
As we were all met, and could Sign at once, whereas by circular Subscrip 
tions much time would be lost ; and by doing the thing now we might all 
be united, for I should undertake that Of. should adhere to the Consecration 
if we issued the Mandate ; if we did not I behoved to depart re infect <i, for I 
would not desert him. Rait, snarling, said, much better I had not come. 
True, said I, bat I told the Pr. beforehand what I would insist on, and yet 
he urged my coming, so that I have been trepanned in the whole affair. 



HENRY EDGAR. 807 

Tho Pr. began to bluster again "Why, let him go. And Iraly I AY ill go, 
said I, if my terms are not granted. Here observe that when F. and I Avcre 
together, I told him it Avas in his power to bring them to terms. As IIOAV ? 
said he. Even by openly declaring that you would not concur in the Con 
secration unless the Mandate be granted. Then, said he, they Avould fly 
off, and a breach would happen. You need not at all be afraid of that, 
answered I; take my word for once. AYcll, tho he had given me no assis 
tance hitherto, except in calling for the Address (F. here interposed), indeed 
I think that by our Rules we cannot be accountable for refusing a Mandate 
after so long delay. I instantly caught hold of this, and as I had before, 
been. bullied by R l with the word "majority" Now, Brethren, said I, I put 
it upon your own footing: here is an evident majority for a Mandate F., 
G., and I and therefore I require it of you. Then the scruples came out, 
and what were these ? AYhy, truly, the Northerns had taken upon them, 
Avithout our authority, to unite the Districts of Ross and Caithness. This 
looked like fishing for faults. I told them if that Avas any crime, I Avas sure 
it Avas a sin of ignorance in them, Avho, I Avas persuaded, intended us no 
affront ; but R : AYOiild hear of nothing to be done till they should first 
ackuoAvledgc their fault. So AYC Averc /// y.tntu qnn, and no medium like to be 
found, till at last the Primus stumbled upon one Avhich ended all, and it 
Avas this That he should immediately Avrite to the Rossians, telling them 
their error, and desiring them to acknowledge it ; that in consideration of 
their Address, the Bishops had now united the 2 Districts, and Signed a 
Mandate to them to Elect a Bishop to themselves, Avhich Avas lodged in his 
hand, immediately to be transmitted to them upon the receipt of their Letter 
of acknoAvlcdgment . 

Thus matters Avere compromised, and I Avas glad to come in, as I could 
not make a better of it. The rest of the evening the Pr., on one side of the fire, 
sat in an elbow chair telling old stories, and F., on the other, echoed back his 
applause ; Avhilc Rait and I, in the same opposition, sate entirely mute ; for 
indeed I Avas umvell, as the long ride had brought on my gravel. After supper 
I left them andAvent to my quarters, and next day the Papers Averc extended 
and Signed after the Consecration. Immediately before, I took II. E. aside 
and asked whether he Avas satisfied to accept of being Coadjutor to AY. Yes, 
he said, but his friends advised him also to accept of GlasgOAV. as he might 
be of some use. But, Sir, said I, I concur in your Consecration only as 
Coadjutor to W. ; and had time to say no more. After it Avas over, "W. 
began to move the same thing Might lie not be appointed upon D. L. s 
Petition ? I told them I had already given my reasons against that, and 
Avas not prepared for the question ; they might do as they pleased. So it 
Avas dropped ; but as no Certificate of the Ordination was offered to me to 
be Signed, I suspect the majority has sustained the thing. And let them 
even be doing, I cannot help them ; and trust I shall never have so much 
dealing Avith them again, as I see tis only giving myself pain, and submit 
ting to all manner of indignities from the supercilious pride of fiery and 
capricious men, to no manner of purpose. II. E. Avill, I find, be a tamperer 
for the Edin rs ; and F. (who has them so much at heart) and he Avill, I m 
afraid, play mischief. R* brought R. F. upon the carpet, and many silly, 
huffy things he said of him. I told him that Avas not properly a matter of our 
present deliberation, nor were AVO to examine objections till AVC kiicA-v Avlio the 
person returned A\ T as, lest Ave might be found to Avound characters fighting 



808 DISTIMCI OF FIFE. 

with our own shadows. Ho, however, would have the Mandate clogged, 
and F. joined Jiim, with one of their own number or near neighbourhood, 
who might be most serviceable to them. If 11. F. is returned, it will be a 
new sijuabble, for F. will desert him unless he goes north, and E. s vote will 
be sustained, thu he ought to have none ; and I could observe him Sign the 
Mandate, which he had no title to do. But I took no notice, I had 
contended enough to little purpose. We parted decently, and I came back 
to Falkland that night, and next day arrived here in health f 1>. G. j I must 
beg you to return these hasty scrapes, as my memory is very treacherous, 
and I have no time to transcribe, nor to add more, but that I ever am, &c., 
Alloa, Nov. !), 175!). JOHN ALEXANDER. 

P.S. F. lias stood liis ground, and would not agree with the other two 
to have Glasgow in the Commission. 



11. li. ].). Sir, Tlin I have had no Answer to the Line I wrote you upon 
my return fVom Cupar, I reckon myself bound in justice both to you and 
myself to lay before you what I learn by a Letter last week from G., 
inclosing one tVom the Primus, wrote by his son s hand, Xovr. 2nd, when I 
suppose you were present ; but, in case you was not, I transcribe the follow 
ing paragraph from the Original now before me: "Yesterday being the 
Feast of All Saints, Mr. Fdgar was Consecrated here all your Brethren 
being present and concurring. You know that, supposing Mr. Edgar would 
not accept of Glasgow, I proposed he should be Coadjutor to me, but, 
previous to his Consecration, he declared himself willing to accept of that 
District, to which F. and It. most heartily assented, and A., when I spoke 
of it to him, said repeatedly we might do in it as we pleased. But he going 
off in a hurry, without giving time for expeding forms, nothing more was 
done while he was present, which being the case, we did not chuse to go 
farther without attainting you and having your opinion, tho F. and E. think 
with me, and have desired me to tell you so, that it should be immediately 
appointed for him as his Charge, and he recognized and confirmed in it." 
Now, Sir, I only ask Is this the way to maintain peace among us ? Is 
this a just representation of my words ? This serves indeed to explain the 
secret of training me to Cupar, per A/s tint ixi ox, to make me subservient to 
their anomalous designs. You might observe, and he will not deny, that 
before his Consecration I asked Mr. Edgar whether he was willing to accept 
of being Coadjutor to "\Y. He answered he was, but his friends thought he 
might be useful also in Glasgow; but, said I, remember I concur in your 
Consecration, as you are to be Coadjutor to "W. only. After the Consecra 
tion, Avhen W. moved his being appointed to Glasgow, you heard me say 
that upon the faith of his Letter I had come thither to assist in Consecrating 
a Coadjutor to him, and in that shape only I had concurred. Upon his 
pushing the thing farther, I said I came not prepared for such a question ; 
I have given my reasons against it ; you may do as you have a mind. You 
know how I have been reproached for, as they say, pretending to dictate to 
my Brethren. That they might then not have that handle against me, I 
added these words, which in these circumstances could only imply a physical 
power in them to do the thing, but no concurrence of mine, or approbation 



HEN 11 Y EDGAi:. JJOO 

of it when done as morally good ; and I appeal to yourself, il in conscience 
you could take them in another meaning. Xo, Sir, I never can approve of 
such a measure. My opinion is that what cannot lawfully and Cauonically 
ho done, ought not to he done. But that this cannot he Canonic-ally done, I 
have already shown in my former Protest, to which I still adhere. You 
know what a pother was made against the poor Northern Clergy for break 
ing a Canon, I dare say without design, and how they arc obliged to cry 
jH crdi-i : and shall we presumptuously and deliberately do the same? This 
is Halkerton s Cow with a witness tell it not in Gath! Perhaps I shall be 
bullied here with the majority, as I was on the Eve of All Saints, where I 
met with a pretty swatch of Cupar justice. But you ll pardon me to say, 
that a majority of 3 to 2, or any whatever number even to one, cannot make 
wrong right or right wrong. And it may be worth considering whether a 
majority, or anything less than the enacting power, can suspend or dispense 
with Laws made by the whole ; nor can I sec any onerous cause for our 
taking such a latitude, other than to put a feather into E. s cap, whose 
keenness in his own cause, where modesty and a decent reserve would have 
better become him, showed that he wanted it, and betrayed an ml>itii* which 
was no recommendation. It was highly shocking to me ; but Charity 
thinketh no evil, and I hope he ll make amends ; but we would do well to be 
upon our guard. If he wants a vote in our Councils, that may in due time 
be granted him, without incroaching upon our Canons ; but not with my 
consent till the lloss Clergy be settled, which the Primus late management 
makes me suspect may not be in haste. The poor man is vain, and under 
unlucky influence. The Lord pity him, and us with him. This is now the 
second time he has made use of my name to impose upon and circumvene 
my worthy Brother G. Some time ago, after repeated complaints (which I 
have in rcti iiti*) of you, and holding forth your uniitness to manage Ed r , he 
proposed and pressed that I should agree to get ll l recommended to that 
station. I told him that I had no objection to 11 , and, as 1 was independent 
of Ed r , it was equal to me who was there ; but was absolutely against a 
foreign Nomination, winch he pointed at. And yet in his next Letter to G., 
to procure his assent, he told him I had cordially gone into it. This I 
challenged, and, as I still think I had reason, called insidious. Upon which 
he returned my Letter, and I sent him a pacilick one, to make up matters 
and please him ; but I find the resentment of that disappointment still 
sticks, tho I am not sure that the design is. yet dropt. It was diverting to 
hear them threatening G. with their censure for meddling in the lioss 
Election, and me at the same time for not meddling in that of Dumblane 
like the Bailie of Leith, who fined one man for keeping swine, and another 
for not keeping them. I know there arc but too many in the world who 
stick at no means to compass their designs ; but it strikes me with grief and 
horror to think that such principles and practices should obtain amongst us. 
I shall only add two words " Take care, you arc in a slippery path, and if 
by this step you throw a majority in their hands, you may come to feel the 
smart of it as soon as any other, when they have served their ends of you, 
however they cajole you now." I pray God to guide us all well, and am, &c., 

JOHN ALEXANDER. 
November 26th, 1759. 



DIOCESE OE FIFE. 



Li the "British Almanack and Glasgow register for 1801," 
p. 120, appears, for the first time, a List of the 



Diocese nf J ld niliirijlt. 

Hi glit Rev. AVilliam Abernethy Drum- 
mond, in Edinburgh Bishop. 

Edinburgh Alex. Allan, John AVeb- 
ster, -James AValkcr. 

Leith Simon Reid. 

Stirling (leorgc Gh ig. 

(llasgov Alex. Jameson. 



Bishop. 



Muthil Alex. Cruickshank. 
Alloa John Rhind. 
St. Andrews AVilliam Robb. 
Pittemveem David Low. 
Cupar AVilliam Xicoll. 

Dloci xe <;! ]> i/ it !,! /<!. 

Right Rev. Jonathiin AVatson, at Lau 
rence Kirk Bishop. 
Forfar John Skinner. 
Kirriemuir John Buchan. 
Meitfe Alex. Xic-oll. 
Perth Alex. Walker. 
Strathtay John Robertson. 

] >/(>i i se ii f Jlrcclili:. 

Right Rev. J. Strachan, in Dundee 
Bishop; James Bruce Assistant. 

Arbroath, 

Brechin James Sommerville. 
Montrosc David Moir. 
Lochlee Peter Jolly. 
Drumlithic Robert Spark. 



Btoueliaven CJeorgc G arden. 
Muchalls AVilliam Millne. 

].)inf-; .:c of Aberdeen. 
Right Rev. John Skinner, in Aber 

deen Bishop. 
Aberdeen Roger Ait ken. 
Oldmcldrnm Arthur Walker. 
Ellon John Cruickshank. 
Cruden John Gloig. 
Peterhead Patrick Torry. 
Longside Jo. Skinner & Jo. Cuming. 
Lonmav AVilliam Sangstcr. 

*, O 

Fyvie Alex. Christie. 
Tariff John Cruickshank. 
Cumincstown, 
Banff James Milne. 
Port soy John C;mlno. 
Arradoul Alex. Sliand. 
Forguc Andrev/ Ritchie. 
Meiklcfolla James Lines. 
Blairdaff, - 



Right Rev. Alex Jolly at Fraser- 

burgh Bishop. 
Elgin Hugh Buchan. 
Keith Alex. Christie. 
Iluntley James Walker. 



Right Rev. Andrew Macfarlane, in 

Inverness Bishop. 
Ord AVilliam Paterson. 
Appin Donald Maccoll. 

[Since 1801 the List has increased Fnnrtecn-f<>l,-1.] 

From the above it is perceived that "Dunblane and Fife" 
are yoked together under " , Bishop;" and this thread- 
less tie continued till 1809, when the change was made to the 
" Diocese of Edinburgh and Fife," under 

LVIII. DANIEL SANDFORD, D.D. Oxon. A.D. 1809-30. 

(Seal given under Diocese of Edinburgh.) 

He was the second son of the Rev. Dr. Sandford, of Sand- 



DANIEL SANDFOKD. 311 

ford Hall, in the County of Salop, who for many years held 
Preferment in the Church of Ireland, but .who resigned his 
Living in consequence of being obliged to return to England. 

Daniel was Born at Delville, near Dublin, in 1706. His 
father Died in early life, and the education of the family thus 
devolved upon their mother, who was left a very young widow, 
accomplished and elegant. Sinking under her affliction, and 
unable to endure the scene of her married life, she almost im 
mediately on her husband s death abandoned Sandford Hall. 
The old Mansion, which had been for generations the pride of 
the Family, was demolished, much valuable timber was cut down, 
and the Property was in consequence deteriorated. Mrs. Sand- 
ford removed with her family to Bath. 

The name of Dowdier is immortal in the annals of the Epis 
copal Church of Scotland, for beneficence. For GO years Daniel 
Sandford found a friend in Mrs. Harriet Dowdier, who displayed 
towards him a maternal affection, and who saw him enter, before 
her, into his rest. 

"\Ylien quite an infant, through some awkwardness on the 
part of his nurse, he got an ugly squint or obliquity in his eyes. 
The celebrated Dr. Darwin endeavoured to repair the mischief, 
but without success. He Published, in a Periodical, an Account 
of his experiments on this occasion, in which his patient is 
described as a " sweet and amiable child." 

At the time of his mother s removal to Bath, Daniel was only 
four years old, and was sent with his brothers to the Grammar 
School, where he received his elementary instruction. His 
mother, however, trusted much more to the natural parts and 
assiduous habits of her sons, than to the assistance of masters. 
It may be questioned how far with most children her plan of 
education would have answered ; but it appears that she used to 
incarcerate them for a certain number of hours every day, and 
that on their release the task was generally found to have been 
mastered. On the same principle she never allowed her son 
Daniel the aid of a Writing-master, and yet it is well known how 
beautiful was his penmanship. He used to say himself, and 
quote Lord Chesterfield in support of his assertion, that any 



312 DIOCESE OF FIFE. 

man with the use of his eves and fingers might write what hand 
he pleased. Mrs. Sandford s sons were indeed occasionally very 
differently employed dining these hours of imprisonment from 
what she supposed, for they were none of them deficient in those 
mischievous propensities, without which a schoolboy must he 
either Letter or worse than the generality of his species. 
Admitted, when still a hoy, to the Drawing-Booms of the 
Duchess of Portland, and of the celebrated Mrs. Dclany, and 
accustomed to the conversation of the most intellectual persons, 
he saw and heard every thing that could interest and instruct. 
He loved to revert to this in after years, though he always spoke 
of it with a sigh, as what he should never sec again. Mr. Sand- 
ford seems to have Leen always of a delicate habit ; but when 
about 11 years old, he had a violent Fever, which confined him 
to bed for several weeks, and greatly impaired his constitution. 
As the Fever reached its crisis, he was for some time insensible, 
and his life was despaired of. The first sign of returning con 
sciousness was displayed by his shooting a marble which lay on 
the pillow at a friend who had watched continually by his bed 
side. At the laugh which accompanied this exploit, Mrs. 
Sandford clasped her hands, exclaimed "Thank God!" and 
burst into tears. " You may be thankful," said the lady, " but 
/ have nearly lost my eye." 

Soon after this, it appears that he was placed at Southamp 
ton, together with the Earl of Bristol, under the charge of a 
Clergyman, of the name of Watson, afterwards Preferred to the 
Rectory of Piothbury, in Northumberland. Mr. Watson was an 
accomplished Scholar, and probably did justice to his Pupil s 
education ; but he was a man of coarse mind, and it was 
greatly to Mr. Sandford s satisfaction that he was removed from 
his charge, and entered as a Commoner at Christ Church in 
1784, under the superintendence of that great and good man, 
Dr. Cyril Jackson. 

He encouraged him to apply to him on all occasions, fre 
quently directed him privately in his studies, and treated him at 
all times with the most flattering confidence. In furtherance of 
the views which this partiality encouraged, Mr. Sandford was, at 



DANIEL SANDFORD. 9i;->, 

the request of the Duchess of Portland, appointed by Dr. Moss, 
then Bishop of Oxford, to a Studentship of Christ Church. 
Among his intimate associates were the Earl of Liverpool and 
Lord Bexley, the latter of whom never forgot his College friend 
ship, and was one of the very first to testify to his widow, after 
his Death, the esteem which he had always entertained for her 
deceased husband. 

Mr. Sandford was greatly distinguished while at Oxford for 
accurate and accomplished scholarship, and especially for the 
correctness and elegance of his Latinity. In 1787, he won the 
Christ Church Prize for Latin Composition ; and so well was his 
style known in College, that, on more than one occasion, w r hen 
he had furnished Exercises for his friends, his assistance was 
immediately detected by the Dean. 

He used to mention an instance which occurred while en 
gaged in the composition of his successful Essay. Having been 
much occupied, before he retired to rest, with some refractory 
sentiment which he was unable to reduce to words, he dreamed 
that a Form appeared to him, and, like Order in the Fairy-tale, 
adjusted his entangled thoughts, and clothed them in elegant 
Latinity. On awaking he availed himself of the suggestion, and 
the Passage was afterwards pointed out to him by the Dean as 
the happiest in the Essay. It does not appear whether he 
acknowledged at the time the assistance he had received. He 
used to regret that Latin Composition was less insisted on now 
than it had been in his youth, as he always considered this 
accomplishment to be the surest test of Scholarship. He re 
tained and cultivated his talent for it to the last ; and it was the 
ground of much delightful intercourse in Edinburgh with that 
accomplished scholar and amiable man, Dr. Gregory. 

At the Seat of the Duchess of Portland, where he spent his 
Vacations, when not at Windsor with Mrs. Delany, he imbibed a 
taste for Botany, which supplied him with an innocent and 
graceful relaxation in later life. He was an ardent Disciple of 
Linnaeus in this interesting branch of Natural History ; and he 
discoursed sweetly and instructively on such themes. He used 
to roam the fields in the neighbourhood of Oxford in pursuit of 

VOL. II. 2 R 



814 DIOCESE OF FIFE. 

his favourite Science, and dedicated to it most of the hours which 
were not devoted to graver Studies. His relaxations were not, 
however, always of so sylvan a character. His adroitness in the 
management of an Indian Canoe upon the Elver excited the 
admiration of his Compeers, and was one of the most popular 
attractions of Christ Church Meadow. This was, however, a 
more perilous enjoyment than his Botanical pursuits, for he was 
no swimmer. On one occasion he was nearly drowned through 
the spleen, and at another time through the awkwardness, of 
an Associate. 

All Mr. Sandford s recollections of College life were pleasing, 
and he used to speak of the six years of his residence at Oxford 
as the happiest he ever spent. He was a thorough Christ- 
Clmrch-Man, and he never discoursed more delightfully than 
when he spoke of its august Walk and Classic Meadow ; of its 
Wits in his own day, the elegant Spencer, and the Classic 
Canning ; of its awful Censorship, and Venerable Dean. 

Mrs. Delany has been already mentioned as one of the 
persons who contributed to form Mr. Sandford s character. Her 
house at Windsor was always open to him, and he generally 
spent a great part of his Vacations under her roof. In her 
Drawing-room he used to meet most of the distinguished people 
of the day, and by her he was early introduced to the notice of 
Royalty. This lady was honoured by George III. and his Con 
sort, Queen Caroline. They not only allowed her free access to 
themselves at all times, but were frequently in the habit of visit 
ing her at her own house without intimation. On several of 
these occasions, Mr. Sandford was with Mrs. Delany when she 
w T as thus distinguished, and his own merits aided the recommen 
dation of his friend in securing the favour of the Queen. Her 
Majesty condescended to employ him while at Oxford in the 
Translation of a favourite Author from the French, and her 
kindness naturally encouraged hopes of future professional ad 
vancement. That these hopes were not subsequently realized, 
was not owing, it will appear, to any want of kind intention on 
the part of the Queen. 

His Studies at Oxford were interrupted by the illness of his 



DANIEL bAXDFOKD. 315 

mother ; and, by the permission of the Dean, he left College and 
confined himself entirely to her sick room. His devotedness at 
this time greatly injured his health, and almost endangered his 
life. Never leaving his mother s side while he felt he could he 
of any service, he spent the whole day in her room, in which, in 
the height of summer, she had a fire burning ; and it was not 
until he was deprived by paralysis of the use of one of his arms, 
that the Physician could draw him from her apartment. From 
the stroke of paralysis he speedily recovered, but the illness 
which accompanied it told severely on his constitution. 

No one was ever better fitted by habits and pursuits for 
Academic life than he was. Possessing neither health nor dis 
position for more public scenes, he loved the seclusion as well as 
the leisure of the Cloister, and, had he remained at Christ 
Church, would have enjoyed and adorned the Office for which 
Dr. Jackson designed him. But the intentions of his friend 
were defeated, and his future prospects determined by that 
common occurrence which spoi]s so many a hopeful Academician. 
In 1786, he had become acquainted with Miss Douglas, whose 
father, after fighting on the side of the Chevalier through 
the 45, and sharing the subsequent fortunes of his master, had 
some years before returned from France, and was then residing 
at Bath. 

Mr. Douglas was a man full of chivalrous sentiment, highly 
accomplished, and of the most Courtly address. He was the son 
of Sir William Douglas, Baronet, of Kelhead in Dumfriesshire, 
whose representative is the Marquis of Queensberry. The 
manner of his introduction to his Ptoyal master, is singularly 
illustrative of the state of feeling at that time prevalent in Scot 
land, and will account for his subsequent devotedness to Charles 
Stuart. As this Prince passed Kelhead on his march into 
England, Lady Douglas appeared at the foot of the avenue with 
two of her sons, whom she presented with the following Spartan 
address : " Please your Royal Highness, here are my two sons; 
if they don t do their duty in a manner worthy of their name, 
hang them on the first tree." 

Erskine Douglas accompanied his master in his disastrous 



316 DIOCESE OF FIFE. 

Expedition, and in his subsequent Retreat, and was exposed to 
many perilous adventures. At one time he and his companions 
were preserved by the fidelity of a former Domestic of his 
mother s, by whom they were apprized of the treachery of their 
host, who had sent for Troops to secure them. Their retreat 
was accomplished over the Garden wall, which afforded Mr. 
Douglas an opportunity of exhibiting his gallantry in aid of an 
unfortunate friend, afterwards taken and beheaded. This gentle 
man was of a corpulent habit, and being unable to climb the 
wall, must have fallen into the hands of his pursuers, had not 
his more agile associate assisted him over on his shoulders just 
as the King s party entered the Garden. One of the fugitives, 
who was rash enough to return for his purse, was taken. For 
some time Mr. Douglas wandered about in disguise as a female 
mendicant, and in that character made his appearance at 
Queensbcrry House, in Edinburgh, and with great difficulty 
gained admittance to his mother, Lady Douglas, who supplied 
him with a more suitable attire. Under a feigned name he 
found an asylum in the houses of different friends, and was 
sometimes present when his own perils were the subject of con 
versation. On one occasion, when some one was deploring the 
fate of poor Erskine Douglas, and expressing a fear lest he had 
been taken, a young lady in the company betrayed her interest 
by fainting. However he might have been flattered \}j such a 
disclosure on her part, he had sufficient self-command to keep 
his own secret. After the Battle of Cullodeu, in which he en 
countered one of his brothers on the opposite side, he made his 
escape to the Continent, where he remained with Prince Charles 
Edward for several years. He never spoke of the Prince but 
with tears in his eyes, and as " his dear master." 

Mr. Sandford s Marriage, at the age of 24, with this gentle 
man s eldest daughter, Frances Catherine Douglas, in 1790, was 
considered by his friends to be justified by his expectations from 
Windsor. He had been previously admitted to Deacon s Orders 
in Christ Church Cathedral by the Bishop of Chester, and 
immediately on his Marriage he removed to Sunbury, from which 
he served the adjoining Curacy of Han worth. 



DANIEL SAXDFORD. 317 

In the following year he was Ordained Priest by the amiable 
and exemplary Porteous, then Bishop of London. On this 
occasion, he strikingly exhibited the deep sense which he enter 
tained of the responsibility of the Priestly Office. Overcome by 
his feelings during the Celebration of the Service, he fainted at 
the Altar, and it was necessary to remove him from the Church. 
Bishop Porteous conveyed him home in his carriage, and ever 
afterwards distinguished him by his friendship. During his stay 
at Hanworth, he was frequently invited to Fulham, and had 
opportunities of cultivating an acquaintance which had been so 
singularly commenced. 

That he would be disposed to make, f nil proof of his Ministry, 
might be inferred from his previous character. He had, on one 
occasion, rather a singular opportunity of doing so. Driving 
home late at night, he was stopped by a Highwayman, who, in 
no very equivocal manner, intimated his wishes by presenting a 
pistol to his breast. To his purse he appended an admonition, 
which excited the ruffian s surprise, though it elicited no very 
courteous acknowledgment. "So, then, 3*011 arc a Parson," 
quoth he, " and you are a Simpleton too, for if you had lighted 
your lamps, no man would have dared to stop you." Mr. Sand- 
ford inquired how he should dispose of any of the same honour 
able Fraternity whom he might encounter on the road. " Oh, 
say that you gave all your money to the Gentleman on the grey 
horse." 

At the close of the year 1790, Mr. Sandford lost his brother 
John. His boyish passion for the Sea was quite enthusiastic, 
and did not, as is sometimes the case, w^ear off with the gloss of 
his Uniform. It overcame the objections of his mother, who 
long resisted his importunity, and was only induced to yield 
when she saw his desire was insurmountable. " Daniel," said 
this determined Tar, " I never hide anything from you, for I know 
you are to be trusted. Do you see that wall ? Over that wall 
I go this night, and off to Bristol, and I will get on board one 
of the Ships and away to Sea, for I can live no longer on Land. 
Now, don t you go and tell my mother." 

John Sandford was present at the memorable Siege of Gib- 



318 DIOCESE OF FIFE. 

raltar. He had good hopes of rising in his profession through 
the interest of his connexion, the Earl of St. Vincent, and his 
kind friend Admiral Kempenfelt. The latter Officer s partiality 
to him was so great that he was encouraged by it one day 
respectfully to remonstrate with him on his profane habit of 
swearing. The Admiral thanked him for his advice, and assured 
him with an oath that he would not so offend again. 

Admiral Kempenfelt perished in the ".Royal George" when 
that vessel was sunk, by an extraordinary accident, in harbour. 
It was a lovely day : the water was studded with pleasure boats, 
and the decks of the Admiral s ship were covered with the crew, 
and with the women who were washing their clothes. John 
Sandford was standing in a vessel near, and turned to a friend to 
remark, "If the Royal George takes another such lurch, she 
will go down." He looked back again, and there was nothing to 
be seen but a huge black keel, and a raging swell of waters. 

" With the whole of his Patrimony, which amounted to some 
thousand pounds, and which was punctually paid, Mr. Sandford 
parted on the very day he received it, and, except in a solitary 
instance, the friends who were indebted to him never made even 
an offer of repayment." This is a strong and, doubtless, veri 
table assertion in the " Remains" of his dutiful son John, which 
ought to counterpoise another, by others who have told me that 
Bishop Sandford learned to be " Scotch aiiini/," and was some 
what " needy and greedy" in the way of " Surplice Fees." This 
is my way of " doing business," to let it be known that Bishops 
are sinners as well as xaints i.e., that the lent of men are but 
men at the best. If candour would come out, every mortal is 
constitutionally a little fond of " filthy lucre." " It s a dirty bird 
that fouls its own nest." 

Under these circumstances, as a residence at Sunbury proved 
very expensive, and he had no immediate prospect of Preferment, 
he was induced to entertain the suggestion of Mrs. Sandford s 
relations in Scotland, who recommended a temporary residence 
in Edinburgh. They represented the advantage which might 
accrue to an English Clergyman of popular talents, who should 
open a Chapel in that City, and receive Pupils into his house. 



DANIEL SANDFORD. 319 

So he quitted his Curacy at Sunbury, and took up his residence 
in Edinburgh in 1792. 

His Congregation at first was chiefly composed of English 
families residing in Edinburgh. The Place of Meeting was in a 
small Hall in West Register Street, which was afterwards occu 
pied as John Moir s Printing Office. This was the first Episco 
pal Congregation in the New Town ; afterwards S. George s, 
York Pla